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Single-Dose of Postoperative Ketamine for Postoperative Pain After Mastectomy: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Doan, Lisa V.; Li, Anna; Brake, Lee; Ok, Deborah; Jee, Hyun Jung; Park, Hyung; Cuevas, Randy; Calvino, Steven; Guth, Amber; Schnabel, Freya; Hiotis, Karen; Axelrod, Deborah; Wang, Jing
Background and Objectives: Perioperative ketamine has been shown to reduce opioid consumption and pain after surgery. Ketamine is most often given as an infusion, but an alternative is single-dose ketamine. Single-dose ketamine at up to 1 mg/kg has been shown to reduce symptoms of depression, and a wide range of dosages has been used for pain in the emergency department. However, limited data exists on the tolerability and efficacy of a single-dose of ketamine at 0.6 mg/kg for pain when administered immediately after surgery. We conducted a pilot study of single-dose ketamine in patients undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction, hypothesizing that a single-dose of ketamine is well tolerated and can relieve postoperative pain and improve mood and recovery. Methods: This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm parallel, single-center study. Thirty adult women undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction for oncologic indication received a single-dose of ketamine (0.6mg/kg) or placebo after surgery in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Patients were followed through postoperative day (POD) 7. The primary outcome was postoperative pain measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain subscale on POD 1 and 2. Secondary outcomes include effects on opioid use, PROMIS fatigue and sleep, mood, Quality of Recovery-15, and the Breast Cancer Pain Questionnaire. Results: Side effects were minor and not significantly different in frequency between groups. The ketamine group reported lower scores on the BPI pain severity subscale, especially at POD 7; however, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between ketamine and placebo groups for the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: A single-dose of ketamine at 0.6mg/kg administered postoperatively in the PACU is well tolerated in women undergoing mastectomy and may confer better pain control up to one week after surgery. Future studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to adequately characterize the effect of postoperative single-dose ketamine on pain control in this population.
ISSN: 1178-7090
CID: 5447712

Changes in Breast Cancer Presentation during COVID-19: Experience in an Urban Academic Center

Diskin, Brian; Pourkey, Nakisa; Schnabel, Freya; Miah, Pabel; DiMaggio, Charles; Axelrod, Deborah; Shapiro, Richard; Guth, Amber A
The COVID-19 pandemic strained healthcare systems worldwide, delaying breast cancer screening and surgery. In 2019, approximately 80% of breast cancers in the U.S. were diagnosed on screening examinations, with 76.4% of eligible Medicare patients undergoing screening at least every two years. Since the start of the pandemic, many women have been reluctant to seek elective screening mammography, even with the lifting of pandemic-related restrictions in access to routine healthcare. We describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer presentation at a tertiary academic medical center greatly impacted by the pandemic.
PMID: 37334101
ISSN: 2090-3170
CID: 5542532

Effectiveness and Toxicity of Re-Irradiation after Breast Conserving Surgery for Recurrent Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Study [Meeting Abstract]

Abeloos, C H; Xiao, J; Oh, C; Barbee, D; Perez, C A; Oratz, R; Schnabel, F R; Axelrod, D; Guth, A; Braunstein, L Z; Khan, A J; Choi, I J; Gerber, N K
Purpose/Objective(s): Breast re-irradiation (reRT) after repeat breast conserving surgery (BCS) has emerged as a viable alternative to mastectomy in women presenting with low risk in-breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). However, there is limited data on optimal patient selection and safety of different fractionation regimens. This multi-institutional study reports safety and efficacy in a large cohort of women with IBTR treated with repeat BCS and reRT. Materials/Methods: Using electronic medical record search tools, we identified all patients who underwent repeat BCS followed by breast reRT from 2015-2021 at 2 institutions. Univariate logistic regression models were used to identify clinical and dosimetric factors associated with development of acute and late toxicities. All statistical tests were two-sided, and the null hypothesis was rejected for p<0.05. Kaplan Meier methodology was used to calculate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LR-RFS).
Result(s): We identified 66 patients with an IBTR treated with repeat BCS. In the initial RT course, 55% received whole breast RT (WBI) with conventional fractionation (<=2 Gy/fraction[fx]), 29% WBI with hypofractionation (2.6-2.7 Gy/fx), 6% partial breast irradiation (PBI) ultrahypofractionation (6-8 Gy/fx) and 11% had unavailable treatment details. There was a median of 11 years between initial breast cancer and IBTR. At time of recurrence, 36% of patients had tumors located in the same quadrant as the initial cancer, 41% had invasive carcinoma with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 41% had invasive carcinoma alone, 18% had DCIS alone, 92% had tumors < 2 cm, 68% had low-intermediate grade tumors and all were clinically node negative. For reRT, 95% received PBI (57.5% 45 Gy/1.5 Gy twice daily; 27% 45 Gy/1.8 Gy daily; 10.5% hypofractionation), and 5% received WBI (45-46.8 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fx), all of whom had received PBI for the initial course. Nine patients (13%) underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and 44 (67%) adjuvant hormone therapy. Median follow-up was 16 months (range 3-60). Twenty-one patients (32%) experienced any acute >= grade 2 events, and 17 (26%) experienced any late >= grade 2 toxicities. One patient experienced grade 3 fibrosis and one patient experienced grade 3 telangiectasia at 36 months. None had grade 4 or higher late adverse events. We found no association between fractionation of reRT or cumulative dose (measured as EQD2) with acute or late toxicity. At 2 years, OS was 100%, DMFS was 91.6%, and LR-RFS was 100%.
Conclusion(s): In this large multi-institutional series of patients with recurrent breast cancer, second breast conservation surgery followed by reRT was effective with no local recurrences and excellent disease control outcomes, and toxicity appears to be acceptable. Longer follow-up and more prospective study are needed to further inform patient selection and establish the efficacy and tolerability of repeat breast conservation therapy in the setting of limited, low-risk recurrence.
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5366332

Long-Term Cancer Recurrence Rates Following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: A 10-year Follow-up Study

Boyd, Carter J; Salibian, Ara A; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Axelrod, Deborah M; Guth, Amber A; Shapiro, Richard L; Schnabel, Freya R; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:Despite the increased utilization of nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM), there is limited data examining long-term cancer recurrence rates in these patients. The objective of this study was to analyze breast cancer recurrence in patients who received therapeutic NSM with a median of 10 years of follow-up. METHODS:All patients undergoing NSM at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed temporally to obtain a median of 10-years of follow up. Patient demographic factors, mastectomy specimen pathology, and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. RESULTS:126 therapeutic NSM were performed on 120 patients. The most frequently observed tumor histology included invasive ductal carcinoma (48.4%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (38.1%). Mean tumor size was 1.62 cm. Multifocal or multicentric disease and lymphovascular invasion were present in 31.0% and 10.3% of NSM specimens, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 84.9% of NSM and 17.8% were positive. The rate of positive frozen subareolar biopsy was 7.3% (n=82) and permanent subareolar pathology was 9.5% (n=126). The most frequently observed pathologic tumor stages was stage I (44.6%) and stage 0 (33.9%). Incidence of recurrent disease was 3.17% per mastectomy and 3.33% per patient. Upon univariate analysis, no demographic, operative, or tumor-specific variables were independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:Overall recurrence rates are low in patients undergoing NSM at a median follow-up of 10-years. Close surveillance should remain a goal for patients and their providers to promptly identify potential recurrence.
PMID: 35943969
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5286852

Lymphatic Pain in Breast Cancer Survivors

Fitzgerald Jones, Katie; Fu, Mei Rosemary; McTernan, Melissa L; Ko, Eunjung; Yazicioglu, Simay; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A; Miaskowski, Christine; Conley, Yvette P; Wood, Lisa J; Wang, Yao
PMID: 35089817
ISSN: 1557-8585
CID: 5154902

Radar reflector guided axillary surgery in node positive breast cancer patients

Feinberg, Joshua A; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber; Maldonado, Leonel; Darvishian, Farbod; Pourkey, Nakisa; Goodgal, Jenny; Schnabel, Freya
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:In patients with non-palpable breast cancer, the availability of wireless localization techniques facilitates removal of the target lesion. One such technique uses a radar reflector for localization (RRL). This study evaluates the feasibility and effectiveness of RRL to guide excision of axillary lymph nodes in patients with node-positive breast cancer. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Our Breast Cancer Database was queried for patients diagnosed with breast cancer, between 5/2017 and 10/2021, who underwent preoperative placement of a radar reflector into a biopsy proven axillary lymph node. Clinicopathologic data were reported using descriptive statistics. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Twenty patients underwent preoperative placement of a radar reflector into the axilla. Intraoperatively, the clip and radar reflector were successfully removed in all patients. Among the 10 patients treated with NAC, 5 patients achieved an axillary pathologic complete response (pCR) and were spared a complete axillary lymph node dissection (cALND). Among the entire cohort, RRL resulted in a 53% reduction in the number of lymph nodes removed. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Wireless localization of axillary lymph nodes is safe and feasible. The technique ensures excision of biopsy proven positive axillary lymph nodes and enables a targeted approach to assessing the axilla, both in the setting of NAC and upfront surgery.
PMID: 36345879
ISSN: 1745-2422
CID: 5357152

Macrophage density is an adverse prognosticator for ipsilateral recurrence in ductal carcinoma in situ

Darvishian, Farbod; Wu, Yinxiang; Ozerdem, Ugur; Chun, Jennifer; Adams, Sylvia; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Shapiro, Richard; Troxel, Andrea B; Schnabel, Freya; Roses, Daniel
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:There is evidence that supports the association of dense tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TILs) with an increased risk of ipsilateral recurrence in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, the association of cellular composition of DCIS immune microenvironment with the histopathologic parameters and outcome is not well understood. METHODS:We queried our institutional database for patients with pure DCIS diagnosed between 2010 and 2019. Immunohistochemical studies for CD8, CD4, CD68, CD163, and FOXP3 were performed and evaluated in the DCIS microenvironment using tissue microarrays. Statistical methods included Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the two-sample t-test or the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test for continuous variables. RESULTS:The analytic sample included 67 patients. Median age was 62 years (range = 53 to 66) and median follow up was 6.7 years (range = 5.3 to 7.8). Thirteen patients had ipsilateral recurrence. Of all the clinicopathologic variables, only the DCIS size and TIL density were significantly associated with recurrence (p = 0.023 and 0.006, respectively). After adjusting for age and TIL density, only high CD68 (>50) and high CD68/CD163 ratio (>0.46) correlated with ipsilateral recurrence (p = 0.026 and 0.013, respectively) and shorter time to recurrence [hazard ratio 4.87 (95% CI: 1.24-19, p = 0.023) and 10.32 (95% CI: 1.34-80, p = 0.025), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:macrophage density and CD68/CD163 ratio also predict a shorter time to recurrence.
PMID: 35489232
ISSN: 1532-3080
CID: 5217782

Gender-affirming Mastectomy with Concurrent Oncologic Mastectomy

Boyd, Carter J; Blasdel, Gaines; Rifkin, William J; Guth, Amber A; Axelrod, Deborah M; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel
Background/UNASSIGNED:Transmasculine individuals may not have undergone gender-affirming mastectomy and retain natal breast tissue. Our center offers simultaneous oncologic mastectomy with gender-affirming reconstruction to patients who are diagnosed with breast cancer. This study is the first reported series of concurrent gender-affirming and oncologic mastectomies. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing gender-affirming mastectomy at a single institution from February 2017 to October 2021 was performed. Patients were included who had breast cancer diagnoses or pathologic lesions preoperatively. Demographic factors, comorbidities, surgical details, and oncologic history were collected. Both plastic surgery and breast surgery were present for the gender-affirming oncologic mastectomies. Results/UNASSIGNED:Five patients were identified who presented for gender-affirming mastectomy in the context of breast pathologies. Average patient age was 50.2 ± 14.8 years, and no patients used testosterone at any time. Two (40%) patients had a prior breast surgery that included a breast reduction in one patient and breast conserving lumpectomies in another. Sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in all patients. Only one patient had a positive sentinel lymph node and was subsequently referred for postoperative radiation and chemotherapy. No oncologic recurrence has been detected with 20.6 and 10.0 months of mean and median follow-up. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:When performed in a multidisciplinary and collaborative setting with breast surgeons and plastic surgeons, oncologic mastectomy can be performed safely while concurrently offering patients an aesthetic gender-affirming reconstructive outcome.
PMID: 35169524
ISSN: 2169-7574
CID: 5175632

A Web- and Mobile-Based Intervention for Women Treated for Breast Cancer to Manage Chronic Pain and Symptoms Related to Lymphedema: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Fu, Mei Rosemary; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A; Scagliola, Joan; Rampertaap, Kavita; El-Shammaa, Nardin; Qiu, Jeanna M; McTernan, Melissa L; Frye, Laura; Park, Christopher S; Yu, Gary; Tilley, Charles; Wang, Yao
BACKGROUND:The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow (TOLF) is a patient-centered, web- and mobile-based mHealth system that delivers safe, easy, and feasible digital therapy of lymphatic exercises and limb mobility exercises. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to evaluate the effectiveness of the web- and mobile-based TOLF system for managing chronic pain and symptoms related to lymphedema. The primary outcome includes pain reduction, and the secondary outcomes focus on symptom relief, limb volume difference measured by infrared perometer, BMI, and quality of life (QOL) related to pain. We hypothesized that participants in the intervention group would have improved pain and symptom experiences, limb volume difference, BMI, and QOL. METHODS:A parallel RCT with a control-experimental, pre- and posttest, and repeated-measures design were used. A total of 120 patients were recruited face-to-face at the point of care during clinical visits. Patients were randomized according to pain in a 1:1 ratio into either the arm precaution (AP) control group to improve limb mobility and arm protection or The-Optimal-Lymph flow (TOLF) intervention group to promote lymph flow and limb mobility. Trial outcomes were evaluated at baseline and at week 12 after the intervention. Descriptive statistics, Fisher exact tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, t test, and generalized linear mixed effects models were performed for data analysis. RESULTS:At the study endpoint of 12 weeks, significantly fewer patients in the TOLF intervention group compared with the AP control group reported chronic pain (45% [27/60] vs 70% [42/60]; odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.90; P=.02). Patients who received the TOLF intervention were significantly more likely to achieve a complete reduction in pain (50% [23/46] vs 22% [11/51]; OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.39-9.76; P=.005) and soreness (43% [21/49] vs 22% [11/51]; OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.03-6.81; P=.03). Significantly lower median severity scores were found in the TOLF group for chronic pain (MedTOLF=0, IQR 0-1 vs MedAP=1, IQR 0-2; P=.02) and general bodily pain (MedTOLF=1, IQR=0-1.5 vs MedAP=1, IQR 1-3; P=.04). Compared with the AP control group, significantly fewer patients in the TOLF group reported arm/hand swelling (P=.04), heaviness (P=.03), redness (P=.03), and limited movement in shoulder (P=.02) and arm (P=.03). No significant differences between the TOLF and AP groups were found in complete reduction of aching (P=.12) and tenderness (P=.65), mean numbers of lymphedema symptom reported (P=.11), ≥5% limb volume differences (P=.48), and BMI (P=.12). CONCLUSIONS:The TOLF intervention had significant benefits for breast cancer survivors to manage chronic pain, soreness, general bodily pain, arm/hand swelling, heaviness, and impaired limb mobility. The intervention resulted in a 13% reduction (from 40% [24/60] to 27% [16/60]) in proportions of patients who took pain medications compared with the AP control group, which had a 5% increase (from 40% [24/60] to 45% [27/60]). A 12% reduction (from 27% [16/60] to 15% [9/60]) in proportions of patients with ≥5% limb volume differences was found in the TOLF intervention, while a 5% increase in the AP control group (from 40% [24/60] to 45% [27/60]) was found. In conclusion, the TOLF intervention can be a better choice for breast cancer survivors to reduce chronic pain and limb volume. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ NCT02462226; INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID)/UNASSIGNED:RR2-10.2196/resprot.5104.
PMID: 35037883
ISSN: 2369-1999
CID: 5131372

Co-occurring Fatigue and Lymphatic Pain Incrementally Aggravate Their Negative Effects on Activities of Daily Living, Emotional Distress, and Overall Health of Breast Cancer Patients

Fu, Mei Rosemary; McTernan, Melissa L; Qiu, Jeanna M; Miaskowski, Christine; Conley, Yvette P; Ko, Eunjung; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber; Somers, Tamara J; Wood, Lisa J; Wang, Yao
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Fatigue and lymphatic pain are the most common and debilitating long-term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment. Fatigue and pain independently have negative effects on quality of life, physical functions, and cancer recurrence-free survival. The interactions between fatigue and pain may aggravate their negative effects. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Examine the effects of co-occurring fatigue and lymphatic pain on activities of daily living (ADLs), emotional distress, and overall health of breast cancer patients. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A cross-sectional and observational design was used to enroll 354 breast cancer patients. Valid and reliable instruments were used to assess fatigue, lymphatic pain, ADLs, emotional distress, and overall health. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models were used for data analysis. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = -25.74, 95% CI = [-34.14 to -17.33]), indicating poor overall health. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Fatigue and lymphatic pain affected 66.4% of breast cancer patients. Findings from this study suggest that co-occurring fatigue and lymphatic pain have negative effects on breast cancer patients' ADLs, emotional distress, and overall health. The synergistic interactions between fatigue and lymphatic pain incrementally aggravated their negative effects on ADLs and emotional distress. Findings of the study highlight the need to evaluate the underlying mechanisms for co-occurring fatigue and lymphatic pain and develop interventions that target both fatigue and lymphatic pain to improve breast cancer patients' the quality of life.
PMID: 35446180
ISSN: 1552-695x
CID: 5206292