Femoral nerve neuromonitoring for lateral lumbar interbody fusion surgery
BACKGROUND CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:The transpsoas lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) technique is an effective alternative to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to the lumbar spine; however, nerve injuries are the most reported postoperative complication. Commonly used strategies to avoid nerve injury (eg, limiting retraction duration) have not been effective in detecting or preventing femoral nerve injuries. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of emerging intraoperative femoral nerve monitoring techniques and the importance of employing prompt surgical countermeasures when degraded femoral nerve function is detected. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING/METHODS:We present the results from a retrospective analysis of a multi-center study conducted over the course of 3 years. PATIENT SAMPLE/METHODS:One hundred and seventy-two lateral lumbar interbody fusion procedures were reviewed. OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Intraoperative femoral nerve monitoring data was correlated to immediate postoperative neurologic examinations. METHODS:Femoral nerve evoked potentials (FNEP) including saphenous nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (snSSEP) and motor evoked potentials with quadriceps recordings were used to detect evidence of degraded femoral nerve function during the time of surgical retraction. RESULTS:In 89% (n=153) of the surgeries, there were no surgeon alerts as the FNEP response amplitudes remained relatively unchanged throughout the surgery (negative group). The positive group included 11% of the cases (n=19) where the surgeon was alerted to a deterioration of the FNEP amplitudes during surgical retraction. Prompt surgical countermeasures to an FNEP alert included loosening, adjusting, or removing surgical retraction, and/or requesting an increase in blood pressure from the anesthesiologist. All the cases where prompt surgical countermeasures were employed resulted in recovery of the degraded FNEP amplitudes and no postoperative femoral nerve injuries. In two cases, the surgeons were given verbal alerts of degraded FNEPs but did not employ prompt surgical countermeasures. In both cases, the degraded FNEP amplitudes did not recover by the time of surgical closure, and both patients exhibited postoperative signs of sensorimotor femoral nerve injury including anterior thigh numbness and weakened knee extension. CONCLUSIONS:Multimodal femoral nerve monitoring can provide surgeons with a timely alert to hyperacute femoral nerve conduction failure, enabling prompt surgical countermeasures to be employed that can mitigate or avoid femoral nerve injury. Our data also suggests that the common strategy of limiting retraction duration may not be effective in preventing iatrogenic femoral nerve injuries.
A review of cervical spine alignment in the normal and degenerative spine
With recent advancements in surgical spine technology and techniques, the importance of regional and global spine alignment has become an important factor in surgical planning. Our review aims to consolidate the current literature on cervical and global alignment parameters and its relationship to cervical symptomatology, quality of life (QOL), requirements for surgery, potential surgical complications and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes.
Cost-Effectiveness in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery
The complexity and heterogeneity of adult spinal deformity (ASD) creates significant difficulties in performing high-quality, complete economic analyses. For the same reasons, however, such studies are immensely valuable to clinicians and health policy experts. There has been a paradigm shift towards value-based healthcare provision and as such, there is an increasing focus on demonstrating not just the value ASD surgery, but the provision of care at large. Health-related quality of life measures are an important tool for assessing value of an intervention and its effect on a quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Currently, there are no definitive criteria in regard to assigning the appropriate value to a QALY. A general accepted threshold discussed in literature is $100 000 per QALY gained. However, this figure may be variable across populations, and may not necessarily be applicable in today's economy, or in all healthcare economies. Fundamentally, an effective treatment method may be associated with a high upfront cost, however, if durable, will be cost-effective over time.The emphasis on carotid endarterectomy and CUA in the field of adult spine deformity is relatively recent; therefore, there is a limited amount of data on cost-effectiveness analyses. Continued efforts with emphasis on value-based outcomes are needed with long-term follow-up studies.
An Analysis of Implant Retention and Antibiotic Suppression in Instrumented Spine Infections: A Preliminary Data Set of 67 Patients
Background/UNASSIGNED:It is unclear whether patients can be taken off suppressive antibiotics with infected retained instrumentation. This study aimed to retrospectively analyze the perioperative course and antibiotic regimen that led to the clinical intervention of patients with infected spinal instrumentation. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Consecutive adult patients with spine instrumentation who suffered surgical site infections (SSI) requiring debridement were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped into 4 cohorts based on their clinical intervention: removal of instrumentation, reinstrumentation, retention of instrumentation with continued antibiotic suppression, and retention of instrumentation with no antibiotic suppression. Patient factors, infection factors, debridement, and antibiosis were compared. Results/UNASSIGNED:< .001). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:None of the patients with retained instrumentation without suppression had recurrence of infections after long-term follow-up. Lifelong antibiotic suppression may not be required with SSI that present early after early aggressive debridement. Patients with infections detected later are difficult to treat without removal of their original instrumentation. Clinical Relevance/UNASSIGNED:This study presents the outcomes of surgical and antibiotic factors in patients with infected spinal instrumentation.
The rise and fall of the craniocervical junction relative to the hard palate: a lifetime story
OBJECT/OBJECTIVE:Endoscopic approaches to the anterior craniocervical junction are increasing in frequency. Choice of oral versus endoscopic endonasal approach to the odontoid often depends on the relationship of the C1-2 complex to the hard palate. However, it is not known how this relevant anatomy changes with age. We hypothesize that there is a dynamic relationship of C-2 and the hard palate, which changes with age, and potentially affects the choice of surgical approach. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship of C-2 relative to the hard palate with respect to age and sex. METHODS:Emergency department billing and trauma records from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed for patients of all ages who underwent cervical or maxillofacial CT as part of a trauma evaluation for closed head injury. Patients who had a CT scan that allowed adequate visualization of the hard palate, opisthion, and upper cervical spine (C-1 and C-2) were included. Patients who had cervical or displaced facial/skull base fractures, a history of rheumatoid arthritis, or craniofacial anomalies were excluded. The distance from McGregor's palatooccipital line to the midpoint of the inferior endplate of C-2 (McL-C2) was measured on midsagittal CT scans. Patients were grouped by decile of age and by sex. A 1-way ANOVA was performed with each respective grouping. RESULTS:Ultimately, 483 patients (29% female) were included. The mean age was 46 Â± 24 years. The majority of patients studied were in the 2nd through 8th decades of life (85%). Significant variation was found between McL-C2 and decile of age (p < 0.001) and sex (p < 0.001). The mean McL-C2 was 27 mm in the 1st decade of life compared with the population mean of 37 mm. The mean McL-C2 was also noted to be smaller in females (mean difference 4.8 mm, p < 0.0001). Both decile of age (p = 0.0009) and sex (p < 0.0001) were independently correlated with McL-C2 on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS:The relationship of C-2 and the hard palate significantly varies with respect to age and sex, descending relative to the hard palate a full centimeter on average in adulthood. These findings may have relevance in determining optimal surgical approaches for addressing pathology involving the anterior craniocervical junction.
Adverse effect of femoral nerve blockade on quadriceps strength and function after ACL reconstruction
The purpose of this study was to determine if quadriceps strength and functional outcomes were similar at 6 months following anterior cruciate ligament [ACL] reconstruction in patients receiving a continuous 48-hour femoral nerve blockade for postoperative analgesia (FNB group) versus patients with no FNB (control group). A retrospective cohort was designed including athletes who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft between 2005 and 2010 at our institution with identical rehabilitation protocols. The FNB group included 96 patients with an average age of 21 years and the control group included 100 patients with an average age of 20 years. At 6 months following ACL reconstruction, isokinetic strength (slow and fast activation) and functional tests including vertical jump, single hop, triple hop, and return to sport were analyzed with an Î± valueâ€‰<â€‰0.05 as significant. Multivariate regression models were used to compare these outcomes between the FNB and control groups after adjusting for gender and competitive athlete status. At 6 months, fast extension isokinetic strength was inferior in the FNB group (78 vs. 85%; pâ€‰<â€‰0.01). After adjusting for gender and competitive athlete status, fast (pâ€‰=â€‰0.002) and slow extension strength (pâ€‰=â€‰0.01), vertical jump (pâ€‰=â€‰0.03) and single jump (pâ€‰=â€‰0.02) were also inferior in the FNB group. There were no significant differences in full return to sport between the two groups (86% at 7.5 months in the FNB group vs. 93% at 7.3 months in the control group). In this retrospective comparative study, the hypothesis that patients treated with continuous FNB for postoperative analgesia following ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft will have inferior knee extension (quadriceps) strength and function at 6 months follow-up was affirmed. However, no differences were observed in return to sport, bringing into question whether these statistical differences translate into meaningful clinical consequences after ACL reconstruction. The level of evidence was level III, retrospective case-control series.