Invasive Management of Acute Myocardial Infarctions During the Initial Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic
BACKGROUND:The initial wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in an influx of patients with acute viral illness and profound changes in healthcare delivery in New York City. The impact of this pandemic on the presentation and invasive management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) is not well described. METHODS:This single-center retrospective study compared patients with MI who underwent invasive coronary angiography at New York University from March-April 2020, during the peak of the first wave of the pandemic, with those presenting in March-April 2019. RESULTS:Only 35 patients with MI underwent angiography during the study period in 2020 vs 109 patients in 2019. No differences in comorbidities or baseline medications were identified. The proportion of patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) was higher in 2020 than in 2019 (48.6% vs 24.8%, respectively; P=.01). Median peak troponin concentration was higher (14.5 ng/mL vs 2.9 ng/mL; P<.01) and left ventricular ejection fraction was lower (43.34% vs 51.1%; P=.02) during the pandemic. Among patients with non-STEMI, time from symptom onset to presentation was delayed in 2020 compared with 2019 (median, 24 hours vs 10 hours; P=.04). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There was a dramatic decrease in the number of patients with MI undergoing coronary angiography during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of those who presented, patients tended to seek care later after symptom onset and had excess myocardial injury. These data indicate a need for improved patient education to ensure timely cardiovascular care during public health emergencies.
Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Determine Underlying Causes of MINOCA in Women
Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in 6-15% of MI and disproportionately affects women. Scientific statements recommend multi-modality imaging in MINOCA to define the underlying cause. We performed coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess mechanisms of MINOCA. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, international, observational study, we enrolled women with a clinical diagnosis of MI. If invasive coronary angiography revealed <50% stenosis in all major arteries, multi-vessel OCT was performed, followed by CMR (cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging and/or T1 mapping). Angiography, OCT, and CMR were evaluated at blinded, independent core laboratories. Culprit lesions identified by OCT were classified as definite or possible. The CMR core laboratory identified ischemia-related and non-ischemic myocardial injury. Imaging results were combined to determine the mechanism of MINOCA, when possible. Results: Among 301 women enrolled at 16 sites, 170 were diagnosed with MINOCA, of whom 145 had adequate OCT image quality for analysis; 116 of these underwent CMR. A definite or possible culprit lesion was identified by OCT in 46.2% (67/145) of participants, most commonly plaque rupture, intra-plaque cavity or layered plaque. CMR was abnormal in 74.1% (86/116) of participants. An ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (infarction or myocardial edema in a coronary territory) was present in 53.4% of participants undergoing CMR (62/116). A non-ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy) was present in 20.7% (24/116). A cause of MINOCA was identified in 84.5% of the women with multi-modality imaging (98/116), higher than with OCT alone (p<0.001) or CMR alone (p=0.001). An ischemic etiology was identified in 63.8% of women with MINOCA (74/116), a non-ischemic etiology was identified in 20.7% (24/116), and no mechanism was identified in 15.5% (18/116). Conclusions: Multi-modality imaging with coronary OCT and CMR identified potential mechanisms in 84.5% of women with a diagnosis of MINOCA, three-quarters of which were ischemic and one-quarter of which were non-ischemic, alternate diagnoses to MI. Identification of the etiology of MINOCA is feasible and has the potential to guide medical therapy for secondary prevention. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02905357.
Differential radiation exposure to interventional cardiologists in the contemporary era [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation is associated with malignancies. Lead garment specifications in the cardiac catheterization laboratory are not currently regulated, potentially resulting in unprotected areas.
Method(s): Interventional cardiology attendings and fellows wore 7 dosimeters, one externally on the thyroid shield and six inside the lead apron: bilateral axilla, chest wall, and pelvis. Radiation protection included a lower table-mounted lead drape, upper ceiling-mounted lead shield, and use of 7.5 frames per second during fluoroscopy. All procedures were performed with operators standing to the right of the patient. The primary endpoint was operator radiation exposure to the left versus right axilla. Radiation exposures in millirem (mrem) per participant over the study period are shown as median [interquartile range] and compared between left- and right-sided measures using paired Wilcoxon tests.
Result(s): Nine participants (66% female) wore dosimeters during 231 cases. Transradial coronary angiography was selected in 81.1% of cases and PCI was performed in 32.1%. A sterile radiation drape placed on the patient abdomen was used in 18.6% of cases. Median dose area product and fluoroscopy time for the participants ranged from 29.0-60.5 Gy cm2 and 6.2-13.5 minutes, respectively. Radiation exposure at the left axilla was higher than the right axilla (5 vs. 0.9 mrem, p=0.018) but did not differ between left or right chest wall and left or right pelvis (Figure).
Conclusion(s): This analysis demonstrates insufficient protection in the left axillary area. The use of additional left axillary protection should be evaluated. (Figure Presented)
Radiation-Induced Left Main Coronary Artery Stenosis in a Patient with Atretic Internal Mammary Arteries [Case Report]
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a known potential complication of thoracic radiation treatment that typically affects the proximal segments of the coronary arteries, requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We present a case of acute coronary syndrome occurring in a 57-year-old man with prior thoracic radiation therapy following resection of a chest wall chondrosarcoma. Coronary angiogram demonstrated significant areas of stenosis in the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and ostial left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. The patient was also found to have atretic bilateral internal mammary arteries as a consequence of his radiation therapy, rendering them unsuitable as grafts. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was thus performed with a successful outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of radiation-induced CAD of the LMCA with atretic internal mammary arteries treated successfully with PCI.
Bivalirudin versus heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous peripheral interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND:Bivalirudin may be an effective alternative anticoagulant to heparin for use in percutaneous peripheral interventions. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin versus heparin as the procedural anticoagulant agent in patients undergoing percutaneous peripheral intervention. METHODS:For this meta-analysis and systematic review, we conducted a search in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane for all the clinical studies in which bivalirudin was compared to heparin as the procedural anticoagulant in percutaneous peripheral interventions. Outcomes studied included all-cause mortality, all-bleeding, major and minor bleeding, and access site complications. RESULTS:Eleven studies were included in the analysis, totaling 20,137 patients. There was a significant difference favoring bivalirudin over heparin for all-cause mortality (risk ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.87), all-bleeding (risk ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.50-0.78), major bleeding (risk ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.96), minor bleeding (risk ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.92), and access site complications (risk ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.84). There was no significant difference in peri-procedural need for blood transfusions (risk ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.57-1.08), myocardial infarction (risk ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.59-1.28), stroke (risk ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-1.01), intracranial bleeding (risk ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.29-2.02), or amputations (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.53-1.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis suggests that bivalirudin use for percutaneous peripheral interventions is associated with lower all-cause mortality, bleeding, and access site complications as compared to heparin. Further large randomized trials are needed to confirm the current results.
Staged Percutaneous Intervention for Concurrent Chronic Total Occlusions in Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a noninfarct-related artery in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction is linked to increased mortality. It remains unclear whether staged revascularization of a noninfarct-related artery CTO in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction translates to improved outcomes. We performed a meta-analysis to compare outcomes between patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction with concurrent CTO who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention of noninfarct-related artery CTO versus those who did not. METHOD AND RESULTS/RESULTS:>25. Six studies (n=1253 patients) were included in the analysis. There was a significant difference in major adverse cardiovascular events (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91), cardiovascular mortality (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.95), and heart failure readmissions (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.89), favoring the patients in the CTO percutaneous coronary intervention group. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for all-cause mortality (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.22-1.00), myocardial infarction (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.41-1.46), repeat revascularization (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.56-2.27), and stroke (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.20-1.33). CONCLUSIONS:In this meta-analysis, CTO percutaneous coronary intervention of the noninfarct-related artery in patients presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was associated with a significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and heart failure readmissions.
Mediastinal Hematoma and Tracheal Compression following Transradial Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Vascular complications from transradial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are rare. We report an unusual case of stridor after PCI due to brachiocephalic artery perforation, pseudoaneurysm formation, and development of a large mediastinal hematoma with tracheal compression. Endovascular repair of the brachiocephalic artery was achieved with covered stent placement at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm. This case highlights the importance of careful guide catheter placement from the right radial approach. Ultimately, rapid diagnosis of vascular perforation, appropriate airway management, and prompt endovascular repair of the injured vessel is critical to the successful management of this life-threatening condition.
First Report of the Resolute Onyx 2.0-mm Zotarolimus-Eluting Stent for the Treatment of Coronary Lesions With Very Small Reference Vessel Diameter
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the safety and efficacy of a dedicated drug-eluting stent for the treatment of coronary lesions with very small reference vessel diameter (RVD). BACKGROUND: Smaller RVD is associated with increased risk for restenosis and target lesion failure (TLF) after stent implantation. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter trial of the Resolute Onyx 2.0-mm zotarolimus-eluting stent. The primary endpoint was 12-month TLF, which was compared with a pre-specified performance goal. Subjects with stable or unstable angina or ischemia, target lesions =27 mm in length, and RVD >/=2.0 and <2.25 mm were eligible for enrollment. A subset of subjects underwent follow-up angiography at 13 months post-procedure. RESULTS: A total of 101 subjects with 104 lesions were enrolled. The mean age was 67.3 +/- 9.6 years, 47% of subjects had diabetes, the mean lesion length was 12.6 +/- 6.3 mm, and the mean RVD was 1.91 +/- 0.26 mm. The rate of TLF at 12 months was 5.0%, fulfilling the pre-specified performance goal of 19% (p < 0.001). The rates of target lesion revascularization and target vessel myocardial infarction were 2.0% and 3.0%, respectively. There were no episodes of stent thrombosis. In-stent late lumen loss was 0.26 +/- 0.48 mm, and the rate of binary restenosis was 12.0%. CONCLUSIONS: In this first report of a drug-eluting stent with a dedicated size to treat lesions with RVD <2.25 mm, the Resolute Onyx 2.0-mm zotarolimus-eluting stent was associated with a low rate of TLF and late lumen loss, without a signal for stent thrombosis. This novel-sized drug-eluting stent appears to be a feasible option for the treatment of coronary lesions in extremely small vessels. (Medtronic Resolute Onyx 2.0 mm Clinical Study; NCT02412501).
Relationship between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and severity of lower extremity peripheral artery disease
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and severity of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified 928 patients referred for peripheral angiography. NLR was assessed from routine pre-procedural hemograms with automated differentials and available in 733 patients. Outcomes of interest were extent of disease on peripheral angiography and target vessel revascularization. Median follow-up was 10.4months. Odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence intervals] was assessed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: There was a significant association between elevated NLR and presence of severe multi-level PAD versus isolated suprapopliteal or isolated infrapopliteal disease (OR 1.11 [1.03-1.19], p=0.007). This association remained significant even after adjustment for age (OR 1.09 [1.01-1.17], p=0.02); age, sex, race, and body mass index (OR 1.08 [1.00-1.16], p=0.046); and age, sex, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and creatinine (OR 1.07 [1.00-1.15], p=0.049). After additional adjustment for clinical presentation, there was a trend towards association between NLR and severe multi-level PAD (OR 1.07 [1.00-1.15], p=0.056), likely limited by sample size. In patients who underwent endovascular intervention (n=523), there was no significant difference in rate of target vessel revascularization across tertiles of NLR (1st tertile 14.8%, 2nd tertile 14.1%, 3rd tertile 20.1%; p=0.32). CONCLUSION: In a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing peripheral angiography with possible endovascular intervention, elevated NLR was independently associated with severe multi-level PAD. Larger studies evaluating the association between this inexpensive biomarker and clinical outcomes are warranted.
Bare Metal Stent, Durable Polymer Drug Eluting Stent, or Biodegradable Polymer Drug Eluting Stent in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus - A Mixed Treatment Comparison Analysis of 63,940 Patient-Years of Follow-up from Randomized Trials [Meeting Abstract]