Histologic Predictors of Clinical Outcomes and Healthcare Utilization in Patients With Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis
BACKGROUND:The prognostic significance of histology in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate if histologic variables are predictive of IPAA clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with IPAA undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy at a tertiary care institution. Pouch body biopsies were reviewed by gastrointestinal pathologists, who were blinded to clinical outcomes, for histologic features of acute or chronic inflammation. Charts were reviewed for clinical outcomes including development of acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis, biologic or small molecule initiation, hospitalizations, and surgery. Predictors of outcomes were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic and Cox regression. RESULTS:A total of 167 patients undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy were included. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (odds ratio [OR], 1.67), ulceration and erosion (OR, 2.44), chronic inflammation (OR, 1.97), and crypt distortion (OR, 1.89) were associated with future biologic or small molecule initiation for chronic pouchitis. Loss of goblet cells was associated with development of chronic pouchitis (OR, 4.65). Pyloric gland metaplasia was associated with hospitalizations (OR, 5.24). No histologic variables were predictive of development of acute pouchitis or surgery. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of new IPAA (<1 year), loss of goblet cells was associated with acute pouchitis (OR, 14.86) and chronic pouchitis (OR, 12.56). Pyloric gland metaplasia was again associated with hospitalizations (OR, 13.99). CONCLUSIONS:Histologic findings may be predictive of IPAA outcomes. Pathologists should incorporate key histologic variables into pouchoscopy pathology reports. Clinicians may need to more closely monitor IPAA patients with significant histologic findings.
Multimodal single-cell datasets characterize antigen-specific CD8+ T cells across SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and infection
The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 antigen after infection or vaccination is defined by the durable production of antibodies and T cells. Population-based monitoring typically focuses on antibody titer, but there is a need for improved characterization and quantification of T cell responses. Here, we used multimodal sequencing technologies to perform a longitudinal analysis of circulating human leukocytes collected before and after immunization with the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Our data indicated distinct subpopulations of CD8+ T cells, which reliably appeared 28 days after prime vaccination. Using a suite of cross-modality integration tools, we defined their transcriptome, accessible chromatin landscape and immunophenotype, and we identified unique biomarkers within each modality. We further showed that this vaccine-induced population was SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific and capable of rapid clonal expansion. Moreover, we identified these CD8+ T cell populations in scRNA-seq datasets from COVID-19 patients and found that their relative frequency and differentiation outcomes were predictive of subsequent clinical outcomes.
Suboptimal Guideline Adherence and Biomarker Underutilization in Monitoring of Post-operative Crohn"™s Disease
Background: Crohn"™s disease recurrence after ileocecal resection is common. Guidelines suggest colonoscopy within 6"“12 months of surgery to assess for post-operative recurrence, but use of adjunctive monitoring is not protocolized. We aimed to describe the state of monitoring in post-operative Crohn"™s. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with Crohn"™s after ileocolic resection with â‰¥ 1-year follow-up. Patients were stratified into high and low risk based on guidelines. Post-operative biomarker (C-reactive protein, fecal calprotectin), cross-sectional imaging, and colonoscopy use were assessed. Biomarker, radiographic, and endoscopic post-operative recurrence were defined as elevated CRP/calprotectin, active inflammation on imaging, and Rutgeerts â‰¥ i2b, respectively. Data were stratified by surgery year to assess changes in practice patterns over time. P-values were calculated using Wilcoxon test and Fisher exact test. Results: Of 901 patients, 53% were female and 78% high risk. Median follow-up time was 60 m for LR and 50 m for high risk. Postoperatively, 18% low and 38% high risk had CRPs, 5% low and 10% high risk had calprotectins, and half of low and high risk had cross-sectional imaging. 29% low and 38% high risk had colonoscopy by 1 year. Compared to pre-2015, time to first radiography (584 days vs. 398 days) and colonoscopy (421 days vs. 296 days) were significantly shorter for high-risk post-2015 (P < 0.001). Probability of colonoscopy within 1 year increased over time (0.48, 2011 vs. 0.92, 2019). Conclusion: Post-operative colonoscopy completion by 1 year is low. The use of CRP and imaging are common, whereas calprotectin is infrequently utilized. Practice patterns are shifting toward earlier monitoring.
Suboptimal Guideline Adherence and Biomarker Underutilization in Monitoring of Post-operative Crohn's Disease
BACKGROUND:Crohn's disease recurrence after ileocecal resection is common. Guidelines suggest colonoscopy within 6-12 months of surgery to assess for post-operative recurrence, but use of adjunctive monitoring is not protocolized. We aimed to describe the state of monitoring in post-operative Crohn's. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective study of patients with Crohn's after ileocolic resection with ≥ 1-year follow-up. Patients were stratified into high and low risk based on guidelines. Post-operative biomarker (C-reactive protein, fecal calprotectin), cross-sectional imaging, and colonoscopy use were assessed. Biomarker, radiographic, and endoscopic post-operative recurrence were defined as elevated CRP/calprotectin, active inflammation on imaging, and Rutgeerts ≥ i2b, respectively. Data were stratified by surgery year to assess changes in practice patterns over time. P-values were calculated using Wilcoxon test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS:Of 901 patients, 53% were female and 78% high risk. Median follow-up time was 60 m for LR and 50 m for high risk. Postoperatively, 18% low and 38% high risk had CRPs, 5% low and 10% high risk had calprotectins, and half of low and high risk had cross-sectional imaging. 29% low and 38% high risk had colonoscopy by 1 year. Compared to pre-2015, time to first radiography (584 days vs. 398 days) and colonoscopy (421 days vs. 296 days) were significantly shorter for high-risk post-2015 (P < 0.001). Probability of colonoscopy within 1 year increased over time (0.48, 2011 vs. 0.92, 2019). CONCLUSION:Post-operative colonoscopy completion by 1 year is low. The use of CRP and imaging are common, whereas calprotectin is infrequently utilized. Practice patterns are shifting toward earlier monitoring.
ECCO Guidelines on Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Malignancies
Early Initiation of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy Reduces Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn's Disease Following Ileocecal Resection
BACKGROUND:Postoperative recurrence (POR) of Crohn's disease (CD) is common after surgical resection. We aimed to compare biologic type and timing for preventing POR in adult CD patients after ileocecal resection (ICR). METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of CD patients who underwent an ICR at 2 medical centers. Recurrence was defined by endoscopy (â‰¥ i2b Rutgeerts score) or radiography (active inflammation in neoterminal ileum) and stratified by type and timing of postoperative prophylactic biologic within 12 weeks following an ICR (none, tumor necrosis factor antagonists [anti-TNF], vedolizumab, and ustekinumab). RESULTS:We identified 1037 patients with CD who underwent an ICR. Of 278 (26%) who received postoperative prophylaxis, 80% were placed on an anti-TNF agent (n = 223) followed by ustekinumab (n = 28, 10%) and vedolizumab (n = 27, 10%). Prophylaxis was initiated in 35% within 4 weeks following an ICR and in 65% within 4 to 12 weeks. After adjusting for factors associated with POR, compared with no biologic prophylaxis, the initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93). Prophylaxis after 4 weeks following an ICR or with vedolizumab or ustekinumab was not associated with a reduction in POR compared with those who did not receive prophylaxis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Early initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR. Vedolizumab or ustekinumab, at any time following surgery, was not associated with a reduction in POR, although sample size was limited.
Comparative Safety of Biologic Agents in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease With Active or Recent Malignancy: A Multi-Center Cohort Study
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Safety of biologic agents is a key consideration in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and active or recent cancer. We compared the safety of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists vs non-TNF biologics in patients with IBD with active or recent cancer. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients with IBD and either active cancer (cohort A) or recent prior cancer (within ≤5 years; cohort B) who were treated with TNFα antagonists or non-TNF biologics after their cancer diagnosis. Primary outcomes were progression-free survival (cohort A) or recurrence-free survival (cohort B). Safety was compared using inverse probability of treatment weighting with propensity scores. RESULTS:In cohort A, of 125 patients (483.8 person-years of follow-up evaluation) with active cancer (age, 54 ± 15 y, 75% solid-organ malignancy), 10 of 55 (incidence rate [IR] per 100 py, 4.4) and 9 of 40 (IR, 10.4) patients treated with TNFα antagonists and non-TNF biologics had cancer progression, respectively. There was no difference in the risk of progression-free survival between TNFα antagonists vs non-TNF biologics (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.25-2.30). In cohort B, of 170 patients (513 person-years of follow-up evaluation) with recent prior cancer (age, 53 ± 15 y, 84% solid-organ malignancy; duration of remission, 19 ± 19 mo), 8 of 78 (IR, 3.4) and 5 of 66 (IR 3.7) patients treated with TNFα antagonists and non-TNF biologics had cancer recurrence, respectively. The risk of recurrence-free survival was similar between both groups (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.24-3.77). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with IBD with active or recent cancer, TNFα antagonists and non-TNF biologics have comparable safety. The choice of biologic should be dictated by IBD disease severity in collaboration with an oncologist.
Long-Term Outcomes of the Excluded Rectum in Crohn's Disease: A Multicenter International Study
BACKGROUND:Many patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require fecal diversion. To understand the long-term outcomes, we performed a multicenter review of the experience with retained excluded rectums. METHODS:We reviewed the medical records of all CD patients between 1990 and 2014 who had undergone diversionary surgery with retention of the excluded rectum for at least 6 months and who had at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. RESULTS:From all the CD patients in the institutions' databases, there were 197 who met all our inclusion criteria. A total of 92 (46.7%) of 197 patients ultimately underwent subsequent proctectomy, while 105 (53.3%) still had retained rectums at time of last follow-up. Among these 105 patients with retained rectums, 50 (47.6%) underwent reanastomosis, while the other 55 (52.4%) retained excluded rectums. Of these 55 patients whose rectums remained excluded, 20 (36.4%) were symptom-free, but the other 35 (63.6%) were symptomatic. Among the 50 patients who had been reconnected, 28 (56%) were symptom-free, while 22(44%) were symptomatic. From our entire cohort of 197 cases, 149 (75.6%) either ultimately lost their rectums or remained symptomatic with retained rectums, while only 28 (14.2%) of 197, and only 4 (5.9%) of 66 with initial perianal disease, were able to achieve reanastomosis without further problems. Four patients developed anorectal dysplasia or cancer. CONCLUSIONS:In this multicenter cohort of patients with CD who had fecal diversion, fewer than 15%, and only 6% with perianal disease, achieved reanastomosis without experiencing disease persistence.
Surveillance for Colorectal Neoplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: When to Stop
Patients with chronic ulcerative and Crohn's colitis are at increased risk for colorectal neoplasia(CRN [dysplasia and cancer]) compared to the general population. Risk factors for CRN include extent of colitis, cumulative inflammatory burden, family history of colorectal cancer, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Best practices to prevent CRN include control of colonic inflammation, high quality surveillance colonoscopy with or without enhanced imaging techniques, resection of visible dysplasia if possible, and colectomy in patients with unresectable dysplasia, invisible multifocal low grade dysplasia, or invisible high grade dysplasia. Cessation of dysplasia surveillance is individualized and should involve shared decision making based on factors including but not limited to chronologic age, frailty, co-morbid conditions, life expectancy, results of prior surveillance exams, and risk factors for CRN.
Pathogen-Specific Alterations in the Gut Microbiota Predict Outcomes in Flare of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Complicated by Gastrointestinal Infection
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Enteric infection with Clostridioides difficile , Escherichia coli subtypes, and norovirus is commonly detected in flares of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We associated the gut microbiome during flare complicated by a gastrointestinal pathogen with outcomes of IBD. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study of 260 patients (92 IBD and 168 non-IBD) with a gastrointestinal polymerase chain reaction panel positive for C. difficile, E. coli , or norovirus, or negative during an episode of diarrhea from 2018 to 2020, and 25 healthy controls. Clinical variables, IBD status, and 2-year outcomes were collected. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, we measured the effect size of the gut microbiome on IBD characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS:There were major differences in the gut microbiome between patients with and without a pathogen and IBD. In IBD, a higher proportion of patients without a pathogen required hospitalization and IBD therapies at flare and within the 2 years after flare, driven by a milder disease course in flares complicated by an E. coli subtype or norovirus. Examining the contribution of clinical covariates, the presence of IBD, and C-reactive protein, C. difficile had a greater relative influence on the gut microbiome compared with the presence of an E. coli subtype or norovirus. In patients with C. difficile or no pathogen, lower microbiome diversity at flare was associated with adverse IBD outcomes over 2 years. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Distinctive pathogen-specific gut microbiomes were associated with subsequent IBD outcomes. These findings may have direct implications for the management of IBD flares complicated by enteric pathogens.