Cross-sectional evaluation of humoral responses against SARS-COV-2 spike [Meeting Abstract]
Background: SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths. The Spike glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 mediate viral entry and are the main targets for neutralizing antibodies.
Aim(s): Understanding the antibody response directed against SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the development of vaccine, therapeutic, and public health interventions.
Method(s): Here, we perform a cross-sectional study on 106 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals to evaluate humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike.
Result(s): Most infected individuals elicit anti-Spike antibodies within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. The levels of receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) persist over time, and the levels of anti-RBD IgM and IgA decrease after symptom resolution. Some of the elicited antibodies cross-reacted with other human coronaviruses in a genus-restrictive manner. Although most individuals develop neutralizing antibodies within 2 weeks of infection, the level of neutralizing activity is significantly decreased over time. Summary/Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of studying the persistence of neutralizing activity upon natural SARS-CoV-2 infection
Effect of behavioral interventions on the uptake of screening colonoscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Screening decreases colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, but uptake in the United States remains suboptimal at 62%. Prior studies have investigated the effect of various interventions on overall CRC screening and stool-based testing, but the effect on colonoscopy-the predominant screening test in the US-has not been fully examined. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of behavioral interventions on screening colonoscopy uptake.
METHOD(S): We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through June 2018 for controlled trials that assessed the effect of behavioral interventions on screening colonoscopy rates. Our search yielded a total of 6,952 titles. All abstracts and articles were screened by at least two independent reviewers and 54 manuscripts were selected for review. Relative risk estimates were extracted from the original article or calculated from the raw data. The primary outcome was the relative increase in screening colonoscopy completion with any behavioral intervention. Subgroup analysis by type of intervention was also performed. Random effects meta-analysis was performed using Stata.
RESULT(S): A total of 21 studies with 24 behavioral interventions were analyzed. The most common interventions were patient navigation (n=8), a combination of multiple interventions (n=7), and educational interventions (n=4). Overall, behavioral interventions increased colonoscopy completion by 58% compared to controls (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.33-1.88, Figure). Patient navigation (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.22-2.67) and multiple interventions (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.15- 2.50) had the strongest effect on colonoscopy completion. Significant heterogeneity was observed both overall and by intervention type, which may be attributed to differences in study setting and control group selection.
CONCLUSION(S): Behavioral interventions increase screening colonoscopy completion and should be considered in clinical practice. In particular, patient navigation and multiple interventions are the best-studied and most effective interventions. (Figure Presented)
Colonic Granular Cell Tumor: An Endoscopic and Histopathologic Review with Case Illustration
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and benign tumors that can occur at any anatomical site. GCTs are thought to originate from nerve cells, particularly Schwann cells. Their name derives from the fact that an accumulation of cytoplasmic lysosomes imparts the tumor with a granular appearance. They are most commonly observed in the oral cavity, skinÂ and subcutaneous tissue, breast, and respiratory tract. Granular cell tumors rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract. We report a 58-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension, mitral valve prolapse, and depression who presented for surveillance colonoscopy. A single firm sessile polypoid lesion, with overlying pale tan color mucosa, measuring approximately 1 to 1.5 cm, was found in the ascending colon. Biopsy of the nodule followed by histopathology was positive for S100 and CD68, but negative for AE1/AE3, CD117, smooth muscle actin, and desmin, consistent with the diagnosis of GCT. We review the clinicopathologic features of GCTs.
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions
The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy in the adrenal glands. EUS-FNA with biopsy of suspicious masses in either adrenal gland allows for assessment of these lesions while keeping complications relatively rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity, and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of adrenal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to either decrease unnecessary treatment or guide therapy in cancer patients by aiding in either staging of malignancy or treatment of recurrence.v.
Impact of glycemic control on colonoscopy outcomes: bowel preparation and polyp detection
BACKGROUND:The negative effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the colonoscopy preparation has been previously established. Metabolic syndrome has been shown to increase risk for malignancy and possibly for premalignant lesions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of DM control on colonoscopy outcomes including bowel preparation and adenoma detection rate (ADR). METHODS:We included patients with DM who underwent colonoscopy in our hospital and had a documented glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) within 3 months. Patients were categorized into three groups based on their HbA1C level. The clinical and endoscopic data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS:Our cohort included 352 DM patients. The mean age was 63.5 years. When patients were analyzed based on HBA1C, bowel preparation was poor in 46.7% of patients with good glycemic control, 52.1% of patients with fair control and 50% of patients with poor control. ADR was 24.3% in patients with good glycemic control, 20.2% in patients with fair glycemic control and 27.1% in patients with poor glycemic control. There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of preparation or adenoma detection amongst the groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The degree of glycemic control did not impact the quality of bowel preparation or ADR.
Screening Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer and Advanced Adenomas in a Minority Population: A Study to Test Patient's Knowledge Base About Their Family History [Meeting Abstract]
Endoscopic closure of colonic perforations using over-the-scope clip: a surgeon-sparing technique
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided placement of the lumen-apposing self-expandable metallic stent for gallbladder drainage: a promising technique
Acute cholecystitis and other clinical problems requiring gallbladder removal or drainage have conventionally been treated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic drainage of the gallbladder and/or extrahepatic bile duct. Patients unable to undergo these procedures due to functional status or anatomical anomalies are candidates for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided gallbladder drainage with stent placement. The aim of this review was to evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of EUS-guided placement of the recently developed lumen-apposing self-expandable metallic stent (LASEMS). A literature review was performed to identify the studies describing this technique. In this review article we have summarized case series or reports describing EUS-guided LASEMS placement. The indications, techniques, limitations and complications reported are discussed. A total of 78 patients were included across all studies described thus far in the literature. Studies have reported near 100% technical and clinical success rates in selected cases. No major complications were reported. EUS-guided gallbladder drainage and LASEMS placement can be a safe and effective alternative approach in the management of selected patients.
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided placement of AXIOS stent for drainage of pancreatic fluid collections
Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) have conventionally been treated with surgery, percutaneous drainage, or with the more recently established endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage modality. Currently, endoscopic plastic or metallic stents are used for PFC drainage. Plastic stents present issues with stent migration and premature occlusion requiring frequent stent exchanges or placement of additional stents. Metallic stents are tubular and may migrate, resulting in inefficient drainage, content leakage, retrieval and replacement, and possible mucosal injury. The aim of this review was to summarize and evaluate the clinical and technical effectiveness of EUS-guided placement of the recently developed AXIOS stent, a lumen-apposing self-expandable metallic stent (LASEMS)for PFC drainage. A literature review was performed to identify the studies describing this technique. In this review article we have summarized case series or reports describing EUS-guided LASEMS placement. The indications, techniques, limitations and complications reported are discussed. A total of 298 patients were included across all studies described thus far in the literature. Overall, a 97% technical success rate and a 96% clinical success rate have been reported. Early and late complications related to the placement or removal of LASEMS have been reported, however few cases have presented life-threatening results. EUS-guided PFC drainage and LASEMS placement can be a safe and effective alternative approach in the management of selected patients.
Peroral endoscopic reduction of dilated gastrojejunal anastomosis after bariatric surgery: Techniques and efficacy
AIM: To investigate the techniques and efficacy of peroral endoscopic reduction of dilated gastrojejunal anastomosis after bariatric surgery. METHODS: An extensive English language literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Medscape and Google to identify peer-reviewed original and review articles using the keywords "bariatric endoscopic suturing", "overstitch bariatric surgery", "endoscopic anastomotic reduction", "bariatric surgery", "gastric bypass", "obesity", "weight loss". We identified articles describing technical feasibility, safety, efficacy, and adverse outcomes of overstitch endoscopic suturing system for transoral outlet reduction in patients with weight regain following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All studies that contained material applicable to the topic were considered. Retrieved peer-reviewed original and review articles were reviewed by the authors and the data extracted using a standardized collection tool. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis as percentages of the event. RESULTS: Four original published articles which met our search criteria were pooled. The total number cases were fifty-nine with a mean age of 46.75 years (34-63 years). Eight of the patients included in those studies were males (13.6%) and fifty-one were females (86.4%). The mean time elapsed since the primary bypass surgery was 5.75 years. The average pre-endoscopic procedure body mass index (BMI) was 38.68 (27.5-48.5). Mean body weight regained post-RYGB surgery was 13.4 kg from their post-RYGB nadir. The average pouch length at the initial upper endoscopy was 5.75 cm (2-14 cm). The pre-intervention anastomotic diameter was averaged at 24.85 mm (8-40 mm). Average procedure time was 74 min (50-164 min). Mean post endoscopic intervention anastomotic diameter was 8 mm (3-15 mm). Weight reduction at 3 to 4 mo post revision noted to be an average of 10.1 kg. Average overall post revision BMI was recorded at 37.7. The combined technical and clinical success rate was 94.9% (56/59) among studied participants. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic suturing can be technically feasible, effective and safe for transoral outlet reduction in patients with weight regain following RYGB.