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Five-year Weight Loss Maintenance With Obesity Pharmacotherapy

Weintraub, Michael A; D'Angelo, Debra; Tchang, Beverly G; Sahagun, Ageline D; Andre, Clarissa; Aronne, Louis J; Shukla, Alpana P
CONTEXT:Long-term treatment of obesity with lifestyle changes alone is unsustainable for most individuals because of several factors including adherence and metabolic adaptation. Medical management of obesity has proven efficacy for up to 3 years in randomized controlled trials. However, there is a dearth of information regarding real-world outcomes beyond 3 years. OBJECTIVE:This work aimed to assess long-term weight loss outcomes over a 2.5- to 5.5-year period with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and off-label antiobesity medications (AOMs). METHODS:A cohort of 428 patients with overweight or obesity were treated with AOMs at an academic weight management center with an initial visit between April 1, 2014, and April 1, 2016. Intervention included FDA-approved and off-label AOMs. The primary outcome was percentage weight loss from initial to final visit. Key secondary outcomes included weight reduction targets as well as demographic and clinical predictors of long-term weight loss. RESULTS:The average weight loss was 10.4% at a mean follow-up duration of 4.4 years. The proportions of patients who met the weight reduction targets of 5% or greater, 10% or greater, 15% or greater, and 20% or greater were 70.8%, 48.1%, 29.9%, and 17.1%, respectively. On average, 51% of maximum weight loss was regained, while 40.2% of patients maintained their weight loss. In a multivariable regression analysis, a higher number of clinic visits was associated with more weight loss. Metformin, topiramate, and bupropion were associated with increased odds of maintaining 10% or greater weight loss. CONCLUSION:Clinically significant long-term weight loss of 10% or more beyond 4 years is achievable in clinical practice settings with obesity pharmacotherapy.
PMID: 36810608
ISSN: 1945-7197
CID: 5588862