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Management of Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis with Intracapsular Tonsillectomy [Case Report]

Ezeh, Uche C; Kahn, Philip J; April, Max M
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to present 2 children clinically diagnosed with periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome and treated with intracapsular tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy (ITA). METHODS:We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2 children who were referred for an otolaryngology consultation between 2019 and 2022 for surgical treatment of PFAPA syndrome. Both patients had symptoms strongly suggestive of PFAPA and were at risk for total tonsillectomy (TT) complications. ITA was performed using a microdebrider. Both patients were followed up postoperatively to assess for symptomatic resolution and complications. RESULTS:Two children exhibited recurrent febrile episodes prior to ITA. The procedure was efficacious in both patients, with neither experiencing postoperative complications or recurring PFAPA symptoms for over 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study reported on the use of ITA as a surgical treatment option for PFAPA. We showed that ITA eliminated febrile attacks and was safely performed without postoperative complications in 2 pediatric patients after 1-year follow-up. Future studies involving larger cohorts of PFAPA patients and lengthier follow-ups will need to be conducted to further evaluate ITA as a surgical option. Laryngoscope, 2023.
PMID: 37597172
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5619232

Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma in adolescence: A case series

Ezeh, Uche C.; Tesema, Naomi; Hasnie, Sukaina; Taufique, Zahrah; Ward, Nicholas; April, Max M.
Introduction: Pediatric-type follicular lymphoma (PTFL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma that primarily affects the head and neck, accounting for approximately 1.5"“2% of childhood lymphomas. Distinguishing between follicular lymphoma and PTFL is critical due to their distinct clinical characteristics, which influence prognosis and treatment. Case presentation: Two patients, a 14-year-old male (Case 1) and a 17-year-old male (Case 2), presented to the pediatric otolaryngology clinic with complaints of an isolated neck and parotid masses, respectively. In Case 1, physical examination revealed a 5 cm upward-growing neck mass without accompanying B symptoms or discomfort. CT scan, needle biopsy, and MRI with contrast confirmed the presence of the mass, which was subsequently surgically excised. In Case 2, the patient had an enlarging left-sided parotid mass, along with night sweats, fatigue, and arthralgias. Ultrasound and contrast-enhanced MRI confirmed a well-defined solid vascular mass within the left parotid gland, which was subsequently surgically excised. Pathological examination confirmed PTFL in both cases, leading to a positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan for further evaluation and staging. Conclusion: This case series underscores the importance of pediatric surgeons to consider PTFL in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses, as it can be effectively cured through surgical excision.
ISSN: 2213-5766
CID: 5614582

A New Approach for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Infantile Subglottic Hemangioma in the Era of Propranolol Use: A Case Series

Ezeh, Uche C; Ben-Dov, Tom; Taufique, Zahrah M; Gaffey, Megan M; Blei, Francine; April, Max M
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To report our institutional experience in diagnosing and surveilling patients with infantile subglottic hemangioma (SGH) using in-office flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) with video technology, without requiring operative endoscopy in the era of propranolol use. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective case series was conducted on 4 children diagnosed with SGH between 2016 and 2022 at our institution. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Awake FFL with video technology provided adequate visualization of SGH lesions for diagnosis, without any complications. Serial examinations of the airway were performed in the outpatient setting and each SGH gradually regressed, with marked improvement in respiratory symptoms within 48 hours of oral propranolol initiation. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Our findings showed that in select patients, FFL with video technology can successfully identify SGH lesions without general anesthesia exposure. FFL may be used as a low-risk screening tool for propranolol therapy initiation in some patients, but operative endoscopy should remain the gold standard procedure for others. By utilizing FFL in this manner, it is possible to diagnose SGH lesions and start propranolol therapy without exposing all patients to the risks of operative endoscopy.
PMID: 37551026
ISSN: 1943-572x
CID: 5619052

Mal de Débarquement Syndrome in Children: A Case Series [Case Report]

Ramesh, Sruthi; Ben-Dov, Tom; April, Max M; Cho, Catherine
Currently, mal de débarquement syndrome (MdDS) has been reported only among adults. This case series describes three pediatric MdDS patients. MdDS presentation in children is similar to that of adults, although frequency of comorbid conditions is greater. Diagnostic delays are common and likely due to under recognition of MdDS among children.
PMID: 37088179
ISSN: 1097-6833
CID: 5464872

Synchronous disease onset and flares in siblings with PFAPA [Case Report]

Dammeyer, Kristen L; Schneider, Amanda; April, Max M; Kahn, Philip J
BACKGROUND:Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) is a clinical syndrome of unclear etiology. PFAPA has generally been considered a non-hereditary fever syndrome; however, this has been called into question with recent reports of family clustering. Few reports have been published describing siblings with PFAPA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of siblings with near simultaneous onset of disease followed by synchronous disease flares. CASE PRESENTATION/METHODS:We describe the case of near simultaneous onset of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis in siblings followed by synchronous disease flares of clear frequency and nearly identical character. Flares were characterized predominantly by fever, aphthous ulceration, cervical lymphadenitis, and the absence of infection. The fever episodes demonstrated a robust response to glucocorticoids and recurred in the same staggered manner every four weeks, with complete absence of symptoms and normal growth and development between episodes. Nine months after onset, the older sibling, a 5-year-old female, underwent tonsillectomy resulting in dramatic resolution of episodes. At the same time, her 2-year-old sister experienced resolution of her fever episodes, though she did not undergo tonsillectomy herself. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This is an unusual case of simultaneous onset PFAPA followed by synchronous disease flares. PFAPA is an uncommon clinical syndrome, and it is rarely diagnosed in siblings. The etiology of PFAPA remains unclear. Though the disease is classically considered sporadic, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that PFAPA may be heritable.
PMID: 36199113
ISSN: 1546-0096
CID: 5351632

Off-Label Use of Ciprofloxacin/Dexamethasone Drops in the Pediatric Upper Airway: Case Presentation and Review of Adverse Effects

Ben-Dov, Tom; Yang, Jackie; April, Max M
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:This report describes a new observation of hyperglycemia in a child with Type 1 diabetes after off-label use of otic ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone drops in the nasal passage and reviews previous reports of adverse endocrine effects from intranasal corticosteroids in pediatric patients. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We describe the clinical case and conducted a literature review of MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:A 9-month-old female with a history of Type 1 diabetes who underwent unilateral choanal atresia repair was started on 1 week of ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% otic drops twice a day for choanal obstruction with granulation tissue. While the patient's airway patency improved, average daily blood glucose increases by 40 to 50 points were noted on the patient's continuous glucose monitor. The hyperglycemia resolved within 2 days after switching to mometasone furoate 0.05% spray. We also review 21 pediatric otolaryngology cases of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome associated with on- and off-label use of topical steroid suspensions in the airway. Patients ranged from 3 months to 16 years in age and used doses of 50 μg/day to 2 mg/day. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:This is the first reported pediatric case of increased blood glucose levels associated with intranasal steroid suspensions, to the best of our knowledge. Counseling families on precise dose administration and potential endocrine disturbances is critical when prescribing these medications for off-label use in infants and small children, particularly among patients with underlying endocrine disorders such as diabetes.
PMID: 35703381
ISSN: 1943-572x
CID: 5282652

Association between superior labial frenum and maxillary midline diastema - a systematic review

Tadros, Sandra; Ben-Dov, Tom; Catháin, Éadaoin Ó; Anglin, Carlita; April, Max M
BACKGROUND:Pediatric otolaryngologists have seen an increased focus on upper lip frenum as a possible culprit for feeding difficulties and the development of maxillary midline diastema (MMD). This increase may be encouraged by parents' exposure to medical advice over the internet about breastfeeding and potential long-term aesthetic concerns for their children. Subsequently, there has been increased pressure on pediatric otolaryngologists to perform superior labial frenectomies. There has been a reported 10-fold increase in frenectomies since the year 2000. However, there is no consensus within the literature regarding the benefit of superior labial frenectomy in preventing midline diastema. OBJECTIVE:To provide physicians and parents with the most updated information by systematically reviewing the available literature for the association between superior labial frenum and midline diastema. METHODS:A literature search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Dental and Oral Sciences Source (DOSS). Using the Covidence platform, a systematic review was conducted. The initial 314 articles identified underwent systematic review and 11 studies were included in the final review. RESULTS/DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Available data, primarily from the dental literature, showed that two subtypes of frenum: papillary and papillary penetrating frenum, are associated with maxillary midline diastema. Superior labial frenectomy should be delayed until permanent lateral incisors have erupted, as this can spontaneously close the physiological MMD. Current literature recommends against frenectomy before addressing the diastema with orthodontics, which helps to prevent diastema relapse. It is also imperative to rule out other odontogenic and oral cavity causes of diastema, such as thumb sucking, dental agenesis, and other causes. Online information may not always be fully representative and should be interpreted in the full context of the patient's medical history before referral for surgical intervention.
PMID: 35248905
ISSN: 1872-8464
CID: 5176902

Yield of preoperative findings in pediatric airway foreign bodies - A meta-analysis

Zoizner-Agar, Gil; Merchant, Sabah; Wang, Binhuan; April, Max M
IMPORTANCE/OBJECTIVE:Foreign body (FB) aspiration into the airway is a significant cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality, yet the clinical presentation is diverse and dynamic. There are conflicting recommendations which pre-procedural findings support performing a bronchoscopy, the gold standard for diagnosis and removal of FBs, however a procedure that entails general anesthesia and possible risks. OBJECTIVE:Decision whether to proceed to a bronchoscopy may be challenging. Our goal was to enhance decision-making by analyzing the diagnostic values of the different pre-procedural findings in this setting. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:A comprehensive search was performed in PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases to find studies from the last 19 years that reported pre-procedural history, physical examination and radiological findings in patients who had bronchoscopies. STUDY SELECTION/METHODS:Studies were included of pediatric populations if they contained bronchoscopy results (positive and negative for foreign body) with a breakdown according to pre-intervention findings. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS/METHODS:Titles and abstracts retrieved from our search were screened. Thereafter, full-texts were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion if the aforementioned criteria were met. PRISMA guidelines for systematic review and meta-analyses were followed. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S)/UNASSIGNED:Cumulative weighted prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of each pre-procedural finding were calculated, as well as for the "classic triad" (history of an acute event, wheezing, and unilateral decreased breath sounds). Calculation for other combinations of findings, or optimally, constructing a weighted score based on all the findings for each specific patient were not possible to perform, as the specific data breakdown is rarely reported. RESULTS:Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria, totaling 5606 patients who underwent bronchoscopies. All studies but one were single center based and all except one were retrospective. No single finding has both positive and negative predictive values over 50%. The "classic triad" has 90% specificity, however only 35% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS:The data is very heterogeneous with regard to pre-procedural findings and how best to guide treatment according to them. This meta-analysis provides cumulative weighted metrics for each finding, to optimize decision-making for the individual patient. Future reporting of data should be enhanced, so that combinations of findings for a specific patient can be used to optimize management. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:4.
PMID: 33068947
ISSN: 1872-8464
CID: 4640942

Proton pump inhibitor administration in neonates and infants. Lack of consensus - An ASPO survey

Zoizner-Agar, Gil; Rotsides, Janine M; Shao, Qianhui; Rickert, Scott; Ward, Robert; Greifer, Melanie; April, Max
OBJECTIVE:Laryngopharyngeal and Gastroesophageal reflux (LPR and GER) are distinct clinical entities that present with a range of non-specific symptoms. The exact prevalence in the pediatric population is unknown. While there has been an increase in the use of PPIs, lack of clear guidelines, conflicting evidence regarding efficacy and safety concerns with long-term use require physicians to use their own anecdotal experience and clinical judgement when treating patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate practice patterns among pediatric otolaryngologists regarding the use of proton-pump inhibitors for reflux-related conditions. METHODS:A survey was submitted to American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) members to determine practice patterns regarding use of PPIs for reflux-related conditions in the newborn and infant population. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test was performed. RESULTS:37% of respondents would not prescribe PO PPIs in neonates, with 50% not prescribing IV PPIs. 60% would prescribe a PPI as second or third-line treatment for infants (10 weeks to 1-year). Only 10% would prescribe as first-line in this age group. 48% would prescribe PPIs once daily and 19% as BID. No significant practice differences exist based on years of experience, number of relevant patients seen, and setting of practice. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There was no agreement regarding dosage, frequency and duration of PPI treatment for reflux disease in neonates and infants. There was also no correlation with experience or practice setting. This emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach and consensus statement to guide management of GER and LPR in this population.
PMID: 32679431
ISSN: 1872-8464
CID: 4528672

Scoping review: Awareness of neurotoxicity from anesthesia in children in otolaryngology literature

Earley, Marisa A; Pham, Liem T; April, Max M
OBJECTIVE:Review otolaryngology literature for awareness of neurotoxicity from general anesthesia in children. Recently, there has been increasing focus in anesthesia literature on the long-term effects of general anesthesia on neurodevelopment. Multiple animal models have demonstrated evidence of neurotoxicity from both inhalational and intravenous anesthetics. Cohort studies also have revealed modestly increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed to a single episode of general anesthesia prior to 3 to 4 years of age, with stronger evidence for multiple exposures in this age range. Otolaryngologists may subject children to general anesthesia via procedures or tests, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and auditory brainstem response. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science Review. METHODS:A scoping review using the above databases was performed limited to January 2005 through December 2015. Articles were screened and reviewed based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS:Initial search generated 3,909 articles. After 72 full text articles were reviewed, only seven articles mentioned neurotoxicity as a risk of general anesthesia in pediatric patients. CONCLUSION:Despite the high volume of pediatric otolaryngologic procedures performed annually, there remains limited awareness in our literature discussing neurotoxicity as an outcome. Prospective data from anesthesia literature is still pending; therefore, specific recommendations cannot be made at this time. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the concerns and work toward defining elective procedures, combining surgical procedures with other procedures or imaging, and reassessing the timing and frequency of various interventions under general anesthesia in young children. Laryngoscope, 127:1930-1937, 2017.
PMID: 28224632
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 4587502