The adverse events of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: what are they? Do we know? [Editorial]
Scope of resident ophthalmology consultation service and patient follow-up rates at a level 1 trauma center in Brooklyn, New York
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the most common reasons for urgent ophthalmology consultations in both the emergency room and inpatient settings at a large public hospital served by a busy ophthalmology residency program, and to track patient follow-up rates. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients evaluated by the ophthalmology consultation service at Kings County Hospital Center from June 2003 to October 2005 using a retrospective hospital-based study design. We categorized emergency room patients and inpatients into traumatic and nontraumatic subgroups, and looked at diagnoses and patient demographics, as well as follow-up patterns for emergency room consultations. RESULTS: In total, 743 patients were evaluated; 436 (59%) were emergency room patients and 307 (41%) were inpatients. Consultation for traumatic eye injury was provided for 399 patients (54%), accounting for 284 (65%) of the emergency room consults and 115 (37.5%) of the inpatient consults. The most common reason for inpatient consultation was to rule out ocular manifestations of systemic disease (57 patients, 29.7%), while the most common final diagnosis for trauma inpatient consultation was orbital wall fracture (59 patients, 51.3%). In total, 262 patients (60%) in the emergency room consultation group returned for follow-up care; 162 (57%) of the trauma patients followed up and 100 (66%) of the nontrauma patients followed up. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the eye conditions and follow-up rates evaluated by the ophthalmology service at Kings County Hospital Center. By evaluating the follow-up patterns of these patients, we may be able to alter patient counseling to increase patient compliance.
Gout Keratitis: A Case of Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis Secondary to Gout With a Review of the Literature
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report a case of peripheral ulcerative keratitis secondary to gout. METHODS:A 41-year-old man with a history of severe gout disease presented with pain and redness of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 2 areas of peripheral corneal thinning with overlying epithelial defects. Adjacent to these areas, reflective crystals were identified in the corneal stroma. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography demonstrated stromal corneal deposits. RESULTS:Systemic workup was negative aside from an elevated serum uric acid level. The patient was administered oral prednisone, allopurinol, and colchicine. At his 2-month follow-up visit, the patient was asymptomatic and his corneal thinning had significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS:Gout is the most common type of inflammatory arthritis in adults with rising incidence and prevalence. Ocular findings in gout are common, but patients are usually asymptomatic. Monosodium urate crystal deposition has been reported to occur in various parts of the eye, with and without ocular inflammation. Crystal deposition in the cornea is extremely rare and may be a cause of peripheral ulcerative keratitis.
Pachydermoperiostosis Presenting With Vision Loss Secondary to Severe Phlyctenular Keratoconjunctivitis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report a case of severe phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with pachydermoperiostosis (PDP). METHODS:A 29-year-old Hispanic man presented with a 1-year history of vision loss in the right eye and redness, photophobia, and pain in both eyes. Associated symptoms included enlargement of his hands and feet for 3 years, acne, and joint pain. Examination was notable for severe meibomian gland dysfunction, corneal and limbal phlyctenules in both eyes, and central stromal scarring of the right cornea. He had cystic acne of the face and a coarse, wrinkled forehead and scalp. Examination of his hands and feet revealed clubbing of the digits. RESULTS:The patient had an extensive laboratory workup that was significant for elevated erythrocyte sediment rate and C-reactive protein. X-ray of his hands and feet revealed diffuse periosteal hyperostosis with diffuse bone expansion. The patient was diagnosed with PDP with severe meibomian gland dysfunction, phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, and corneal scarring. His pain and photophobia resolved with medical management of the phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis but decreased vision in the right eye persisted because of neovascularization and scarring of the cornea. CONCLUSIONS:We report a rare case of phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis associated with PDP. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PDP to initially present with vision loss.
Anterior Chamber and Lens
[S.l.] : Springer, 2021
Eyelid retraction discomfort with cotton-tipped applicator, unimanual and speculum intravitreal injection techniques: Eyelid retraction technique randomized comparison trial (Eyelid RETRACT)
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:The aim of this study was to test the discomfort experienced during intravitreal injections with eyelid retraction between an eyelid speculum, cotton-tipped applicator (CTA), and unimanual eyelid retraction techniques. Methods/UNASSIGNED:In total, 99 patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab were enrolled into this prospective study. Participants were randomized to one of the three methods, given subconjunctival 2% lidocaine and then injected in the superior temporal quadrant. Immediately after the procedure, each patient was given a visual analog scale (VAS) to rate their discomfort. Results/UNASSIGNED:The mean pain scores for eyelid retraction with unimanual, CTA, and speculum groups were 0.788 (standard deviation [SD] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.448-1.128), 0.945 (SD 1.28, 95% CI 0.600-1.291), and 1.561 (SD 1.28, 95% CI 1.210-1.912), respectively. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed a significant difference between the groups (P = 0.006). Post hoc analysis also revealed a difference in mean pain scores between the speculum and both the CTA and the unimanual methods. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Our study shows that the unimanual and CTA methods for eyelid retraction are significantly less painful for patients compared to the speculum method. Patient comfort is of the utmost importance as intravitreal injections are performed millions of times a year with most patients requiring multiple injections.
Predictors of Manual Dexterity in Simulation-Based Cataract Surgery
A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:To report a case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease. Observations/UNASSIGNED:A 37-year old African American female with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a recent history of treated genital herpes, presented with an ulcerative lesion of the left upper and lower eyelids, and severe ocular inflammation with symblepharon. Initially, eyelid biopsy revealed findings consistent with IgG4-related disease, and the patient was treated with high dose oral prednisone. After one week of therapy, there was no improvement in the patient's symptoms, and she subsequently developed a corneal epithelial defect which progressed to chronic ulceration. Repeat biopsy and corneal cultures revealed herpes simplex virus type 2. The patient was treated with high dose acyclovir, and the lid lesion improved. The conjunctival inflammation and corneal epithelial defect resolved but symblepharon restricting her eye movement remained. She also developed corneal vascularization and opacification causing severe vision loss. Conclusions and importance/UNASSIGNED:Chronic hypertrophic herpes simplex virus infection is a rare condition reported in patients with HIV. While there have been few reports of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eyelid, this is the first reported case of hypertrophic HSV affecting the eye, resulting in severe vision loss.
Trypan blue as a surgical adjunct in pediatric cataract surgery
PURPOSE: To study the effect of trypan blue on lens capsule elasticity and ease of completing a continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) in a sheep lens model and to subsequently observe the effects of trypan blue in the surgical setting of 3 pediatric patients. SETTING: State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Twenty-four lenses were excised from fresh sheep globes. Twelve lenses were immersed in trypan blue for 2.5 minutes, and 12 lenses were immersed in a balanced salt solution for 2.5 minutes. Ease of completion of CCC was graded, and intralenticular pressure was quantified. A pediatric cataract surgeon used trypan blue to stain the lens capsules of 3 children during cataract surgery. The surgeon noted the effects of trypan blue on capsule elasticity and on the ease of completion of the CCC. RESULTS: Lenses immersed in trypan blue had a mean score of 2.58 in ease of completion of capsulorhexis compared with the control group (1.5) (P = .031). Capsulorhexis was successfully completed in 91.7% of trypan blue cases compared with 58.3% of controls. Immersion in trypan blue decreased the intralenticular pressure by a mean of 4.5 mm Hg (P = .025). Successful capsulorhexis was completed in the 3 pediatric cases. CONCLUSION: Trypan blue improved the success rate of CCC completion in the sheep lens by decreasing lens capsule elasticity. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.
Spontaneous subperiosteal hematoma precipitated by anxiety attack [Case Report]
A 60-year-old woman presented with diplopia and left periorbital edema and pressure, which developed during an anxiety attack the previous day. Examination revealed left inferotemporal globe dystopia, periorbital edema, ecchymosis, and limitation in supraduction. Orbital MRI confirmed the diagnosis of a superior subperiosteal orbital hematoma. The patient's signs and symptoms rapidly resolved with administration of oral corticosteroids. The patient remains asymptomatic with complete resolution of orbital signs at 3-month follow-up. Subperiosteal orbital hematoma (SOH) is a rare condition in which blood accumulates between the bony orbit and separated periosteum, and is often due to blunt head trauma. Non-traumatic SOH (NTSOH) is exceedingly rare and usually associated with known coagulopathies or tendency to bleed. However, few cases of spontaneous NTSOH have been reported without any such predisposition and are thought to be caused by sudden elevations in intrathoracic and intracranial venous pressure such as vomiting, coughing, SCUBA diving, weight lifting and labor. We herein describe the presentation, radiography and outcome of a unique case of spontaneous NTSOH following an anxiety attack.