The Impact of Uterine Incision Closure Techniques on Post-cesarean Delivery Niche Formation and Size: Sonohysterographic Examination of Nonpregnant Women
OBJECTIVE:To compare the prevalence and size of residual niche in the nongravid uterus following Cesarean delivery (CD) with different hysterotomy closure techniques (HCTs). METHODS:, T-test (ANOVA), and analyzed using logistic regression and two-sided test (Pâ€‰<â€‰.05). RESULTS:Forty-five women had SIS performed, 25 and 20 via Technique A and B, respectively. Technique groups varied by average interval time from CD to SIS (13.6 versus 74.5â€‰months, PÂ =Â 0.006) but were otherwise similar. Twenty niches were diagnosed, 85% of which were clinically significant, including five following Technique A, nine following Technique B with double-layer closure, and three following Technique B with single-layer (PÂ =Â .018). The average niche depth was 2.4â€‰mm and 4.9â€‰mm among the two-layer subgroups following Techniques A and B, respectively (PÂ =Â .005). A clinically significant niche development was six times higher with Technique B when compared to Technique A (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.6-22.6, PÂ =Â .008); this significance persisted after controlling for SIS interval on multivariate analysis (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.1-18.3, PÂ =Â .04). The average niche depth was 5.7â€‰Â±â€‰2.9â€‰mm following Technique B with single-layer. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Hysterotomy closure techniques determine the prevalence of post-Cesarean delivery niche formation and size. Exclusion of the endometrium at uterine closure reduces the development of significant scar defects.
Origin of a Post-Cesarean Delivery Niche: Diagnosis, Pathophysiologic Characteristics, and Video Documentation [Letter]
Cesarean section one hundred years 1920-2020: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly
In present-day obstetrics, cesarean delivery occurs in one in three women in the United States, and in up to four of five women in some regions of the world. The history of cesarean section extends well over four centuries. Up until the end of the nineteenth century, the operation was avoided because of its high mortality rate. In 1926, the Munro Kerr low transverse uterine incision was introduced and became the standard method for the next 50 years. Since the 1970's, newer surgical techniques gradually became the most commonly used method today because of intraoperative and postpartum benefits. Concurrently, despite attempts to encourage vaginal birth after previous cesareans, the cesarean delivery rate increased steadily from 5 to 30-32% over the last 10 years, with a parallel increase in costs as well as short- and long-term maternal, neonatal and childhood complications. Attempts to reduce the rate of cesarean deliveries have been largely unsuccessful because of the perceived safety of the operation, short-term postpartum benefits, the legal climate and maternal request in the absence of indications. In the United States, as the cesarean delivery rate has increased, maternal mortality and morbidity have also risen steadily over the last three decades, disproportionately impacting black women as compared to other races. Extensive data on the prenatal diagnosis and management of cesarean-related abnormal placentation have improved outcomes of affected women. Fewer data are available however for the improvement of outcomes of cesarean-related gynecological conditions. In this review, the authors address the challenges and opportunities to research, educate and change health effects associated with cesarean delivery for all women.
Endometrium-free uterine closure technique and abnormal placental implantation in subsequent pregnancies
Background: Abnormal placentation can result in massive hemorrhage, which is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidities and mortality in its management. Over the past 50Â years, the incidence of placenta previa (PP), abnormal implantation of the placenta, and cesarean scar pregnancy have continued to rise. This coincides with the well-documented parallel rise in the rate of cesarean deliveries, the performance of multiple repeat cesarean deliveries and the adoption of newer uterine closure techniques. However, no studies have examined the role of uterine closure techniques in abnormal placentation in women with a history of a prior cesarean delivery. Objective: To assess the practicality of one specific uterine closure technique at cesarean delivery and to evaluate the relationship between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent development of abnormal implantation of the placenta, as well as neonatal and other perioperative outcomes after receiving an endometrium-free uterine closure technique. Methods: This retrospective observational study considered cesarean deliveries (nâ€‰=â€‰727) and subsequent vaginal births after cesarean delivery (nâ€‰=â€‰109) among total deliveries (nâ€‰=â€‰4496) performed in private practice at NYU Langone Health from 1985 to 2015. All cesarean deliveries were performed using the endometrium-free uterine closure technique. The primary outcome was the incidence of abnormal implantation of the placenta in subsequent pregnancies. The secondary outcomes were neonatal and maternal complications, specifically postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit concentration losses. The association between independent variables and outcomes were evaluated using mixed-effect regression models. Results: In contrast to published data, independent of the number of repeat cesarean deliveries, the presence of 26 (3.1%) PPs and of 366 (43.8%) anterior placentas, there were no patients with abnormal implantation of the placenta in a cesarean scar, neither prenatally nor at delivery. Maternal hemorrhage, postoperative and neonatal complications did not reach clinical significance. The statistical analysis revealed that, when compared with women who had fewer repeat cesarean deliveries using endometrium-free uterine closure technique, those with the most had a lesser risk of forming PP and less blood loss, as measured by both hematocrit and hemoglobin evaluation. Conclusion: In this retrospective cohort study, the exclusion of the endometrium during the endometrium-free uterine closure technique was associated with fewer placental abnormalities in subsequent pregnancies and reduced life-threatening maternal morbidity for future cesarean deliveries.
A Pilot Study on Fetal Heart Rate Extraction from Wearable Abdominal Inertial Sensors
Three-dimensional sonographic virtual cystoscopy for diagnosis of cervical cerclage erosion into the bladder
Pathology and human immunodeficiency virus expression in placentas of seropositive women
The pathology of term placentas from seropositive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and seronegative women was investigated by routine histologic, immunocytochemical, and in situ hybridization techniques. Placentas were evaluated for evidence of villitis, chorioamnionitis, and funisitis. Membranes, trophoblast, and decidua were also examined by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal HIV p24 antibody. Twenty placentas were evaluated by combined immunochemical and in situ hybridization techniques, using a 35S-labeled RNA probe complementary to the 3' long terminal repeat and envelope region of HIV-1. HIV-seropositive placentas did not show significant villitis; however, the incidence of chorioamnionitis increased (P less than .01). HIV antigens and nucleic acids were identified in the trophoblast of 10% of the placentas that also showed chorionitis. Term HIV-positive placentas may show histologic changes that may or may not be directly related to the virus. Analysis of tissues from earlier gestational placentas may prove more informative in clarifying the mechanism of maternal-fetal HIV transmission
PATHOLOGY AND HIV EXPRESSION IN TERM PLACENTAS FROM SEROPOSITIVE WOMEN [Meeting Abstract]
Pregnancy post-Stevens-Johnson syndrome: case report and review of the literature [Case Report]
A pregnancy complicated by vaginal stenosis six years after diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome is described. The pathologic changes in the vagina have not previously been reported. The basic pathology of severe mucosal erythema multiforme was present, as well as ectasia of the superficial capillaries and small venules. The effect of the vaginal scars on the mode of delivery is discussed
Postnatal overestimation of gestational age in preterm infants
In a study involving 25 preterm infants, obstetric clinical age (standard gestational age) was determined by history, physical examination, and ultrasonographic evaluation. Postnatally, these infants were then evaluated using the Dubowitz Scoring System (DSS) for gestational age assessment. The DSS, as administered by us, significantly overestimated gestational age compared with the standard gestational age (mean +/- 1 SD: 34.2 +/- 2.9 vs 32.5 +/- 3.9 weeks, respectively) in preterm infants. To illustrate, the gestational ages of 13 newborns (52%) in the total study group were each overestimated by more than two weeks. This percentage increased to 75% among the 16 infants whose gestational ages were less than 34 weeks (by standard gestational age). When the standard gestational age was underestimated by the DSS, this difference never exceeded two weeks. These findings suggest that the present system of postnatal assessment of gestational age in preterm infants needs further investigation.