A Scoping Review of the Evidence About the Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) Program
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) is a nurse-led education and consultation program designed to help health care organizations improve the quality of care for older adults. To conduct a scoping review of the evidence associated with the NICHE program to (a) understand how it influences patient outcomes through specialized care of the older adult and (b) provide an overview of implementation of the NICHE program across organizations as well as its impact on nursing professionals and the work environment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Six databases were searched to identify NICHE-related articles between January 1992 and April 2019. After critical appraisal, 43 articles were included. RESULTS:Four thematic categories were identified including specialized older adult care, geriatric resource nurse (GRN) model, work environment, and NICHE program adoption and refinement. Specialized older adult care, a key feature of NICHE programs, resulted in improved quality of care, patient safety, lower complications, and decreased length of stay. The GRN model emphasizes specialized geriatric care education and consultation. Improvements in the geriatric nurse work environment as measured by perceptions of the practice environment, quality of care, and aging-sensitive care delivery have been reported. NICHE program adoption and refinement focuses on the methods used to improve care, implementation and adoption of the NICHE program, and measuring its impact. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS/UNASSIGNED:The evidence about the NICHE program in caring for older adults is promising but more studies examining patient outcomes and the impact on health care professionals are needed.
Home health care services to persons with dementia and language preference
Despite the rapid increase in the number of persons with dementia (PWD) receiving home health care (HHC), little is known of HHC services patterns to PWD of varied backgrounds, including language preference other than English. Analyzing data of 12,043 PWD from an urban home health agency, we found on average PWD received 2.48 skilled visits or 1.88-hour skilled care and 5.81 aide visits or 24.13-hour aide care weekly. Approximately 63% of the skilled visits were from nurses. More non-English preferred PWD received aide visits, compared to English preferred PWD (44% vs. 36%). The type and intensity of HHC services were associated with language preference; when stratified by insurance, non-English preference was still significantly associated with more HHC aide care. Our study indicated that HHC services (both type and amount) varied by language preference and insurance type as an indicator of access disparities was a significant contributor to the observed differences.
How language barriers influence provider workload for home health care professionals: A secondary analysis of interview data
BACKGROUND:Increasingly, patients with limited English proficiency are accessing home health care services in the United States. Few studies have examined how language barriers influence provider role implementation or workload in the home health care setting. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To explore home health care professionals' perspectives about how workload changes from managing language barriers influence quality and safety in home health care. DESIGN/METHODS:A qualitative secondary data analysis using a summative content analysis approach was used to analyze existing semi-structured interview data. SETTING/METHODS:A large urban home health care agency located on the East Coast of the United States. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Thirty five home health care providers [31 registered nurses, 3 physical therapists, 1 occupational therapist]. RESULTS:A total of 142 discrete incidents emerged from the analysis. Overall, home health care providers experienced distinct shifts in how they implemented their roles that added to their workload and time spent with Limited English Proficiency patients and family members. Providers were concerned about interpretation accuracy and perceived it as potentially posing risks to patient safety. Changes in work patterns, therefore, sought to maximize patient safety. CONCLUSIONS:Home health care providers decision-making about how they adapt practice when faced with a language barrier is a sequence of actions based on awareness of the patient's language preference and if they spoke another language. Subsequent choices showed proactive behaviors to manage increased workload shaped by their perceived risk of the threats posed by the quality of interpreter services. Future research should develop quantitative models examining differences in workload when caring for limited English proficiency versus English speaking patients as well as the relationship between visit length and patient outcomes to determine optimal quality models.
Assessing geriatric capacity building needs in public hospitals in Mexico
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To conduct a needs assessment of public hospitals in Mexico to determine workforce specific capacity building needs in theÂ care of older people. BACKGROUND:The older population in Mexico is growing rapidly. The healthcare system and workforce may not be prepared to handle the needs of older people, especially those with chronic illnesses who are also disadvantaged socioeconomically. Determining workforce and system needs is important to strategically develop capacity. METHODS:A needs assessment using a pragmatic qualitative approach structured this study. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with healthcare professionals at five public hospitals in Mexico. Directed content analysis techniques analysed the data. RESULTS:Ninety-two healthcare professionals participated in the study. Three themes emerged, including geriatric service delivery, social changes and human resources for health. Participants reported a lack of gerontology knowledge and related clinical skills deficits to provide care for hospitalised elders and expressed emotional distress related to the lack of resources in their institutions. All healthcare professionals expressed strong concern at the social toll the ageing population had on families. The support of government organisations emerged as a facilitator for adoption of geriatric care principles. CONCLUSIONS:This qualitative study uncovered important data to inform the implementation of quality improvement and capacity building models for older people care in Mexico. There appears to be strong potential for a culturally appropriate translation of high-income country older people care models within the Mexican healthcare context. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE/CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggests there is a need to increase geriatric capacity building among helathcare professionals in Mexico. This will be an important step in improving care for hospitalised older people.
Provider Perspectives of Medication Complexity in Home Health Care: A Qualitative Secondary Data Analysis
A primary service provided by home care is medication management. Issues with medication management at home place older adults at high risk for hospital admission, readmission, and adverse events. This study sought to understand medication management challenges from the home care provider perspective. A qualitative secondary data analysis approach was used to analyze program evaluation interview data from an interprofessional educational intervention study designed to decrease medication complexity in older urban adults receiving home care. Directed and summative content analysis approaches were used to analyze data from 90 clinician and student participants. Medication safety issues along with provider-provider communication problems were central themes with medication complexity. Fragmented care coordination contributed to medication management complexity. Patient-, provider-, and system-level factors influencing medication complexity and management were identified as contributing to both communication and coordination challenges.
Detecting Disparities in Medication Management Among Limited English Proficient and English Proficient Home Health Patients
According to the U.S. census Bureau, close to 20% of the U.S. population speaks a language other than English at home. Home health care (HHC) patients who speak English less than very well or have limited English proficiency (LEP) are at an increased risk for medication mismanagement and serious health consequences. The purpose of this study was to examine if there were differences in medication management between English-speaking patients and patients with LEP receiving HHC services. Data for this cross-sectional observation study were collected from 2010 to 2014. Medication management was measured by two items in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services"“mandated Outcomes Assessment Information Set (OASIS). All patients in the database who were taking medications and had a valid admission and discharge assessment from HHC were included in the analysis. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) with a marginal structural model was used to address potential imbalances in observed patient characteristics when estimating the effect of having LEP or being an English-speaking HHC patient on changes in medication management over the course of a HHC episode. Estimates from marginal structural model with inverse probability weighting indicate that being LEP was associated with less improvement in medication management and increased likelihood of getting worse over the course of a HHC episode. This study is one of the first to demonstrate that patients with LEP experience disparities in medication management when compared to English-speaking patients in HHC.
The meaning of "capacity building" for the nurse workforce in sub-Saharan Africa: An integrative review
BACKGROUND:"Capacity building" is an international development strategy which receives billions of dollars of investment annually and is utilized by major development agencies globally. However, there is a lack of consensus around what "capacity building", or even "capacity" itself, means. Nurses are the frequent target of capacity building programming in sub-Saharan Africa as they provide the majority of healthcare in that region. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study explored how "capacity" was conceptualized and operationalized by capacity building practitioners working in sub-Saharan Africa to develop its nursing workforce, and to assess Hilderband and Grindle's (1996) "Dimensions of Capacity" model was for fit with "capacity's" definition in the field. DESIGN/METHODS:An integrative review of the literature using systematic search criteria. DATA SOURCES SEARCHED INCLUDED/UNASSIGNED:PubMed, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus, the Excerpt Medica Database, and Web of Science. REVIEW METHODS/METHODS:This review utilized conventional content analysis to assess how capacity building practitioners working in sub-Saharan Africa utilize the term "capacity" in the nursing context. Content analysis was conducted separately for how capacity building practitioners described "capacity" versus how their programs operationalized it. Identified themes were then assessed for fit with Hilderband and Grindle's (1996) "Dimensions of Capacity" model. RESULTS:Analysis showed primary themes for conceptualization of capacity building of nurses by practitioners included: human resources for health, particularly pre- and post- nursing licensure training, and human (nursing) resource retention. Other themes included: management, health expenditure, and physical resources. There are several commonly used metrics for human resources for health, and a few for health expenditures, but none for management or physical resources. Overlapping themes of operationalization include: number of healthcare workers, post-licensure training, and physical resources. The Hilderband and Grindle (1996) model was a strong fit with how capacity is defined by practitioners working on nursing workforce issues in sub-Saharan Africa. If overall significant differences between conceptualization and operationalization emerged, as the reader I want to know what these differences were. CONCLUSIONS:This review indicates there is significant informal consensus on the definition of "capacity" and that the Hilderbrand and Grindle (1996) framework is a good representation of that consensus. This framework could be utilized by capacity building practitioners and researchers as those groups plan, execute, and evaluate nursing capacity building programming.
Healthcare professionals' perceptions of neglect of older people in Mexico: A qualitative secondary analysis
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe healthcare professionals' perceptions of neglect of older people in Mexico. BACKGROUND: Mistreatment of older people, particularly neglect, has emerged as a significant public health concern worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to examine neglect of older people in low- and middle-income countries. Most research has focused on estimating the prevalence of neglect in older populations with little emphasis on the perceptions of healthcare professionals and their role in addressing neglect of older people. DESIGN: Qualitative secondary analysis. METHODS: The parent study consisted of nine focus groups conducted with healthcare professionals at five public hospitals in Mexico. The purpose of the parent study was to perform a needs assessment to determine the feasibility of adapting the Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders programme to Mexico. A qualitative secondary analysis with directed content analysis approach was used to extract data related to neglect of older people. RESULTS: A total of 89 participants representing healthcare professionals from several disciplines were interviewed. Three themes emerged: (i) The main point is not here; (ii) We feel hopeless; and (iii) We need preparation. Participants reported distress and hopelessness related to neglect of older people. Lack of community-based resources was noted as contributing to neglect. Increased education regarding care of older people for both caregivers and healthcare professionals and greater interdisciplinary collaboration were identified as potential solutions to combat neglect. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based services and resource allocation need to be re-evaluated to improve the care of older Mexicans. Interdisciplinary models of care should be developed to address concerns related to neglect of older people. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Neglect negatively impacts healthcare professionals' ability to adequately care for older patients. There is a need to invest in community-based services and models of care to address these concerns.
A multi-language qualitative study of limited English proficiency patient experiences in the United States
Objective: The purpose of this study was to understand the limited English proficiency patient experience with health care services in an urban setting in the United States. Methods: Through a narrative analysis approach, 71 individuals who spoke either Spanish, Russian, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean shared their experiences through semi-structured interviews between 2016 and 2018. Analyses used monolingual and multilingual open coding approaches to generate themes. Results: Six themes illustrated patient experiences and identified sources of structural inequities perpetuating language barriers at the point of care. An important thread throughout all interviews was the sense that the language barrier with clinicians posed a threat to their safety when receiving healthcare, citing an acute awareness of additional risk for harm they might experience. Participants also consistently identified factors they felt would improve their sense of security that were specific to clinician interactions. Differences in experiences were specific to culture and heritage. Conclusions: The findings highlight the ongoing challenges spoken language barriers pose across multiple points of care in the United States' health care system. Innovation: The multi-language nature of this study and its methodological insights are innovative as most studies have focused on clinicians or patient experiences in a single language.
Making the invisible visible: The importance of applying a lens of Intersectionality for researching Internationally Educated Nurses