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A scoping review of the methods used to capture dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: the need for a paradigm shift

Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, Milan R; Balou, Matina; Herzberg, Erica G; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony
OBJECTIVE:Dysphagia is the most commonly reported complication of annterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery. However, the incidence of dysphagia post-ACDF varies widely-partly attributable to differing outcome measures used to capture dysphagia. Our objective was to conduct a scoping review of the literature to quantify which dysphagia outcome measures have been employed post-ACDF and examine trends by study design, year, and location. METHODS:After removing duplicates, 2396 abstracts were screened for inclusion. A total of 480 studies were eligible for full-text review. After applying exclusion criteria, data was extracted from 280 studies. We extracted the dysphagia outcome measure(s), study design (prospective vs retrospective), year, and location (country). Approximately 10% of studies were repeated for intra-rater agreement. RESULTS:In total, 317 dysphagia outcome measures were reported in 280 studies (primarily retrospective-63%). The largest proportion of outcome measures were categorized as "unvalidated patient-reported outcome measures" (46%), largely driven by use of the popular Bazaz scale. The next most common categories were "insufficient detail" and "validated patient-reported outcome measures" (both 16%) followed by "chart review/database" (13%) and instrumental assessment (7%). Studies examining dysphagia post-ACDF steadily increased over the years and the use of validated measures increased in the past 10 years. CONCLUSIONS:This scoping review of the literature highlights that nearly half of the ACDF dysphagia literature relies on unvalidated patient-reported outcome measures. The current understanding of the mechanism, timeline, and presentation of dysphagia post-ACDF are likely limited due to the metrics that are most commonly reported in the literature.
PMID: 36625955
ISSN: 1432-0932
CID: 5410402

Alterations in Swallowing Six Weeks After Primary Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)

Jones-Rastelli, R. Brynn; Amin, Milan R.; Balou, Matina; Herzberg, Erica G.; Molfenter, Sonja
This aim of this study is to characterize the nature and pathophysiology of dysphagia after ACDF surgery by precisely and comprehensively capturing within-subject changes on videofluoroscopy between preoperative and postoperative time points. 21 adults undergoing planned primary ACDF procedures were prospectively recruited and enrolled. Participants underwent standardized preoperative and six-week postoperative videofluoroscopic swallow studies. Videos were blindly rated using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) and analysis of total pharyngeal residue (%C2-42), swallowing timing, kinematics, and anatomic change was completed. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to explore the relationships between possible predictor variables and functional outcomes of interest that changed across timepoints. There was no change in PAS scores across timepoints. Total pharyngeal residue (%C2-C42) was increased postoperatively (p < 0.001). Our statistical model revealed significant main effects for timepoint (p = 0.002), maximum pharyngeal constriction area (MPCAN) (p < 0.001), and maximum thickness of posterior pharyngeal (PPWTMAX) (p = 0.004) on the expression of total pharyngeal residue. There were significant two-way interactions for timepoint and MPCAN (p = 0.028), timepoint and PPWTMAX (p = 0.005), and MPCAN and PPWTMAX (p = 0.010). Unsurprisingly, we found a significant three-way interaction between these three predictors (p = 0.027). Our findings suggest that in planned ACDF procedures without known complications, swallowing efficiency is more likely to be impaired than airway protection six weeks after surgery. The manifestation of impaired swallowing efficiency at this timepoint appears to be driven by a complex relationship between reduced pharyngeal constriction and increased prevertebral edema.
ISSN: 0179-051x
CID: 5631112

Prospective, Multi-Center Study of the Anatomic Distribution of Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Benedict, Peter A; Kravietz, Adam; Achlatis, Efstratios; Wang, Binhuan; Zhang, Yan; Kidane, Joseph; Harrison, Tina; Miller, Jonas; Drake, Virginia E; Best, Simon R; McWhorter, Andrew J; Lin, R Jun; Rosen, Clark A; Smith, Libby J; Amin, Milan R
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:To create a model of the anatomic distribution, recurrence, and growth patterns of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective, multi-institutional cohort study. METHODS:Adult patients with a diagnosis of RRP evaluated between August 1, 2018 and February 1, 2021 at six participating centers were invited to enroll. At each office or operating room encounter, laryngologists recorded the location and size of RRP lesions using a 22-region schematic. A generalized linear mixed effects model was used to compare region variations in lesion prevalence and recurrence. RESULTS:The cohort comprised 121 patients: 74% were male, 81% had been diagnosed with adult-onset RRP, and a plurality (34%) had undergone 0 to 3 RRP interventions prior to enrollment. Across the study period, the odds of a lesion occurring in the glottis was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR]: 26.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.76-59.75, P < .001) compared with all other areas of the larynx and trachea. Within the true vocal folds, the membranous vocal folds had significantly higher odds (OR: 6.16; 95% CI: 2.66-14.30, P < .001) of lesion occurrence compared to the cartilaginous vocal folds. Despite these strong trends in lesion distribution, there were no differences in the odds of lesion recurrence, growth, or in the time to recurrence, between anatomic subsites. CONCLUSIONS:RRP lesions are most likely to occur in the glottis, particularly the membranous vocal folds, compared with other regions of the larynx or trachea. However, all lesions demonstrate similar behavior with respect to recurrence, growth, and time to recurrence regardless of anatomic location. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:3 Laryngoscope, 2022.
PMID: 35129220
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5167092

A Novel Approach to Vocal Fold Mucous Retention Cysts: Awake KTP Laser-Assisted Marsupialization

Gao, William Z; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Reder, Lindsay S; Amin, Milan; Johns, Michael M
Vocal fold mucous retention cysts are an important etiology of dysphonia and have classically been treated via microsurgical excision under general anesthesia. We present four cases that were treated with a novel technique of awake potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser-assisted marsupialization under local anesthesia. Reasons for in-office treatment included older age, medical comorbidities, and desire to avoid surgery/general anesthesia. No recurrences were observed and all patients had improved vocal quality, with a mean reduction in Voice Handicap Index-10 of 12.5. Hence, awake potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser treatment exhibits potential as a modality for addressing vocal fold mucous retention cysts in select patients with favorable outcomes.
PMID: 32843259
ISSN: 1873-4588
CID: 4595932

Laryngeal Pathologies Associated with the Genre of Singing and Professional Singing Status in a Treatment-Seeking Population

Rotsides, Janine; Chen, Sophia; Winchester, Arianna; Amin, Milan R; Johnson, Aaron M
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Singers have high vocal demands and are at increased risk of developing voice disorders. Different singing genres place different technical demands on the voice. However, differences in laryngeal pathology based on genre have not been well-researched. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of laryngeal pathology in different genres of professional and amateur singers who present with a voice complaint. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective review. METHODS:Retrospective review of patients seen at a tertiary laryngology practice. Self-identified singers who reported their primary singing genre and categorized their singing as a full-time job, part-time job, or amateur involvement were included. Type and prevalence of pathology were calculated based on genre and professional status. RESULTS:Of the 302 self-identified singers, 54% (n = 164) had laryngeal pathology. Among those with pathology, the most common finding was fibrotic lesion (38.4%, 63/164). Genres in which a majority of singers had pathology were other (69.2%, 9/13), choral (64.7%, 11/17), pop (63.2%, 12/19), musical theater (61.4%, 43/70), country (100%, 4/4), and Latin (100%, 2/2). The highest prevalence of pathology was seen in part-time professional singers (62.2%, 41/66) and full-time professionals (60.8%, 62/102), compared to amateurs (45.1%, 60/133). CONCLUSIONS:Laryngeal pathology is prevalent in singers presenting with a voice complaint. Regardless of genre or professional status, fibrotic lesions were the most common pathological finding. This study provides preliminary data on the prevalence of different laryngeal pathologies found in singers by genre and degree of professional involvement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:4 Laryngoscope, 2020.
PMID: 33270237
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 4702772

Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

Angel, Luis F; Amoroso, Nancy E; Rafeq, Samaan; Mitzman, Brian; Goldenberg, Ronald; Shekar, Saketh Palasamudram; Troxel, Andrea B; Zhang, Yan; Chang, Stephanie H; Kwak, Paul; Amin, Milan R; Sureau, Kimberly; Nafday, Heidi B; Thomas, Sarun; Kon, Zachary; Sommer, Philip M; Segal, Leopoldo N; Moore, William H; Cerfolio, Robert
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the risk for healthcare providers. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective cohort study; patients were enrolled between March 11, and April 29, 2020. The date of final follow-up was July 30, 2020. We used a propensity score matching approach to compare outcomes. Study outcomes were formulated before data collection and analysis. SETTING/METHODS:Critical care units at two large metropolitan hospitals in New York City. PATIENTS/METHODS:Five-hundred forty-one patients with confirmed severe coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:Bedside percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with modified visualization and ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:Required time for discontinuation off mechanical ventilation, total length of hospitalization, and overall patient survival. Of the 541 patients, 394 patients were eligible for a tracheostomy. One-hundred sixteen were early percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with median time of 9 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 7-12 d), whereas 89 were late percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with a median time of 19 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 16-24 d). Compared with patients with no tracheostomy, patients with an early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had a higher probability of discontinuation from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference, 30%; p < 0.001; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.34-5.84; p = 0.006) and a lower mortality (absolute difference, 34%, p < 0.001; hazard ratio for death, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.22; p < 0.001). Compared with patients with late percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, patients with early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had higher discontinuation rates from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference 7%; p < 0.35; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.3; p = 0.04) and had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (absolute difference, -15 d; p < 0.001). None of the healthcare providers who performed all the percutaneous dilational tracheostomies procedures had clinical symptoms or any positive laboratory test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CONCLUSIONS:In coronavirus disease 2019 patients on mechanical ventilation, an early modified percutaneous dilational tracheostomy was safe for patients and healthcare providers and associated with improved clinical outcomes.
PMID: 33826583
ISSN: 1530-0293
CID: 4839312

Shared Decision-making and Stakeholder Engagement in COVID-19 Tracheostomy-Reply

Kwak, Paul E; Persky, Michael J; Amin, Milan R
PMID: 33764364
ISSN: 2168-619x
CID: 4875412

Disparities in Mortality from Larynx Cancer: Implications for Reducing Racial Differences

Chen, Sophia; Dee, Edward Christopher; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Nguyen, Paul L; Amin, Milan R; Givi, Babak
OBJECTIVE:Race predicts overall mortality (OM) of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) in the United States (US). We assessed whether racial disparities affect cancer-specific mortality (CSM) using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. METHODS:Adults with LSCC from 2004 to 2015 were selected. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray competing-risks regression analysis adjusted for clinicodemographic factors defined hazard ratios (aHR). RESULTS:We identified 14,506 patients. The median age was 63 years. Most were male (11,725, 80.8%) and white (11,653, 80.3%), followed by Black (2294, 15.8%). Most had early-stage disease (7544, 52.0%) and received radiotherapy only (4107, 28.3%), followed by chemoradiation (3748, 25.8%). With median follow-up of 60 months, overall 3- and 5-year OM were 34.0% and 43.2%; CSM were 16.0% and 18.9%, respectively. Black patients had higher OM than white patients on univariable (HR 1.35, 95% CI, 1.26-1.44, P < .001) and multivariable (aHR 1.10, 95% CI, 1.02-1.18, P = .011) analyses. Black patients had higher CSM on univariable analysis (HR 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.35, P < .001) but not on multivariable CSM analysis (aHR 1.01, 95% CI, 0.90-1.13, P = .864). On multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis, age, disease site, stage, treatment, nodal metastasis, marital status, education, and geography significantly predicted CSM. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:On multivariable analyses controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics, Black and white patients differed in OM but not in CSM. However, Black patients presented with greater proportions of higher stage cancers and sociodemographic factors such as income and marital status that were associated with worse outcomes. Efforts to target sociodemographic disparities may contribute to the mitigation of racial disparities in LSCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:4 Laryngoscope, 2020.
PMID: 32869893
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 4583052

Early Outcomes From Early Tracheostomy for Patients With COVID-19

Kwak, Paul E; Connors, Joseph R; Benedict, Peter A; Timen, Micah R; Wang, Binhuan; Zhang, Yan; Youlios, Stephanie; Sureau, Kimberly; Persky, Michael J; Rafeq, Samaan; Angel, Luis; Amin, Milan R
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Decision-making in the timing of tracheostomy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has centered on the intersection of long-standing debates on the benefits of early vs late tracheostomy, assumptions about timelines of infectivity of the novel coronavirus, and concern over risk to surgeons performing tracheostomy. Multiple consensus guidelines recommend avoiding or delaying tracheostomy, without evidence to indicate anticipated improvement in outcomes as a result. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To assess outcomes from early tracheostomy in the airway management of patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective medical record review was completed of 148 patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation at a single tertiary-care medical center in New York City from March 1 to May 7, 2020. Interventions/UNASSIGNED:Open or percutaneous tracheostomy. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary outcomes were time from symptom onset to (1) endotracheal intubation, (2) tracheostomy; time from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy; time from tracheostomy to (1) tracheostomy tube downsizing, (2) decannulation; total time on mechanical ventilation; and total length of stay. Results/UNASSIGNED:Participants included 148 patients, 120 men and 28 women, with an overall mean (SD) age of 58.1 (15.8) years. Mean (SD; median) time from symptom onset to intubation was 10.57 (6.58; 9) days; from symptom onset to tracheostomy, 22.76 (8.84; 21) days; and from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy, 12.23 (6.82; 12) days. The mean (SD; median) time to discontinuation of mechanical ventilation was 33.49 (18.82; 27) days; from tracheostomy to first downsize, 23.02 (13.76; 19) days; and from tracheostomy to decannulation, 30.16 (16.00; 26) days. The mean (SD; median) length of stay for all patients was 51.29 (23.66; 45) days. Timing of tracheostomy was significantly associated with length of stay: median length of stay was 40 days in those who underwent early tracheostomy (within 10 days of endotracheal intubation) and 49 days in those who underwent late tracheostomy (median difference, -8; 95% CI, -15 to -1). In a competing risks model with death as the competing risk, the late tracheostomy group was 16% less likely to discontinue mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.28). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:This cohort study from the first 2 months of the pandemic in New York City provides an opportunity to reconsider guidelines for tracheostomy for patients with COVID-19. Findings demonstrated noninferiority of early tracheostomy and challenges recommendations to categorically delay or avoid tracheostomy in this patient population. When aligned with emerging evidence about the timeline of infectivity of the novel coronavirus, this approach may optimize outcomes from tracheostomy while keeping clinicians safe.
PMID: 33331855
ISSN: 2168-619x
CID: 4718022

Association of Social Determinants of Health with Time to Diagnosis and Treatment Outcomes in Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis

Lee, Jaclyn; Huang, Li-Ching; Berry, Lynn D; Anderson, Catherine; Amin, Milan R; Benninger, Michael S; Blumin, Joel H; Bock, Jonathan M; Bryson, Paul C; Castellanos, Paul F; Chen, Sheau-Chiann; Clary, Matthew S; Cohen, Seth M; Crawley, Brianna K; Dailey, Seth H; Daniero, James J; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Donovan, Donald T; Edell, Eric S; Ekbom, Dale C; Fink, Daniel S; Franco, Ramon A; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Guardiani, Elizabeth A; Hillel, Alexander T; Hoffman, Henry T; Hogikyan, Norman D; Howell, Rebecca J; Hussain, Lena K; Johns, Michael M; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Khosla, Sid M; Kinnard, Cheryl; Kupfer, Robbi A; Langerman, Alexander J; Lentz, Robert J; Lorenz, Robert R; Lott, David G; Lowery, Anne S; Makani, Samir S; Maldonado, Fabien; Mannion, Kyle; Matrka, Laura; McWhorter, Andrew J; Merati, Albert L; Mori, Matthew; Netterville, James L; O'Dell, Karla; Ongkasuwan, Julina; Postma, Gregory N; Reder, Lindsay S; Rohde, Sarah L; Richardson, Brent E; Rickman, Otis B; Rosen, Clark A; Rutter, Michael J; Sandhu, Guri S; Schindler, Joshua S; Schneider, G Todd; Shah, Rupali N; Sikora, Andrew G; Sinard, Robert J; Smith, Marshall E; Smith, Libby J; Soliman, Ahmed M S; Sveinsdóttir, Sigríður; Van Daele, Douglas J; Veivers, David; Verma, Sunil P; Weinberger, Paul M; Weissbrod, Philip A; Wootten, Christopher T; Shyr, Yu; Francis, David O; Gelbard, Alexander
OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:To examine whether social determinants of health (SDH) factors are associated with time to diagnosis, treatment selection, and time to recurrent surgical intervention in idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) patients. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Adult patients with diagnosed iSGS were recruited prospectively (2015-2017) via clinical providers as part of the North American Airway Collaborative (NoAAC) and via an online iSGS support community on Facebook. Patient-specific SDH factors included highest educational attainment (self-reported), median household income (matched from home zip code via U.S. Census data), and number of close friends (self-reported) as a measure of social support. Main outcomes of interest were time to disease diagnosis (years from symptom onset), treatment selection (endoscopic dilation [ED] vs cricotracheal resection [CTR] vs endoscopic resection with adjuvant medical therapy [ERMT]), and time to recurrent surgical intervention (number of days from initial surgical procedure) as a surrogate for disease recurrence. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The total 810 participants were 98.5% female, 97.2% Caucasian, and had a median age of 50 years (IQR, 43-58). The cohort had a median household income of $62 307 (IQR, $50 345-$79 773), a median of 7 close friends (IQR, 4-10), and 64.7% of patients completed college or graduate school. Education, income, and number of friends were not associated with time to diagnosis via multivariable linear regression modeling. Univariable multinominal logistic regression demonstrated an association between education and income for selecting ED versus ERMT, but no associations were noted for CTR. No associations were noted for time to recurrent surgical procedure via Kaplan Meier modeling and Cox proportional hazards regression. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Patient education, income, and social support were not associated with time to diagnosis or time to disease recurrence. This suggests additional patient, procedure, or disease-specific factors contribute to the observed variations in iSGS surgical outcomes.
PMID: 33629608
ISSN: 1943-572x
CID: 4875162