High-Contrast, Low-Cost, 3-D Visualization of Skin Cancer Using Ultra-High-Resolution Millimeter-Wave Imaging
The goal of this paper is to develop a new skin imaging modality which addresses the current clinical need for a non-invasive imaging tool that images the skin over its depth with high resolutions while offering large histopathological-like contrasts between malignant and normal tissues. We demonstrate that by taking advantage of the intrinsic millimeter-wave dielectric contrasts between normal and malignant skin tissues, ultra-high-resolution millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) can achieve 3-D, high-contrast images of the skin. In this paper, an imaging system with a record-wide bandwidth of 98 GHz is developed using the synthetic ultra-wideband millimeter-wave imaging approach, a new ultra-high-resolution imaging technique recently developed by the authors. The 21 non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) specimens are imaged and compared with histopathology for evaluation. A programmable measurement platform is designed to automatically scan the tissues across a rectangular aperture plane. Furthermore, a novel frequency-domain imaging algorithm is developed to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the cancerous tissue. The high correlations achieved between MMWI images and histological images allow for rapid and accurate delineation of NMSC tissues. The millimeter-wave reflectivity values are also found to be statistically significant higher for cancerous areas with respect to normal areas. Since MMWI does not require tissue processing or staining, it can be performed promptly, enabling diagnosis of tumors at an early stage as well as simplify the tumor removal surgery to a single-layer excision procedure.
Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Dielectric Characteristics of Freshly Excised Normal and Malignant Human Skin Tissues
Millimeter waves have recently gained attention for the evaluation of skin lesions and the detection of skin tumors. Such evaluations heavily rely on the dielectric contrasts existing between normal and malignant skin tissues at millimeter-wave frequencies. However, current studies on the dielectric properties of normal and diseased skin tissues at these frequencies are limited and inconsistent. In this study, a comprehensive dielectric spectroscopy study is conducted for the first time to characterize the ultra-wideband dielectric properties of freshly excised normal and malignant skin tissues obtained from skin cancer patients having undergone Mohs micrographic surgeries at Hackensack University Medical Center. Measurements are conducted using a precision slim-form open-ended coaxial probe in conjunction with a millimeter-wave vector network analyzer over the frequency range of 0.5-50 GHz. A one-pole Cole-Cole model is fitted to the complex permittivity dataset of each sample. Statistically considerable contrasts are observed between the dielectric properties of malignant and normal skin tissues over the ultra-wideband millimeter-wave frequency range considered.
Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis: A Diagnosis to Consider in a Patient With Cyclical Cutaneous Eruptions
Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a cyclical cutaneous reaction to progesterone, with symptoms that typically begin 3-10 days before the onset of menstrual flow and end 1-2 days into menses. The symptoms vary in severity from barely visible to anaphylaxis, but most often include an eczematous eruption, erythema multiforme, urticaria, folliculitis, and angioedema. This is a rare disorder with only a handful of documented cases. The pathogenesis of this condition remains unknown and significant variations in the presentation and severity of symptoms complicates its diagnosis. Treatment seeks to inhibit progesterone secretion through suppression of ovulation, but it may be unsuccessful. We present a case of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis that eluded diagnosis for several years, and subsequently the patient was completely controlled with oral contraceptive pills. <p><em>J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(10):1040-1042.</em></p>.
Idiopathic Flushing with Dysesthesia: Treatment with the 585nm Pulsed Dye Laser
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of the 585nm pulsed dye laser for the treatment of idiopathic flushing with dysesthesia. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of patients treated with a 585nm pulsed dye laser with fluences ranging from 3.5 to 7.5J/cm(2) (purpura threshold fluences), a pulse duration of 450musec, and a spot size of 5 or 10mm. SETTING: The Ronald 0. Perelman Department of Dermatology at New York University Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Ten adult subjects who presented with flushing with dysesthesia. MEASUREMENTS: PARTICIPANTS subjectively evaluated the decrease in dysesthesia and the number of flushing episodes. The objective response to treatment was evaluated by a single physician using pre- and postoperative photographs. The severity of postoperative erythema was compared with baseline using an ordinal scale ranging from zero (resolution of erythema) to four (76-100% of baseline erythema). RESULTS: The mean number of treatments received by the subjects was seven. The mean fluence was 6.66J/cm(2). Subjectively, 100 percent of subjects reported a decrease in dysethesia and the number of flushing episodes. OBJECTIVEly, subjects demonstrated at least a 62.5-percent reduction in erythema. CONCLUSION: Laser surgery provided subjective relief of dysesthesia and decreased the number of flushing episodes with a greater than 62-percent objective reduction in the severity of erythema. The 585nm pulsed dye laser is a safe, efficacious treatment for the signs and symptoms of idiopathic flushing with dysesthesia.
Necrobiosis lipoidica [Case Report]
A 58-year-old woman presented with a seven-year history of an eruption on her lower legs that was associated with edema, weeping, pruritus, and a burning sensation. Past medical history included Hashimoto thyroiditis, which was diagnosed eight years prior to presentation. Histopathologic examination was consistent with necrobiosis lipoidica (NL). To our knowledge, NL that is associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis has been described in only one prior report. NL is a chronic, cutaneous, granulomatous condition with degenerative connective-tissue changes of unknown etiology. Our patient responded well to a potent topical glucocorticoid and topical tretinoin. Although our patient did not have diabetes mellitus, 75 percent of patients with NL have diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis or will subsequently develop diabetes mellitus. This association with diabetes mellitus mandates screening for glucose intolerance in all patients with NL.
Teens and tanning knowledge and attitudes
Background: The incidence of skin cancer, including melanoma, continues to increase. Teenagers are especially vulnerable, as are young females. The incidence of melanoma among young women in their twenties and thirties has begun to increase again. These young people are also the population that frequent tanning salons. Objective: This voluntary, anonymous, New York University, Institutional Review Board-approved survey was given to students in grades 9 through 12 to ascertain their understanding of what causes skin cancers and the dangers of excessive sun exposure and tanning salons. Methods and materials: An Institutional Review Board-approved, 22-question survey was administered anonymously to more than 450 students with 368 returned responses. The survey was administered to students in grades 9 through 12 at two high schools in New York and New Jersey. Results: More than 80 percent of students view movie stars as tan and almost 60 percent see 'tan' people as better looking. In addition, more than 90 percent believe that a tan does not prevent further damage to the skin (as opposed to the customary belief that a 'base' tan can protect against extreme sun exposures, such as when on a tropical vacation). There appears to be a disconnect between knowledge and sun tanning behaviors. Most teenagers still believe that tans are attractive and teenage girls continue to use tanning salons and tan naturally. We need to address the connection between sun tanning in youth and skin cancers years later. Legislation to limit access of tanning salons to teenagers needs to be enacted
A novel model for precise, accurate measurements of wound healing in mice [Meeting Abstract]
Microvascular based tissue engineering using a novel perfusion bioreactor [Meeting Abstract]
Skin graft vascularization: regulated regression and replacement of endothelial cells [Meeting Abstract]
CXCR4/SDF-1 mediates selective endothelial progenitor cell recruitment to ischemic endothelium [Meeting Abstract]