Somatic arousal and sleepiness/fatigue among patients with sleep-disordered breathing
OBJECTIVES: In a large clinical sample, we tested the hypothesis that levels of sleepiness and fatigue among upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) patients are correlated with levels of somatic arousal (SA; reflecting the sympathetic nervous system component of the stress response). We also tested the correlations of post-treatment change in these three parameters, and we extended the investigation to obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H) patients. METHODS: From 5 years of patient data, we obtained scores on the body sensation questionnaire (BSQ), measuring the level of SA, the fatigue severity scale (FSS), and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) for 152 consecutive UARS patients and 150 consecutive OSA/H patients. For each group, we correlated the FSS and ESS scores with the BSQ scores. Among the 45 UARS patients and 49 OSA/H patients treated with nasal CPAP who provided post-treatment data, we correlated change in FSS and ESS scores with change in BSQ scores. RESULTS: Scores on the BSQ, FSS, and ESS for UARS patients and OSA/H patients were comparable. In both UARS and OSA/H patients, both the FSS and ESS scores were positively correlated with the BSQ score. Nasal CPAP use decreased all three questionnaire scores in both patient groups. In the pooled data, changes in FSS were significantly correlated with changes in BSQ. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm our preliminary observations that sleepiness and fatigue among UARS patients are correlated with their level of SA and suggest that the same is true for OSA/H patients. The decrease of SA following treatment suggests that SDB is a cause of SA among patients with UARS and OSA/H.
Somatic syndromes, insomnia, anxiety, and stress among sleep disordered breathing patients
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia among sleep disordered breathing (SDB) patients is correlated with their levels of somatic arousal, the symptoms of increased sympathetic nervous system tone under conditions of stress. METHODS: We administered the Body Sensation Questionnaire (BSQ; a 17-item questionnaire with increasing levels of somatic arousal scored 17-85) to 152 consecutive upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) patients and 150 consecutive obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H) patients. From medical records, we characterized each patient in terms of the presence of syndromes and symptoms into three categories: somatic syndromes (six syndromes), anxiety (anxiety disorders, nightmares, use of benzodiazepines), and insomnia (sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and use of hypnotics). For the pooled sample of SDB patients, we modeled the correlation of the BSQ score with the presence of each syndrome/symptom parameter within each of the three categories, with adjustment for male vs. female. RESULTS: Mean BSQ scores in females were significantly higher than those in males (32.5 +/- 11.1 vs. 26.9 +/- 8.2; mean +/- SD). Increasing BSQ scores significantly correlated with increasing prevalence rates of somatic syndromes (p < 0.0001), of anxiety (p < 0.0001), and of insomnia (p = 0.0001). In general, females had higher prevalence rates of somatic syndromes and symptoms of anxiety than males at any BSQ score while rates of insomnia were similar. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SDB, there is a strong association between the level of somatic arousal and the presence of stress-related disorders like somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia.
Does a Normal Lactic Acid Levels at Initial Presentation Rules out Intestinal Ischemia? [Meeting Abstract]
Successful Treatment With Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration (CVVH) of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Caused by Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction in a Patient With Severe Leptospirosis
We report a case of severe leptospirosis acquired in an urban setting at a Halal poultry farm. After the initiation of antibiotic treatment, the patient developed a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome. He improved dramatically after receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration
A case of purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly woman
Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare condition characterized by intense purple discoloration of the urine. Although typically benign, purple urine is not only alarming to patients but can signal the presence of a urinary tract infection. This article presents the case of an elderly nursing home resident whose urine became purple after insertion of an indwelling catheter. The case report is followed by a brief discussion of PUBS, including its documented risk factors, the chemical chain reaction involved in producing purple urine, and how healthcare providers should treat patients when PUBS is encountered
Life-Threatening Bupropion Ingestion: Is There a Role for Intravenous Fat Emulsion?
Intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) is emerging as a novel antidote in clinical toxicology. Its current usage is extending beyond local anaesthetic toxicity into management of severe toxicity from some lipophilic drugs. We present a 51-year-old woman with severe bupropion toxicity whose haemodynamic status transiently improved after IFE. Serum analysis demonstrated an increase in serum concentration of hydroxybupropion, an active metabolite of bupropion, after IFE administration, lending support to one of the proposed mechanisms of IFE. A 51-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with generalised tonic-clonic convulsions lasting approximately 30 sec., and a wide complex rhythm on her ECG that was suggestive of myocardial sodium channel blockade. Despite sodium bicarbonate therapy, the patient developed profound hypotension refractory to high-dose norepinephrine. IFE was administered with haemodynamic improvement over the course of 30 min., followed by a significant decrease in norepinephrine requirement. The patient had an episode of ventricular tachycardia 24 hr after presentation, and received a second infusion of IFE. Analysis of serum for a panel of myocardial sodium channel blocking drugs revealed that significant bupropion ingestion had occurred. Bupropion poisoning may produce life-threatening clinical effects, and IFE may be considered in cases of severe haemodynamic instability. Further studies would be instrumental in determining the optimal clinical situations for utilisation of IFE
Imaging-bronchoscopic correlations for interventional pulmonology
The improvements to patient care that can be achieved by combining advanced imaging techniques and bronchoscopy are considerable. In this regard, CT imaging often plays an indispensable role in both the selection of appropriate candidates tor therapy as well as the choice of optimal interventional techniques. However, it is apparent that alternate methods for evaluating the airways and lung including ultrasound and electromagnetic navigation will likely play an increasingly important diagnostic role, necessitating a thorough understanding of their advantages and limitations. Disease-specific applications for which imaging technologies, including CT and VB, are either currently routinely used or show the greatest promise are for suspected or diagnosed lung cancers, central and peripheral, and emphysema. It may be anticipated that with growing experience, the potential for additional indications of these remarkable technologies are likely to increase in the near future
Imaging-bronchoscopic correlations for interventional pulmonology
The development and rapid advancement of both bronchoscopic, CT and ultrasound imaging technology has had considerable impact on the management of a wide variety of pulmonary diseases. The synergy between these newer imaging modalities and advanced interventional endoscopic procedures has led to a revolution in diagnostic and therapeutic options in patients with both central and peripheral airway disease. Given the broad clinical implications of these technological advances, only the most important areas of interventional pulmonology in which imaging has had a major impact will be selectively reviewed to highlight fundamental principles
An approach to the diagnosis and treatment of cryofibrinogenemia
Cryofibrinogenemia is a rarely symptomatic disorder that is underrecognized due to the infrequency with which it causes symptoms. Although completely reversible, this disorder can be life threatening when untreated. In this review, the classification, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of cryofibrinogenemia are described, based on case reports and prospective observational data. Diagnostic criteria are outlined, and therapies are assessed critically. This information should help clinicians in establishing a diagnosis of cryofibrinogenemia and initiating treatment.
The use of a flexible bronchoscope with a sterile disposable endosheath [Meeting Abstract]