Chicago Classification update (version 4.0): Technical review on diagnostic criteria for achalasia
The recommended diagnostic criteria for achalasia have been recently updated by Chicago Classification version 4.0 (CCv4.0), the widely accepted classification scheme for esophageal motility disorders using metrics from high-resolution manometry (HRM). CCv4.0 continued upon prior versions by subtyping achalasia into type I, type II, and type III on HRM. The achalasia subgroup of the CCv4.0 Working Group developed both conclusive and inconclusive statements for the HRM diagnoses of achalasia subtypes. Conclusive achalasia on HRM is defined as an abnormal median integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) in the primary position of wet swallows along with 100% failed peristalsis, with type I achalasia having 100% failed peristalsis without panesophageal pressurization (PEP), type II achalasia with PEP in at least 20% of swallows, and type III achalasia having at least 20% of swallows premature with no appreciable peristalsis. An inconclusive HRM diagnosis of achalasia can arise when there is an integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) that is borderline or at the upper limit of normal in at least one position, there is an abnormal IRP in both positions but evidence of peristalsis with PEP or premature swallows, or there is peristalsis in the secondary position after apparent achalasia in the primary position. In patients with dysphagia and an inconclusive HRM diagnosis of achalasia, supportive testing beyond HRM such as a timed barium esophagram (TBE) for functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is recommended. The review recommends a diagnostic algorithm for achalasia, discusses therapeutic options for the disease, and outlines future needs on this topic.
Validation of secondary peristalsis classification using FLIP panometry in 741 subjects undergoing manometry
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to systematically evaluate a classification scheme of secondary peristalsis using functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry through comparison with primary peristalsis on high-resolution manometry (HRM). METHODS:706 adult patients that completed FLIP and HRM for primary esophageal motility evaluation and 35 asymptomatic volunteers ("controls") were included. Secondary peristalsis, that is, contractile responses (CRs), was classified on FLIP panometry by the presence and pattern of contractility as normal (NCR), borderline (BCR), impaired/disordered (IDCR), absent (ACR), or spastic-reactive (SRCR). Primary peristalsis on HRM was assessed according to the Chicago Classification. RESULTS:All 35 of the controls had antegrade contractions on FLIP panometry with either NCR (89%) or BCR (11%). The average percentages of normal swallows on HRM varied across contractile response patterns from 84% in NCR, 68% in BCR, 39% in IDCR, to 11% in ACR, as did the percentage of failed swallows on HRM: 4% in NCR, 12% in BCR, 36% in IDCR, and 79% in ACR. SRCR on FLIP panometry was observed in 18/57 (32%) patients with type III achalasia, 4/15 (27%) with distal esophageal spasm, and 7/15 (47%) with hypercontractile esophagus on HRM. CONCLUSIONS:The FLIP panometry contractile response patterns reflect a pathophysiologic transition from normal to abnormal esophageal peristaltic function with shared features with primary peristaltic function/dysfunction on HRM. Thus, these patterns of the contractile response to distension can facilitate the evaluation of esophageal motility using FLIP panometry.
Frequency and burden of gastrointestinal symptoms in familial dysautonomia
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN-3) that is clinically characterized by impaired pain and temperature perception and abnormal autonomic function. Patients with FD have gastrointestinal dysmotility and report a range of gastrointestinal symptoms that have yet to be systematically evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with FD. METHODS:The validated National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) survey questionnaire, together with additional FD-specific questions, were distributed to 202 living patients with genetically confirmed FD who had been identified from the New York University FD Patient Registry or, when relevant, to their respective caretaker. As a comparison group, we used a general US adult population for whom PROMIS scores were available (Nâ€‰=â€‰71,812). RESULTS:Of the 202 questionnaires distributed, 77 (38%) were returned, of which 53% were completed by the patient. Median age of the respondents was 25Â years, and 44% were male. Gastrostomy tube was the sole nutrition route for 25% of the patients, while 53% were reliant on the gastrostomy tube only for liquid intake. The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly higher in each of the eight domains of PROMIS in patients with FD than in the controls. Gastrointestinal symptoms as measured by raw scores on the PROMIS scale were significantly less severe in the FD patient group than in the control population in all domains with the exception of the abdominal pain domain. The surveys completed by caregivers reported the same burden of symptoms as those completed only by patients. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Gastrointestinal symptoms affect nearly all patients with FD. Gastrointestinal symptoms are more prevalent in adult patients with FD than in the average US adult population but are less severe in the former.
Response to Richter and Vaezi [Comment]
Esophageal motility disorders on high-resolution manometry: Chicago classification version 4.0Â©
Chicago Classification v4.0 (CCv4.0) is the updated classification scheme for esophageal motility disorders using metrics from high-resolution manometry (HRM). Fifty-two diverse international experts separated into seven working subgroups utilized formal validated methodologies over two-years to develop CCv4.0. Key updates in CCv.4.0 consist of a more rigorous and expansive HRM protocol that incorporates supine and upright test positions as well as provocative testing, a refined definition of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction (EGJOO), more stringent diagnostic criteria for ineffective esophageal motility and description of baseline EGJ metrics. Further, the CCv4.0 sought to define motility disorder diagnoses as conclusive and inconclusive based on associated symptoms, and findings on provocative testing as well as supportive testing with barium esophagram with tablet and/or functional lumen imaging probe. These changes attempt to minimize ambiguity in prior iterations of Chicago Classification and provide more standardized and rigorous criteria for patterns of disorders of peristalsis and obstruction at the EGJ.
[S.l.] : Springer, 2021
Building an integrated multidisciplinary swallowing disorder clinic: considerations, challenges, and opportunities
Dysphagia is a complex condition with numerous causes, symptoms, and treatments. As such, patients with dysphagia commonly require a multidisciplinary approach to their evaluation and treatment. Integrated multidisciplinary clinics provide an optimal format for a collaborative approach to patient care. In this manuscript, we will discuss considerations for teams looking to build a multidisciplinary dysphagia clinic, including what professionals are typically involved, what patients benefit most from this approach, what tests are most appropriate for which symptoms, financial issues, and traversing interpersonal challenges.
Esophageal physiology-an overview of esophageal disorders from a pathophysiological point of view
The esophagus serves the principal purpose of transporting food from the pharynx into the stomach. A complex interplay between nerves and muscle fibers ensures that swallowing takes place as a finely coordinated event. Esophageal function can be tested by a variety of methods, endoscopy, manometry, and reflux monitoring being some of the most important. Regarding pathophysiology, motor disorders, such as achalasia, often cause dysphagia and/or chest pain. Functional esophageal disorders are a heterogeneous group with hypersensitivity as a dominant pathophysiological factor. Gastroesophageal reflux disease often causes symptoms, such as heartburn and regurgitation, and a spectrum of disease, ranging from minimal mucosal damage visible only in the microscope to esophageal ulcers and strictures in the most severe cases. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an immune-mediated condition that can result in significant dysphagia and associated luminal narrowing. In the following, we will provide an overview of the most common esophageal disorders from a combined pathophysiological and clinical view.
Use of the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe in Clinical Esophagology
The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) measures luminal dimensions using impedance planimetry, performed most often during sedated upper endoscopy. Mechanical properties of the esophageal wall and opening dynamics of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) can be objectively evaluated in esophageal motor disorders, eosinophilic esophagitis, esophageal strictures, during esophageal surgery and in postsurgical symptomatic states. Distensibility index, the ratio of EGJ cross sectional area to intraballoon pressure, is the most useful FLIP metric. Secondary peristalsis from balloon distension can be displayed topographically as repetitive anterograde or retrograde contractile activity in the esophageal body, similar to high-resolution manometry. Real-time interpretation and postprocessing of FLIP metadata can complement the identification of esophageal outflow obstruction and achalasia, especially when findings are inconclusive from alternate esophageal tests in symptomatic patients. FLIP can complement the diagnosis of achalasia when manometry and barium studies are inconclusive or negative in patients with typical symptoms. FLIP can direct adequacy of disruption of the EGJ in achalasia when used during and immediately after myotomy and pneumatic dilation. Lumen diameter measured using FLIP in eosinophilic esophagitis and in complex strictures can potentially guide management. An abbreviated modification of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to determine the quality of available evidence and recommendations regarding FLIP utilization. FLIP metrics that are diagnostic or suggestive of an abnormal motor pattern and metrics that define normal esophageal physiology were developed by consensus and are described in this review.
The Napoleon: A Pilot Feasibility Study of a Small Endoscopic Ruler for Accurate Polyp Measurement [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Multi-society recommendations state, "Given the importance of polyp size for informing surveillance intervals, documentation of a polyp > 10 mm within a report should be accompanied by an endoscopic photo of the polyp with comparison to an open snare or open biopsy forceps".1 We evaluate the feasibility of the Napoleon, an endoscopically-deployed small ruler to more accurately measure and document the size of colon polyps.
METHOD(S): The Micro-Tech Endoscopic Gauge (Non-FDA approved) named Napoleon, a catheter with a 15 mm ruler calibrated in 1 mm intervals with demarcations every 5 MM, was advanced through the biopsy channel of a colonoscope and positioned adjacent to a polyp to accurately measure polyp size (Image 1). Polyps sizes were first assessed visually and then measured using the Napoleon. Patients included were 50 to 85 years of age and undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy. Napoleon placement, extension/retraction, and photograph acquisition were evaluated on a 1-s10 scale (1 = Easy, 10 = Difficult).
RESULT(S): 23 patients were evaluated by 6 physicians. A total of 36 polyps were found. Each score represents the average of several polyps if more than one polyp was identified per patient (Table 1). The most polyps found in any patient was 3. Each polyp size was placed into 1 of 3 categories (Table 2): 1-5 mm (Diminutive), 6-9 mm (Small) and $ 10 mm (Large). 30 of the 36 total polyps (83%) were diminutive. 3 polyps were downgraded into the next smaller size category after measurement with the Napoleon - specifically, 1 polyp (33%) dropped from small to diminutive size and 2 polyps (67%) dropped from large to small size.
CONCLUSION(S): Prior studies on polyp size have shown that visual assessment is inaccurate.2 This study demonstrates the ease and feasibility of the Napoleon as an endoscopic measuring device. The majority of polyps found were diminutive (1-5 mm) and explains why there is such a minute difference noted in the weighted mean polyp size (0.28 mm). Of the 3 polyps that were visually assessed to be $ 10 mm, 2 of those polyps (67%) were measured to be < 10 mm, changing recommended surveillance from 3 years to 7-10 years.1 Further studies utilizing an endoscopic measuring tool such as the Napoleon are needed to evaluate the effect of accurate polyp measurement on our clinical management, training, and colonoscopy surveillance intervals