Methods for home-based self-applied polysomnography: the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
STUDY OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Along with multiple chronic comorbidities, sleep disorders are prevalent in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The goal of this study was to establish methods for assessing sleep quality and breathing-related disorders using self-applied home polysomnography in people with and without HIV. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Self-applied polysomnography was conducted on 960 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) using the Nox A1 recorder to collect data on the frontal electroencephalogram (EEG), bilateral electrooculograms, and a frontalis electromyogram during sleep. Breathing patterns were characterized using respiratory inductance plethysmography bands and pulse oximetry. Continuous recordings of the electrocardiogram were also obtained. All studies were scored centrally for sleep stages and disordered breathing events. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 851), signal quality was rated as good, very good, or excellent in 810 (95.2%). No temporal trends in study quality were noted. Independent correlates of an unsuccessful study included black race, current smoking, and cocaine use. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Home polysomnography was successfully completed in the MACS demonstrating its feasibility in a community cohort. Given the burden of in-lab polysomnography, the methods described herein provide a cost-effective alternative for collecting sleep data in the home.
Referral of adults with obstructive sleep apnea for surgical consultation: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment
INTRODUCTION:This systematic review provides supporting evidence for the accompanying clinical practice guideline on the referral of adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for surgical consultation. METHODS:The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that compared the use of upper airway sleep apnea surgery or bariatric surgery to no treatment as well as studies that reported on patient-important and physiologic outcomes pre- and postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the clinical significance of using surgery to treat obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Finally, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence for making recommendations. RESULTS:The literature search resulted in 274 studies that provided data suitable for statistical analyses. The analyses demonstrated that surgery as a rescue therapy results in a clinically significant reduction in excessive sleepiness, snoring, blood pressure (BP), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), respiratory disturbance index (RDI), and oxygen desaturation index (ODI); an increase in lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) and sleep quality; and an improvement in quality of life in adults with OSA who are intolerant or unaccepting of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The analyses demonstrated that surgery as an adjunctive therapy results in a clinically significant reduction in optimal PAP pressure and improvement in PAP adherence in adults with OSA who are intolerant or unaccepting of PAP due to side effects associated with high pressure requirements. The analyses also demonstrated that surgery as an initial treatment results in a clinically significant reduction in AHI/RDI, sleepiness, snoring, BP, and ODI and an increase in LSAT in adults with OSA and major anatomical obstruction. Analysis of bariatric surgery data showed a clinically significant reduction in BP, AHI/RDI, sleepiness, snoring, optimal PAP level, BMI, and ODI and an increase in LSAT in adults with OSA and obesity. Analyses of very limited evidence suggested that upper airway surgery does not result in a clinically significant increase in risk of serious persistent adverse events and suggested that bariatric surgery may result in a clinically significant risk of iron malabsorption that may be managed with iron supplements. The task force provided a detailed summary of the evidence along with the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use considerations. CITATION:2021;17(12):2507-2531.
Referral of adults with obstructive sleep apnea for surgical consultation: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline
INTRODUCTION:This guideline establishes clinical practice recommendations for referring adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for surgical consultation. METHODS:The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine, otolaryngology, and bariatric surgery to develop recommendations and assign strengths based on a systematic review of the literature and an assessment of the evidence using the GRADE process. The task force evaluated the relevant literature and the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use considerations that support the recommendations. The AASM Board of Directors approved the final recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS:, and persistent inadequate PAP adherence due to pressure-related side effects as part of a patient-oriented discussion of adjunctive or alternative treatment options (CONDITIONAL). (4) We suggest that clinicians recommend PAP as initial therapy for adults with OSA and a major upper airway anatomic abnormality prior to consideration of referral for upper airway surgery (CONDITIONAL). CITATION:2021;17(12):2499-2505.
Sleep is essential to health: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine position statement
CITATION:Sleep is a biological necessity, and insufficient sleep and untreated sleep disorders are detrimental for health, well-being, and public safety. Healthy People 2030 includes several sleep-related objectives with the goal to improve health, productivity, well-being, quality of life, and safety by helping people get enough sleep. In addition to adequate sleep duration, healthy sleep requires good quality, appropriate timing, regularity, and the absence of sleep disorders. It is the position of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) that sleep is essential to health. There is a significant need for greater emphasis on sleep health in education, clinical practice, inpatient and long-term care, public health promotion, and the workplace. More sleep and circadian research is needed to further elucidate the importance of sleep for public health and the contributions of insufficient sleep to health disparities. CITATION:. 2021;17(10):2115-2119.
Postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea
OBJECTIVES:Postprandial hyperglycemia is common in type 2 diabetes even in those with acceptable glycemic control and conveys an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with altered glucose metabolism, data regarding its association with postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes are limited. Thus, the current study sought to characterize the association between OSA and postprandial hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:A cross-sectional study of adults with type 2 diabetes was conducted. Home sleep testing was used to assess OSA severity as determined by the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was performed before and 2-h after breakfast, lunch, and dinner for three days. The association between OSA and glucose levels before and after each meal was examined using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:The study sample consisted of 195 adults with 52% being men. OSA severity, as assessed by ODI quartiles, was associated with higher postprandial glucose values after dinner but not after breakfast or lunch. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for a higher post-dinner glucose level for four ODI quartiles were 1.00 (Reference), 2.16 (0.96, 4.87), 2.23 (1.03, 4.83), and 2.58 (1.18, 5.94). Stratified analyses showed that this association was present in men but not women. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing OSA severity is associated with postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and may contribute to impaired glycemic control. Future studies examining the impact of OSA treatment on glucose metabolism should consider meal-related glycemic excursions as a potential outcome.
Rationale and design of the Hyperglycemic Profiles in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (HYPNOS) trial
The Hyperglycemic Profiles in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (HYPNOS) randomized clinical trial was conducted in adults with type 2 diabetes and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to determine whether treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is associated with improvements in glycemic measures. Participants were randomly assigned to PAP therapy with lifestyle counseling or lifestyle counseling alone. While observational and experimental evidence indicate that intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals in OSA may alter glucose metabolism and worsen glycemic measures, the effect of treating OSA with PAP therapy on these measures in type 2 diabetes is uncertain. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials have yet to be performed to demonstrate whether PAP therapy for OSA in patients with type 2 diabetes can improve glycemic measures. The HYPNOS trial was designed to determine whether PAP therapy for OSA in patients with type 2 diabetes over 3 months leads to improvements in glycemic measures including glycemic variability (standard deviation) based on Dexcom G4 Platinum continuous glucose monitoring. Secondary objectives were to assess the effects of PAP therapy for OSA on measures of: (1) glycemic variability based on Abbott Freestyle Pro Libre continuous glucose monitoring; (2) point-of-care hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); (3) degree of post-prandial hyperglycemia as determined by 7-point self-monitoring of blood glucose; (4) clinic and ambulatory blood pressure; and (5) endothelial function. The HYPNOS trial was designed to address gaps in our understanding of the effects of PAP therapy on glucose metabolism in adults with type 2 diabetes and moderate-to-severe OSA. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02454153.
The Insomnia-Addiction Positive Feedback Loop: Role of the Orexin System
Significant sleep impairments often accompany substance use disorders (SUDs). Sleep disturbances in SUD patients are associated with poor clinical outcomes and treatment adherence, emphasizing the importance of normalizing sleep when treating SUDs. Orexins (hypocretins) are neuropeptides exclusively produced by neurons in the posterior hypothalamus that regulate various behavioral and physiological processes, including sleep-wakefulness and motivated drug taking. Given its dual role in sleep and addiction, the orexin system represents a promising therapeutic target for treating SUDs and their comorbid sleep deficits. Here, we review the literature on the role of the orexin system in sleep and drug addiction and discuss the therapeutic potential of orexin receptor antagonists for SUDs. We argue that orexin receptor antagonists may be effective therapeutics for treating addiction because they target orexin's regulation of sleep (top-down) and motivation (bottom-up) pathways.
Daylight saving time: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine position statement
None/UNASSIGNED:The last several years have seen intense debate about the issue of transitioning between standard and daylight saving time. In the United States, the annual advance to daylight saving time in spring, and fall back to standard time in autumn, is required by law (although some exceptions are allowed under the statute). An abundance of accumulated evidence indicates that the acute transition from standard time to daylight saving time incurs significant public health and safety risks, including increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, mood disorders, and motor vehicle crashes. Although chronic effects of remaining in daylight saving time year-round have not been well studied, daylight saving time is less aligned with human circadian biology-which, due to the impacts of the delayed natural light/dark cycle on human activity, could result in circadian misalignment, which has been associated in some studies with increased cardiovascular disease risk, metabolic syndrome and other health risks. It is, therefore, the position of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine that these seasonal time changes should be abolished in favor of a fixed, national, year-round standard time.
Variability and Misclassification of Sleep Apnea Severity Based on Multi-Night Testing
BACKGROUND:Portable monitoring is a convenient means for diagnosing sleep apnea. However, data on whether one night of monitoring is sufficiently precise for the diagnosis of sleep apnea are limited. RESEARCH QUESTION:The current study sought to determine the variability and misclassification in disease severity over three consecutive nights in a large sample of patients referred for sleep apnea. METHODS:A sample of 10,340 adults referred for sleep apnea testing was assessed. A self-applied type III monitor was used for three consecutive nights. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was determined for each night, and a reference AHI was computed by using data from all 3 nights. Pairwise correlations and the proportion misclassified regarding disease severity were computed for each of the three AHI values against the reference AHI. RESULTS:Strong correlations were observed between the AHI from each of the 3 nights (r = 0.87-0.89). However, substantial within-patient variability in the AHI and significant misclassification in sleep apnea severity were observed based on any 1 night of monitoring. Approximately 93% of the patients with a normal study on the first night and 87% of those with severe sleep apnea on the first night were correctly classified compared with the reference derived from all three nights. However, approximately 20% of the patients with mild and moderate sleep apnea on the first night were misdiagnosed either as not having sleep apnea or as having mild disease, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with mild to moderate sleep apnea, one night of portable testing can lead to misclassification of disease severity given the substantial night-to-night variability in the AHI.
Supporting American Academy of Neurology's new clinical practice guideline on evaluation and management of insomnia in children with autism [Comment]
Rosen CL, Aurora RN, Kapur VK, et al. Supporting American Academy of Neurology’s new clinical practice guideline on evaluation and management of insomnia in children with autism. J Clin Sleep Med. 2020;16(6):989–990.