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Inhaled pulmonary vasodilators are not associated with improved gas exchange in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study

Lubinsky, Anthony Steven; Brosnahan, Shari B; Lehr, Andrew; Elnadoury, Ola; Hagedorn, Jacklyn; Garimella, Bhaskara; Bender, Michael T; Amoroso, Nancy; Artigas, Antonio; Bos, Lieuwe D J; Kaufman, David
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Measure the effect of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators on gas exchange in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. METHODS:ratio, oxygenation Index (OI), and ventilatory ratio (VR) after initiation of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators. RESULTS:, OI and VR did not significantly change over a five day period starting the day prior to drug initiation in patients who received either iNO or iEPO assessed with a fixed effects model. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Inhaled pulmonary vasodilators were not associated with significant improvement in gas exchange in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19.
PMCID:8847100
PMID: 35180636
ISSN: 1557-8615
CID: 5163672

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome

Sulaiman, Imran; Chung, Matthew; Angel, Luis; Tsay, Jun-Chieh J; Wu, Benjamin G; Yeung, Stephen T; Krolikowski, Kelsey; Li, Yonghua; Duerr, Ralf; Schluger, Rosemary; Thannickal, Sara A; Koide, Akiko; Rafeq, Samaan; Barnett, Clea; Postelnicu, Radu; Wang, Chang; Banakis, Stephanie; Pérez-Pérez, Lizzette; Shen, Guomiao; Jour, George; Meyn, Peter; Carpenito, Joseph; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ji, Kun; Collazo, Destiny; Labarbiera, Anthony; Amoroso, Nancy; Brosnahan, Shari; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Kaufman, David; Bakker, Jan; Lubinsky, Anthony; Pradhan, Deepak; Sterman, Daniel H; Weiden, Michael; Heguy, Adriana; Evans, Laura; Uyeki, Timothy M; Clemente, Jose C; de Wit, Emmie; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shopsin, Bo; Desvignes, Ludovic; Wang, Chan; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Bin; Forst, Christian V; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Khanna, Kamal M; Ghedin, Elodie; Segal, Leopoldo N
Respiratory failure is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are no validated lower airway biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections were associated with poor clinical outcome of COVID-19 in a prospective, observational cohort of 589 critically ill adults, all of whom required mechanical ventilation. For a subset of 142 patients who underwent bronchoscopy, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analysed the lower respiratory tract microbiome using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics and profiled the host immune response. Acquisition of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. Poor clinical outcome was associated with lower airway enrichment with an oral commensal (Mycoplasma salivarium). Increased SARS-CoV-2 abundance, low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and a distinct host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Our data provide evidence that secondary respiratory infections do not drive mortality in COVID-19 and clinical management strategies should prioritize reducing viral replication and maximizing host responses to SARS-CoV-2.
PMID: 34465900
ISSN: 2058-5276
CID: 4998422

Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

Angel, Luis F; Amoroso, Nancy E; Rafeq, Samaan; Mitzman, Brian; Goldenberg, Ronald; Shekar, Saketh Palasamudram; Troxel, Andrea B; Zhang, Yan; Chang, Stephanie H; Kwak, Paul; Amin, Milan R; Sureau, Kimberly; Nafday, Heidi B; Thomas, Sarun; Kon, Zachary; Sommer, Philip M; Segal, Leopoldo N; Moore, William H; Cerfolio, Robert
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the risk for healthcare providers. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective cohort study; patients were enrolled between March 11, and April 29, 2020. The date of final follow-up was July 30, 2020. We used a propensity score matching approach to compare outcomes. Study outcomes were formulated before data collection and analysis. SETTING/METHODS:Critical care units at two large metropolitan hospitals in New York City. PATIENTS/METHODS:Five-hundred forty-one patients with confirmed severe coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:Bedside percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with modified visualization and ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:Required time for discontinuation off mechanical ventilation, total length of hospitalization, and overall patient survival. Of the 541 patients, 394 patients were eligible for a tracheostomy. One-hundred sixteen were early percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with median time of 9 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 7-12 d), whereas 89 were late percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with a median time of 19 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 16-24 d). Compared with patients with no tracheostomy, patients with an early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had a higher probability of discontinuation from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference, 30%; p < 0.001; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.34-5.84; p = 0.006) and a lower mortality (absolute difference, 34%, p < 0.001; hazard ratio for death, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.22; p < 0.001). Compared with patients with late percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, patients with early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had higher discontinuation rates from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference 7%; p < 0.35; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.3; p = 0.04) and had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (absolute difference, -15 d; p < 0.001). None of the healthcare providers who performed all the percutaneous dilational tracheostomies procedures had clinical symptoms or any positive laboratory test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CONCLUSIONS:In coronavirus disease 2019 patients on mechanical ventilation, an early modified percutaneous dilational tracheostomy was safe for patients and healthcare providers and associated with improved clinical outcomes.
PMID: 33826583
ISSN: 1530-0293
CID: 4839312

Thrombosis at Hospital Presentation in Patients with and without COVID-19

Brosnahan, Shari B; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Amoroso, Nancy E; Barfield, Michael; Berger, Jeffery S; Goldenberg, Ronald; Ishida, Koto; Talmor, Nina; Torres, Jose; Yaghi, Shadi; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Maldonado, Thomas
OBJECTIVE:To better characterize COVID-19 patients most at risk for severe, outpatient thrombosis by defining patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with an arterial or venous thrombosis diagnosed at admission METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a single center retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients. There was a shift in the proportions of thrombosis subtypes from 2019 to 2020, with declines in STEMI (from 22.0% to 10.1% of thrombotic events) and stroke (from 48.6% to 37.2%), and an increase in the proportion of patients with VTE (29.4% to 52.7%). COVID-associated thrombosis were younger (58 years vs. 64 years, p=0.043), trended to be less frequently female (31.3% vs. 43.9%, p =0.16), but there was no difference body mass index or major comorbidities between those with and without COVID-19. COVID-19-associted thrombosis was correlated with a higher mortality (15.2% vs. 4.3%, p=0.016). The biometric profile of patients admitted with COVID-associated thrombosis compared to regular thrombosis had significant changes in the complete blood count, liver function tests, d-dimer, c-related protein, ferritin, and coagulation panels. CONCLUSIONS:Outpatients with COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization have an increased mortality over non-COVID-19 outpatients who develop thrombosis requiring hospitalization. Given the significantly higher inflammatory markers, it is possible this is related to different mechanisms of thrombotic disease in these patients. The inflammation may be a target to reduce the risk of or aid in the treatment of thrombosis. We call for more studies elucidating the role immunothrombosis maybe playing in COVID.
PMCID:7655032
PMID: 33186750
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 4672082

Prevalence and symptomatology of post COVID syndrome in patients who required hospitalization during acute illness [Meeting Abstract]

Nayar, C; Bhatt, A; Hagedorn, J; Amoroso, N E; Condos, R; Hasan, E; Brosnahan, S
Background The long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 are just now coming to light. These remaining symptoms are sometimes referred to as "Post-COVID syndrome." The types and incidence of prolonged symptoms from the acute viral illness are unknown. Yet understanding the prevalence and which symptoms persist would help normalize post COVID syndrome and help providers recognize these issues in their COVID survivors. Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis with patients discharged from New York University (NYU) Langone Hospital with primary diagnosis of COVID-19. Each patient was then called and given a phone survey 45-60 days post discharge. In the survey they were consented and asked about residual symptoms. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at NYU hospital. Patient surveys were then merged with their medical record from their COVID hospitalization. All statistical analysis was processed in SPSS. The study was approved through our institutional IRB. Results Overall, 101 patients were surveyed post discharge. The median age was 59, with the most common co-morbidities being DM (N = 20) and HTN (N = 45). Most patients (N= 57) reported residual lethargy and malaise as compared to prior. Thirty-eight patients continued to have limited exercise tolerance. Thirty- eight patients experienced shortness of breath more than prior to getting COVID, while 24 patients continued to have shortness of breath while walking within their house. Some experienced chest pain with breathing (N=5), dry cough (N=14) and productive cough (N=5) that was not present prior to COVID infection. Conclusion We found that COVID patients continued to have symptoms 2 months post discharge. More than half of patients reached reported continued lethargy post discharge. Other symptoms were quite common, with 1/4-1/3 having continued shortness of breath and decreased exercise tolerance. The full pathophysiology between continued symptoms and post COVID syndrome is not yet known; however, clinicians need to understand the prevalence to treat patients accordingly. Physicians should help to normalize these symptoms to patients. Treatment should include supportive care such as rehab and physical therapy with consideration of referral to post COVID centers
EMBASE:635308980
ISSN: 1535-4970
CID: 4915532

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome

Sulaiman, Imran; Chung, Matthew; Angel, Luis; Koralov, Sergei; Wu, Benjamin; Yeung, Stephen; Krolikowski, Kelsey; Li, Yonghua; Duerr, Ralf; Schluger, Rosemary; Thannickal, Sara; Koide, Akiko; Rafeq, Samaan; Barnett, Clea; Postelnicu, Radu; Wang, Chang; Banakis, Stephanie; Perez-Perez, Lizzette; Jour, George; Shen, Guomiao; Meyn, Peter; Carpenito, Joseph; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ji, Kun; Collazo, Destiny; Labarbiera, Anthony; Amoroso, Nancy; Brosnahan, Shari; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Kaufman, David; Bakker, Jan; Lubinsky, Anthony; Pradhan, Deepak; Sterman, Daniel; Heguy, Adriana; Uyeki, Timothy; Clemente, Jose; de Wit, Emmie; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shopsin, Bo; Desvignes, Ludovic; Wang, Chan; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Bin; Forst, Christian; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth; Khanna, Kamal; Ghedin, Elodie; Weiden, Michael; Segal, Leopoldo
Mortality among patients with COVID-19 and respiratory failure is high and there are no known lower airway biomarkers that predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections and viral load were associated with poor clinical outcome and host immune tone. We obtained bacterial and fungal culture data from 589 critically ill subjects with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. On a subset of the subjects that underwent bronchoscopy, we also quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analyzed the microbiome of the lower airways by metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses and profiled the host immune response. We found that isolation of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. However, poor clinical outcome was associated with enrichment of the lower airway microbiota with an oral commensal ( Mycoplasma salivarium ), while high SARS-CoV-2 viral burden, poor anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, together with a unique host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 1) the extent of viral infectivity drives mortality in severe COVID-19, and therefore 2) clinical management strategies targeting viral replication and host responses to SARS-CoV-2 should be prioritized.
PMCID:8010736
PMID: 33791687
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4830952

Microbial signatures in the lower airways of mechanically ventilated COVID19 patients associated with poor clinical outcome

Sulaiman, Imran; Chung, Matthew; Angel, Luis; Tsay, Jun-Chieh J; Wu, Benjamin G; Yeung, Stephen T; Krolikowski, Kelsey; Li, Yonghua; Duerr, Ralf; Schluger, Rosemary; Thannickal, Sara A; Koide, Akiko; Rafeq, Samaan; Barnett, Clea; Postelnicu, Radu; Wang, Chang; Banakis, Stephanie; Perez-Perez, Lizzette; Jour, George; Shen, Guomiao; Meyn, Peter; Carpenito, Joseph; Liu, Xiuxiu; Ji, Kun; Collazo, Destiny; Labarbiera, Anthony; Amoroso, Nancy; Brosnahan, Shari; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Kaufman, David; Bakker, Jan; Lubinsky, Anthony; Pradhan, Deepak; Sterman, Daniel H; Weiden, Michael; Hegu, Adriana; Evans, Laura; Uyeki, Timothy M; Clemente, Jose C; De Wit, Emmie; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shopsin, Bo; Desvignes, Ludovic; Wang, Chan; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Bin; Forst, Christian V; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Khanna, Kamal M; Ghedin, Elodie; Segal, Leopoldo N
Mortality among patients with COVID-19 and respiratory failure is high and there are no known lower airway biomarkers that predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections and viral load were associated with poor clinical outcome and host immune tone. We obtained bacterial and fungal culture data from 589 critically ill subjects with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. On a subset of the subjects that underwent bronchoscopy, we also quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analyzed the microbiome of the lower airways by metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses and profiled the host immune response. We found that isolation of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. However, poor clinical outcome was associated with enrichment of the lower airway microbiota with an oral commensal ( Mycoplasma salivarium ), while high SARS-CoV-2 viral burden, poor anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, together with a unique host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 1) the extent of viral infectivity drives mortality in severe COVID-19, and therefore 2) clinical management strategies targeting viral replication and host responses to SARS-CoV-2 should be prioritized.
PMCID:7924286
PMID: 33655261
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4801472

Indigo Aspiration System for Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism: Results of the EXTRACT-PE Trial

Sista, Akhilesh K; Horowitz, James M; Tapson, Victor F; Rosenberg, Michael; Elder, Mahir D; Schiro, Brian J; Dohad, Suhail; Amoroso, Nancy E; Dexter, David J; Loh, Christopher T; Leung, Daniel A; Bieneman, Bruce Kirke; Perkowski, Paul E; Chuang, Michael L; Benenati, James F
OBJECTIVES:This study sought to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Indigo aspiration system in submassive acute pulmonary embolism (PE). BACKGROUND:PE treatment with thrombolytics has bleeding risks. Aspiration thrombectomy can remove thrombus without thrombolytics, but data are lacking. METHODS:This study was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter study that enrolled patients with symptomatic acute PE ≤14 days, systolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, and right ventricular-to-left ventricular (RV/LV) ratio >0.9. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in RV/LV ratio from baseline to 48 h post-procedure on core lab-adjudicated computed tomography angiography. The primary safety endpoint was a composite of 48-h major adverse events: device-related death, major bleeding, and device-related serious adverse events (clinical deterioration, pulmonary vascular, or cardiac injury). All sites received Institutional Review Board approval. RESULTS:A total of 119 patients (mean age 59.8 ± 15.0 years) were enrolled at 22 U.S. sites between November 2017 and March 2019. Median device insertion to removal time was 37.0 (interquartile range: 23.5 to 60.0) min. Two (1.7%) patients received intraprocedural thrombolytics. Mean RV/LV ratio reduction from baseline to 48 h post-procedure was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 0.47; p < 0.0001). Two (1.7%) patients experienced 3 major adverse events. Rates of cardiac injury, pulmonary vascular injury, clinical deterioration, major bleeding, and device-related death at 48 h were 0%, 1.7%, 1.7%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective, multicenter study the Indigo aspiration system was associated with a significant reduction in the RV/LV ratio and a low major adverse event rate in submassive PE patients. Intraprocedural thrombolytic drugs were avoided in 98.3% of patients. (Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of the Indigo aspiration system in Acute Pulmonary Embolism [EXTRACT-PE]; NCT03218566).
PMID: 33454291
ISSN: 1876-7605
CID: 5039012

Pulmonary Embolism Response Team activation during the COVID-19 pandemic in a New York City Academic Hospital: a retrospective cohort analysis

Kwok, Benjamin; Brosnahan, Shari B; Amoroso, Nancy E; Goldenberg, Ronald M; Heyman, Brooke; Horowitz, James M; Jamin, Catherine; Sista, Akhilesh K; Smith, Deane E; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Maldonado, Thomas S
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERT) have previously been associated with improved outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether PERT utilization, recommendations, and outcomes for patients diagnosed with acute PE changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients with acute PE who received care at an academic hospital system in New York City between March 1st and April 30th, 2020. These patients were compared against historic controls between March 1st and April 30th, 2019. PE severity, PERT utilization, initial management, PERT recommendations, and outcomes were compared. There were more cases of PE during the pandemic (82 vs. 59), but less PERT activations (26.8% vs. 64.4%, p < 0.001) despite similar markers of PE severity. PERT recommendations were similar before and during the pandemic; anticoagulation was most recommended (89.5% vs. 86.4%, p = 0.70). During the pandemic, those with PERT activations were more likely to be female (63.6% vs. 31.7%, p = 0.01), have a history of DVT/PE (22.7% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.01), and to be SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative (68.2% vs. 38.3% p = 0.02). PERT activation during the pandemic is associated with decreased length of stay (7.7 ± 7.7 vs. 13.2 ± 12.7 days, p = 0.02). PERT utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic and its activation was associated with different biases. PERT recommendations and outcomes were similar before and during the pandemic, and led to decreased length of stay during the pandemic.
PMID: 32910409
ISSN: 1573-742x
CID: 4589422

COVID-19 Pneumonia Hospitalizations Followed by Re-presentation for Presumed Thrombotic Event

Brosnahan, Shari B; Bhatt, Alok; Berger, Jeffery S; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Iturrate, Eduardo; Amoroso, Nancy E
PMID: 32589950
ISSN: 1931-3543
CID: 4493712