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Early Initiation of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy Reduces Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn's Disease Following Ileocecal Resection

Axelrad, Jordan E; Li, Terry; Bachour, Salam P; Nakamura, Takahiro I; Shah, Ravi; Sachs, Michael C; Chang, Shannon; Hudesman, David P; Holubar, Stefan D; Lightner, Amy L; Barnes, Edward L; Cohen, Benjamin L; Rieder, Florian; Esen, Eren; Remzi, Feza; Regueiro, Miguel; Click, Benjamin
BACKGROUND:Postoperative recurrence (POR) of Crohn's disease (CD) is common after surgical resection. We aimed to compare biologic type and timing for preventing POR in adult CD patients after ileocecal resection (ICR). METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of CD patients who underwent an ICR at 2 medical centers. Recurrence was defined by endoscopy (≥ i2b Rutgeerts score) or radiography (active inflammation in neoterminal ileum) and stratified by type and timing of postoperative prophylactic biologic within 12 weeks following an ICR (none, tumor necrosis factor antagonists [anti-TNF], vedolizumab, and ustekinumab). RESULTS:We identified 1037 patients with CD who underwent an ICR. Of 278 (26%) who received postoperative prophylaxis, 80% were placed on an anti-TNF agent (n = 223) followed by ustekinumab (n = 28, 10%) and vedolizumab (n = 27, 10%). Prophylaxis was initiated in 35% within 4 weeks following an ICR and in 65% within 4 to 12 weeks. After adjusting for factors associated with POR, compared with no biologic prophylaxis, the initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93). Prophylaxis after 4 weeks following an ICR or with vedolizumab or ustekinumab was not associated with a reduction in POR compared with those who did not receive prophylaxis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Early initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR. Vedolizumab or ustekinumab, at any time following surgery, was not associated with a reduction in POR, although sample size was limited.
PMID: 35905032
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5276992

Long-Term Outcomes of the Excluded Rectum in Crohn's Disease: A Multicenter International Study

Kassim, Gassan; Yzet, Clara; Nair, Nilendra; Debebe, Anketse; Rendon, Alexa; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Traboulsi, Cindy; Rubin, David T; Maroli, Annalisa; Coppola, Elisabetta; Carvello, Michele M; Ben David, Nadat; De Lucia, Francesca; Sacchi, Matteo; Danese, Silvio; Spinelli, Antonino; Hirdes, Meike M C; Ten Hove, Joren; Oldenburg, Bas; Cholapranee, Aurada; Riter, Maxine; Lukin, Dana; Scherl, Ellen; Eren, Esen; Sultan, Keith S; Axelrad, Jordan; Sachar, David B
BACKGROUND:Many patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require fecal diversion. To understand the long-term outcomes, we performed a multicenter review of the experience with retained excluded rectums. METHODS:We reviewed the medical records of all CD patients between 1990 and 2014 who had undergone diversionary surgery with retention of the excluded rectum for at least 6 months and who had at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. RESULTS:From all the CD patients in the institutions' databases, there were 197 who met all our inclusion criteria. A total of 92 (46.7%) of 197 patients ultimately underwent subsequent proctectomy, while 105 (53.3%) still had retained rectums at time of last follow-up. Among these 105 patients with retained rectums, 50 (47.6%) underwent reanastomosis, while the other 55 (52.4%) retained excluded rectums. Of these 55 patients whose rectums remained excluded, 20 (36.4%) were symptom-free, but the other 35 (63.6%) were symptomatic. Among the 50 patients who had been reconnected, 28 (56%) were symptom-free, while 22(44%) were symptomatic. From our entire cohort of 197 cases, 149 (75.6%) either ultimately lost their rectums or remained symptomatic with retained rectums, while only 28 (14.2%) of 197, and only 4 (5.9%) of 66 with initial perianal disease, were able to achieve reanastomosis without further problems. Four patients developed anorectal dysplasia or cancer. CONCLUSIONS:In this multicenter cohort of patients with CD who had fecal diversion, fewer than 15%, and only 6% with perianal disease, achieved reanastomosis without experiencing disease persistence.
PMID: 35522225
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5216462

Surveillance for Colorectal Neoplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: When to Stop

Axelrad, Jordan E; Cross, Raymond K
Patients with chronic ulcerative and Crohn's colitis are at increased risk for colorectal neoplasia(CRN [dysplasia and cancer]) compared to the general population. Risk factors for CRN include extent of colitis, cumulative inflammatory burden, family history of colorectal cancer, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Best practices to prevent CRN include control of colonic inflammation, high quality surveillance colonoscopy with or without enhanced imaging techniques, resection of visible dysplasia if possible, and colectomy in patients with unresectable dysplasia, invisible multifocal low grade dysplasia, or invisible high grade dysplasia. Cessation of dysplasia surveillance is individualized and should involve shared decision making based on factors including but not limited to chronologic age, frailty, co-morbid conditions, life expectancy, results of prior surveillance exams, and risk factors for CRN.
PMID: 36584365
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5447832

Pathogen-Specific Alterations in the Gut Microbiota Predict Outcomes in Flare of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Complicated by Gastrointestinal Infection

Axelrad, Jordan E; Chen, Ze; Devlin, Joseph; Ruggles, Kelly V; Cadwell, Ken
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Enteric infection with Clostridioides difficile , Escherichia coli subtypes, and norovirus is commonly detected in flares of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We associated the gut microbiome during flare complicated by a gastrointestinal pathogen with outcomes of IBD. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study of 260 patients (92 IBD and 168 non-IBD) with a gastrointestinal polymerase chain reaction panel positive for C. difficile, E. coli , or norovirus, or negative during an episode of diarrhea from 2018 to 2020, and 25 healthy controls. Clinical variables, IBD status, and 2-year outcomes were collected. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, we measured the effect size of the gut microbiome on IBD characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS:There were major differences in the gut microbiome between patients with and without a pathogen and IBD. In IBD, a higher proportion of patients without a pathogen required hospitalization and IBD therapies at flare and within the 2 years after flare, driven by a milder disease course in flares complicated by an E. coli subtype or norovirus. Examining the contribution of clinical covariates, the presence of IBD, and C-reactive protein, C. difficile had a greater relative influence on the gut microbiome compared with the presence of an E. coli subtype or norovirus. In patients with C. difficile or no pathogen, lower microbiome diversity at flare was associated with adverse IBD outcomes over 2 years. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Distinctive pathogen-specific gut microbiomes were associated with subsequent IBD outcomes. These findings may have direct implications for the management of IBD flares complicated by enteric pathogens.
PMID: 36729813
ISSN: 2155-384x
CID: 5426732

Histologic Predictors of Clinical Outcomes and Healthcare Utilization in Patients With Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

Chang, Shannon; Hong, Simon; Hudesman, David; Remzi, Feza; Sun, Katherine; Cao, Wenqing; Tarik Kani, H; Axelrad, Jordan; Sarkar, Suparna A
BACKGROUND:The prognostic significance of histology in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate if histologic variables are predictive of IPAA clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with IPAA undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy at a tertiary care institution. Pouch body biopsies were reviewed by gastrointestinal pathologists, who were blinded to clinical outcomes, for histologic features of acute or chronic inflammation. Charts were reviewed for clinical outcomes including development of acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis, biologic or small molecule initiation, hospitalizations, and surgery. Predictors of outcomes were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic and Cox regression. RESULTS:A total of 167 patients undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy were included. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (odds ratio [OR], 1.67), ulceration and erosion (OR, 2.44), chronic inflammation (OR, 1.97), and crypt distortion (OR, 1.89) were associated with future biologic or small molecule initiation for chronic pouchitis. Loss of goblet cells was associated with development of chronic pouchitis (OR, 4.65). Pyloric gland metaplasia was associated with hospitalizations (OR, 5.24). No histologic variables were predictive of development of acute pouchitis or surgery. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of new IPAA (<1 year), loss of goblet cells was associated with acute pouchitis (OR, 14.86) and chronic pouchitis (OR, 12.56). Pyloric gland metaplasia was again associated with hospitalizations (OR, 13.99). CONCLUSIONS:Histologic findings may be predictive of IPAA outcomes. Pathologists should incorporate key histologic variables into pouchoscopy pathology reports. Clinicians may need to more closely monitor IPAA patients with significant histologic findings.
PMID: 36702534
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5419702

Comparative Safety of Biologic Agents in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease With Active or Recent Malignancy: A Multi-Center Cohort Study

Holmer, Ariela K.; Luo, Jiyu; Russ, Kirk B.; Park, Sarah; Yang, Jeong Yun; Ertem, Furkan; Dueker, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Vu; Hong, Simon; Zenger, Cameron; Axelrad, Jordan E.; Sofia, Anthony; Petrov, Jessica C.; Al-Bawardy, Badr; Fudman, David I.; Llano, Ernesto; Dailey, Joseph; Jangi, Sushrut; Khakoo, Nidah; Damas, Oriana M.; Barnes, Edward L.; Scott, Frank I.; Ungaro, Ryan C.; Singh, Siddharth
Background & Aims: Safety of biologic agents is a key consideration in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and active or recent cancer. We compared the safety of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists vs non-TNF biologics in patients with IBD with active or recent cancer. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients with IBD and either active cancer (cohort A) or recent prior cancer (within ≤5 years; cohort B) who were treated with TNFα antagonists or non-TNF biologics after their cancer diagnosis. Primary outcomes were progression-free survival (cohort A) or recurrence-free survival (cohort B). Safety was compared using inverse probability of treatment weighting with propensity scores. Results: In cohort A, of 125 patients (483.8 person-years of follow-up evaluation) with active cancer (age, 54 ± 15 y, 75% solid-organ malignancy), 10 of 55 (incidence rate [IR] per 100 py, 4.4) and 9 of 40 (IR, 10.4) patients treated with TNFα antagonists and non-TNF biologics had cancer progression, respectively. There was no difference in the risk of progression-free survival between TNFα antagonists vs non-TNF biologics (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.25"“2.30). In cohort B, of 170 patients (513 person-years of follow-up evaluation) with recent prior cancer (age, 53 ± 15 y, 84% solid-organ malignancy; duration of remission, 19 ± 19 mo), 8 of 78 (IR, 3.4) and 5 of 66 (IR 3.7) patients treated with TNFα antagonists and non-TNF biologics had cancer recurrence, respectively. The risk of recurrence-free survival was similar between both groups (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.24"“3.77). Conclusions: In patients with IBD with active or recent cancer, TNFα antagonists and non-TNF biologics have comparable safety. The choice of biologic should be dictated by IBD disease severity in collaboration with an oncologist.
ISSN: 1542-3565
CID: 5446872

A Novel Remote Patient and Medication Monitoring Solution to Improve Adherence and Persistence With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy (ASSIST Study): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Axelrad, Jordan; Long, Millie; Horst, Sara; Afzali, Anita; Sapir, Tamar; Fajardo, Kristina; De Felice, Kara; Sandler, Robert; Cross, Raymond
BACKGROUND:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although adherence to IBD therapies is associated with improved clinical outcomes, overall adherence is poor. Consequently, there is a critical need to develop interventions that monitor adherence in real time and identify reasons for nonadherence to support clinical teams in initiating effective interventions. Recently, electronic- and web-based platforms have been developed to monitor adherence and guide interventions. A novel remote therapy monitoring (RTM) technology, the Tappt digital health system, has been developed to monitor real-time medication adherence patterns through smart label technologies, capture patient-reported outcomes and barriers to care, and process patient data through algorithms that trigger personalized digital and human touch points between clinical visits. Such a digital health solution enables care teams to proactively identify and mitigate nonadherence and worsening clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE:We propose a 12-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the Tappt digital health system on adherence, clinical outcomes, and health care use among patients diagnosed with IBD starting a new oral or subcutaneous therapy. METHODS:The digital health system intervention will provide automatic measurement of medication adherence via smart labels for pill bottles or injectors as well as a monitoring platform for providers. The system will prompt patients to complete a two-item assessment of symptoms monthly using the PRO-2 scales for UC and Crohn disease, from which increased symptoms will be alerted to providers. Participants will be randomized 2:1 to the intervention group or the control group, which will receive standard of care. All participants are required to complete questionnaires at baseline as well as at 12, 26, and 52 weeks. Assuming an adherence rate of 0.65 and 0.9 among control and intervention participants, respectively, we will need to enroll 123 participants: 82 (66.7%) in the intervention group and 41 (33.3%) controls. We will compare adherence as measured by the medication possession ratio, defined as the number of days of supply of medication obtained during the observation period out of the total number of days in the observation period, in participants using the RTM versus those receiving standard of care. We will also compare clinical outcomes and health care use in participants using the RTM versus those receiving standard of care. RESULTS:We anticipate starting recruitment in December 2022. CONCLUSIONS:Effective medication adherence monitoring and intervention programs need to be cost-efficient, pose little or no burden to the patient, record reliable data in real time, and provide actionable insights to the health care team. We anticipate the Tappt digital health system to improve the medication possession ratio, clinical outcomes, and health care use compared with standard of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ NCT05316584; INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID)/UNASSIGNED:PRR1-10.2196/40382.
PMID: 36520519
ISSN: 1929-0748
CID: 5382362

Ustekinumab and Vedolizumab Are Not Associated With Subsequent Cancer in IBD Patients with Prior Malignancy

Hong, Simon J; Zenger, Cameron; Pecoriello, Jillian; Pang, Alice; Vallely, Margaret; Hudesman, David P; Chang, Shannon; Axelrad, Jordan E
BACKGROUND:There is little data regarding the risk of new or recurrent cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a prior history of cancer who are exposed to ustekinumab or vedolizumab. We assessed the risk of subsequent cancer in patients exposed to these agents. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with IBD and a history of cancer at an academic medical center between January 2013 and December 2020. We collected data on demographics, IBD and cancer disease characteristics, and drug exposures. The primary exposure was immunosuppressive therapy after diagnosis of cancer. The primary outcome was interval development of new or recurrent cancer. RESULTS:Of 390 patients with IBD and a previous history of cancer, 37 were exposed to vedolizumab, 14 ustekinumab, 41 antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), and 31 immunomodulator; and 267 were not exposed to immunosuppression following cancer diagnosis. During a total median follow-up time of 52 months, 81 (20%) patients developed subsequent cancer: 6 (16%) were exposed to vedolizumab, 2 (14%) to ustekinumab, 3 (10%) to immunomodulators, 12 (29%) to anti-TNF, and 56 (21%) with no immunosuppression (P = .41). In a multivariable Cox model adjusting for age, IBD subtype, smoking, cancer recurrence risk, and cancer stage, there was no increase in subsequent cancer with vedolizumab (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.27-7.01) or ustekinumab (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.17-5.41). Patients with more than 1 biologic exposure also did not have an increased risk of subsequent cancer. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to ustekinumab or vedolizumab in patients with IBD and a prior history of cancer does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent new or recurrent cancer.
PMID: 35262671
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5182262

Gut microbiome dysbiosis in antibiotic-treated COVID-19 patients is associated with microbial translocation and bacteremia

Bernard-Raichon, Lucie; Venzon, Mericien; Klein, Jon; Axelrad, Jordan E; Zhang, Chenzhen; Sullivan, Alexis P; Hussey, Grant A; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Noval, Maria G; Valero-Jimenez, Ana M; Gago, Juan; Putzel, Gregory; Pironti, Alejandro; Wilder, Evan; Thorpe, Lorna E; Littman, Dan R; Dittmann, Meike; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Shopsin, Bo; Torres, Victor J; Ko, Albert I; Iwasaki, Akiko; Cadwell, Ken; Schluter, Jonas
Although microbial populations in the gut microbiome are associated with COVID-19 severity, a causal impact on patient health has not been established. Here we provide evidence that gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with translocation of bacteria into the blood during COVID-19, causing life-threatening secondary infections. We first demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 infection induces gut microbiome dysbiosis in mice, which correlated with alterations to Paneth cells and goblet cells, and markers of barrier permeability. Samples collected from 96 COVID-19 patients at two different clinical sites also revealed substantial gut microbiome dysbiosis, including blooms of opportunistic pathogenic bacterial genera known to include antimicrobial-resistant species. Analysis of blood culture results testing for secondary microbial bloodstream infections with paired microbiome data indicates that bacteria may translocate from the gut into the systemic circulation of COVID-19 patients. These results are consistent with a direct role for gut microbiome dysbiosis in enabling dangerous secondary infections during COVID-19.
PMID: 36319618
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5358262

Histological remission in inflammatory bowel disease and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: A nationwide study

Mårild, Karl; Söderling, Jonas; Stephansson, Olof; Axelrad, Jordan; Halfvarson, Jonas; Bröms, Gabriella; Marsal, Jan; Olén, Ola; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but it is unclear how risks vary by histological activity. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We performed a nationwide study of Swedish women diagnosed with IBD 1990-2016 and a pre-pregnancy (<12 months) colorectal biopsy with vs. without histological inflammation (1223 and 630 births, respectively). We also examined pregnancy outcomes in 2007-2016 of women with vs. without clinically active IBD (i.e., IBD-related hospitalization, surgery, or medication escalation) <12 months before pregnancy (2110 and 4993 births, respectively). Accounting for smoking, socio-demographics, and comorbidities, generalized linear models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks) and small-for-gestational age (SGA, <10th percentile weight for age). FINDINGS/UNASSIGNED:Of infants to women with vs. without histological inflammation, 9.6% (n = 117) and 6.5% (n = 41) were preterm, respectively (aRR = 1.46; 95%CI = 1.03-2.06). Histological inflammation was associated with preterm birth in ulcerative colitis (UC) (aRR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.07-2.52), especially extensive colitis (aRR = 2.37; 95%CI = 1.12-5.02), but not in Crohn's disease (aRR = 0.99; 95%CI = 0.55-1.78). Of infants to women with vs. without histological inflammation, 116 (9.6%) and 56 (8.9%), respectively, were SGA (aRR = 1.09; 95%CI = 0.81-1.47). Clinically active disease before pregnancy was linked to preterm birth (aRR = 1.42; 95%CI = 1.20-1.69), but not to SGA birth (aRR = 1.13; 95%CI = 0.96-1.32). Finally, of infants to women without clinical activity, histological inflammation was not significantly associated with preterm birth (aRR = 1.20; 95%CI = 0.68-2.13). INTERPRETATION/UNASSIGNED:Histological and clinical activity in IBD, especially in UC, were risk factors for preterm birth. Further research is needed to determine the importance of pre-pregnancy histological activity in women without clinically-defined disease activity. FUNDING/UNASSIGNED:The Swedish Society of Medicine.
PMID: 36467453
ISSN: 2589-5370
CID: 5382962