Extensive Tumoral Calcinosis of the Hand [Case Report]
Tumoral calcinosis is a rare and benign subtype of calcinosis cutis, a group of disorders involving soft tissue calcium deposition. Only 250 cases have been described since 1898; hand involvement is exceedingly rare. We report a case of extensive calcinosis within the flexor sheath of the little finger. Presentation included a painful mass over the volar aspect of the little finger, restricted digit motion, and skin compromise at the site of the mass. Surgical debulking was performed resulting in restoration of finger function.
Cerclage Wire Fixation for Fracture-Dislocations of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint
Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture dislocations are challenging injuries to treat. Multiple and varied treatments have been proposed. We present the use of cerclage wiring as a helpful technique in these challenging scenarios. The technique has the benefit of securing fracture fragments from the volar or dorsal base of middle phalanges or a comminuted fracture involving the entire articular surface. We report on the use of cerclage wires in eight patients (average: 43 years of age). Three patients had volar base fractures, three dorsal base fractures, and two impacted fractures involving the entire articular surface. All fractures healed, and average postoperative PIP active flexion motion arc was 21Â° to 95Â° (functional arc of 74Â°). We believe cerclage wire fixation is an effective and reproducible method to treat intra-articular fractures of middle phalanges, especially comminuted fractures involving the entire articular surface, and should be available to hand surgeons treating these difficult injuries.
Crossed K-Wires Versus Intramedullary Headless Screw Fixation of Unstable Metacarpal Neck Fractures: A Biomechanical Study
Background/UNASSIGNED:Intramedullary headless screw (IMHS) has shown promise as an alternative to other fixation devices for metacarpal neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to assess the biomechanical performance of IMHS versus the commonly-used crossed K-wire technique. We hypothesized that IMHS fixation provides superior stability to K-wires. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A metacarpal neck fracture model in 23 human cadaveric metacarpals was created. The specimens were divided into two groups based upon fixation method: Group 1, 3 mm intramedullary headless screw; and Group 2, 0.045 inch crossed K-wires. A cantilever bending model was used to assess load-to-failure (LTF), maximum displacement, energy absorption, and stiffness. Results/UNASSIGNED:The mean LTF was 70.6 Â± 30.1 N for IMHS and 97.5 Â± 34.7 N for crossed K-wires. Mean stiffness was 11.3 Â± 3.4 N/mm and 17.7 Â± 7.8 N/mm for IMHS and crossed K-wires, respectively. The mean maximum displacement was 20.2 Â± 4.6 mm for IMHS and 24.1 Â± 3.7 mm for crossed K-wires. Moreover, mean energy absorption was 778.3 Â± 528.9 Nmm and 1095.9 Â± 454.4 Nmm, respectively, for IMHS and crossed K-wires. Crossed K-wires demonstrated significantly higher stiffness and maximum displacement than IMHS (p < 0.05). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:IMHS fixation of unstable metacarpal neck fractures offers less stability compared to crossed K-wires when loaded in bending. Clinical Relevance/UNASSIGNED:Crossed K-wires offer superior stability for the treatment of metacarpal neck fractures. These results reveal that IMHS fixation is less favorable biomechanically and should be cautiously selected with regards to fracture stability.
The Relationships Between Surface Measurements and Underlying Tendon Autograft Length for Upper Extremity Reconstructive Surgery
PURPOSE: The availability of tendon grafts is an important consideration for successful upper extremity reconstructive surgery, including flexor or extensor tendon reconstructions, tendon transfers, and ligament reconstructions. Graft selection is based on availability, expendability, ease of harvest, and length. Given variations in patient height and extremity length, existing average values may provide suboptimal insight into actual tendon lengths available. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to pursue a method of estimating available donor tendon lengths based on easily measured anatomical surface landmarks. METHODS: Thirty cadaveric upper and lower extremity limbs were dissected and the length of commonly harvested tendon grafts including the palmaris longus, extensor indicis proprius, extensor digiti minimi, plantaris, and second long toe extensor was measured. Surface forearm length (from finger tip to cubital fossa) and surface fibular length (from lateral malleolus to fibular head) were also measured. Correlations between surface measurements and underlying tendon lengths were analyzed, and linear models were generated that predicted tendon length as a function of surface measurements. RESULTS: Surface measurements were correlated with underlying tendon length (R = 0.46 - 0.66). Linear models could predict tendon lengths based on surface measurements (P < .05). A ratio of donor tendon length compared with the limb segment measured was established for each tendon and can be applied to estimate donor tendon length. For the upper extremity tendons, the multipliers for the palmaris longus, extensor indicis proprius, and extensor digiti minimi were 0.51, 0.20, and 0.18, respectively. Lower extremity tendon ratios for the plantaris and extensor digitorum longus were 0.69 and 0.60, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although length of available donor tendon can be a limiting variable at the time of surgery, surgeons may be better able to estimate underlying tendon lengths using easily obtained superficial measurements. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Information obtained from these cadaveric measurements may aid in preoperative planning in hand and upper extremity surgery.
Dorsal Plating of Distal Radius Fractures Historical Context and Appropriate Use [Historical Article]
The management of distal radius fractures has evolved over time from a largely nonoperative paradigm to a more commonly performed operative procedures today. Surgical trends have similarly developed, with dorsal plating falling out of favor due to complications involving extensor tendon pathology as well as due to the ubiquity of the volar plate along with the advent of locking plate technology. However, with the improvement in design of newer generation dorsal plates, this technique should be used in the appropriate clinical situation, including dorsal comminution and angulation with concomitant carpal pathology. Outcome data supports dorsal plating and has been shown to be comparable to that of volar plating, with some unique advantages. As such, the technique of dorsal plating should have a role in surgical management of these injuries.
Volar-Ulnar Approach for Fixation of the Volar Lunate Facet Fragment in Distal Radius Fractures: A Technical Tip
The volar Henry approach is most commonly used for surgical fixation of distal radius fractures. However, this approach is limited in achieving adequate exposure for the fixation of the volar-ulnar portion of the distal radius, rendering it difficult for the ideal placement of the fixation construct. We propose the use of the extensile volar-ulnar approach for fixation of distal radius fracture involving a small volar-ulnar fragment. This approach allows optimal reduction of the sigmoid notch and the volar lunate facet, which anatomically reduces both the radiocarpal joint and the sigmoid notch. In addition, extension of this approach may safely be performed if concomitant carpal tunnel release is necessary.
Combined Palmer Type 1A and 1B Traumatic Lesions of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex A New Category
We present a series of eight patients who underwent wrist arthroscopy for presumed solitary tears of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) and were, instead, found to have combined 1A (central tear) and 1B (ulnar avulsion) tears. The Palmer Classification does not currently categorize this combined pattern. All but one patient had a traumatic injury. Each subject had preoperative radiographs and MRI scans. TFC tears were evident on all MRI scans, though only one was suggestive of a combined tear pat - tern. Surgical management included arthroscopic central tear debridement and ulnar peripheral repair. Average follow-up was 22 months. Grip strength in the affected hand improved from 16% deficit as compared to the unaffected side, to 3.5% deficit postoperatively (p = 0.003), and visual analog scores (VAS) decreased from an average of 7.1/10 preoperatively to 2.3/10 postoperatively (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant change in wrist range of motion (ROM), however. Arthroscopic debridement of the central perforation (1A lesion) with concomitant repair of the ulnar detachment (1B lesion) resulted in functional and symptomatic improvement. This combined 1A/1B TFC injury is not reliably diagnosed preoperatively and should be considered a new subset in the Palmer classification, as this will raise awareness of its presence and assist in preoperative planning of such lesions.
Concomitant Ulnar Styloid Fracture and Distal Radius Fracture Portend Poorer Outcome
The literature on the effect of ulnar styloid fractures (USFs) on concomitant distal radius fractures (DRFs) is mixed. We conducted a study to determine if associated ipsilateral USFs affect outcomes of DRFs. We retrospectively evaluated 315 DRFs treated (184 operatively, 131 nonoperatively) over a 7-year period. Concomitant USFs were identified. Mean follow-up was 12 months. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) outcome scores, and grip strength and wrist range of motion data, were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with Student t test and analysis of variance. Incidence of concomitant USF and DRF was higher (P < .0002) in the operative group (64.6%) than in the nonoperative group (39.1%). Patients with USFs had worse mean (SD) pain score, 1.80 (2.43) versus 0.80 (1.55) (P = .0001), DASH score, 17.03 (18.94) versus 9.21 (14.06) (P = .001), and SF-36 score, 77.16 (17.69) versus 82.68 (16.10) (P = .022). In the operative group, patients with USFs had more pain and poorer DASH Functional scores than patients without USFs. Results were similar in the nonoperative group. There was no difference in healing time between intra-articular and extra-articular fractures or between presence and absence of USFs. Concomitant occurrence of USFs and DRFs-which is associated with worse pain scores and lower functioning compared with USFs without DRFs-should prompt clinicians to counsel patients about delayed recovery.
Impact of Joint Position and Joint Morphology on Assessment of Thumb Metacarpophalangeal Joint Radial Collateral Ligament Integrity
PURPOSE: A 2-part biomechanical study was constructed to test the hypothesis that coronal morphology of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint impacts the assessment of instability in the context of radial collateral ligament (RCL) injury. METHODS: Fourteen cadaveric thumbs were disarticulated at the carpometacarpal joint. Four observers measured the radius of curvature of the metacarpal (MC) heads. In a custom jig, a micrometer was used to measure the RCL length as each thumb was put through a flexion and/or extension arc under a 200 g ulnar deviation load. Strain was calculated at maximal hyperextension, 0 degrees , 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 45 degrees , and maximal flexion. Radial instability was measured with a goniometer under 45 N stress. The RCL was then divided and measurements were repeated. Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation metrics were used. RESULTS: The RCL strain notably increased from 0 degrees to 30 degrees and 45 degrees of flexion. With an intact RCL, the radial deviation was 15 degrees at 0 degrees of flexion, 18 degrees at 15 degrees , 17 degrees at 30 degrees , 16 degrees at 45 degrees , and 14 degrees at maximal flexion. With a divided RCL, instability was greatest at 30 degrees of flexion with 31 degrees of deviation. The mean radius of curvature of the MC head was 19 +/- 4 mm. Radial instability was inversely correlated with the radius of curvature to a considerable degree only in divided RCL specimens, and only at 0 degrees and 15 degrees of flexion. CONCLUSIONS: The RCL contributes most to the radial stability of the joint at flexion positions greater than 30 degrees . The results suggest that flatter MC heads contribute to stability when the RCL is ruptured and the joint is tested at 0 degrees to 15 degrees of metacarpophalangeal flexion. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The thumb MC joint should be examined for RCL instability in at least 30 degrees of flexion.
Comparing femoral version after intramedullary nailing performed by trauma-trained and non-trauma trained surgeons: is there a difference?
INTRODUCTION: As with some procedures, trauma fellowship training and greater surgeon experience may result in better outcomes following intramedullary nailing (IMN) of diaphyseal femur fractures. However, surgeons with such training and experience may not always be available to all patients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether trauma training affects the post-operative difference in femoral version (DFV) following IMN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2000 and 2009, 417 consecutive patients with diaphyseal femur fractures (AO/OTA 32A-C) were treated via IMN. Inclusion criteria for this study included complete baseline and demographic documentation as well as pre-operative films for fracture classification and post-operative CT scanogram (per institutional protocol) for version and length measurement of both the nailed and uninjured femurs. Exclusion criteria included bilateral injuries, multiple ipsilateral lower extremity fractures, previous injury, and previous deformity. Of the initial 417 subjects, 355 patients met our inclusion criteria. Other data included in our analysis were age, sex, injury mechanism, open vs. closed fracture, daytime vs. nighttime surgery, mechanism of injury, and AO and Winquist classifications. Post-operative femoral version of both lower extremities was measured on CT scanogram by an orthopaedic trauma fellowship trained surgeon. Standard univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine statistically significant risk factors for malrotation between the two cohorts. RESULTS: Overall, 80.3% (288/355) of all fractures were fixed by trauma-trained surgeons. The mean post-operative DFV was 8.7 degrees in these patients, compared to 10.7 degrees in those treated by surgeons of other subspecialties. This difference was not statistically significant when accounting for other factors in a multivariate model (p>0.05). The same statistical trend was true when analyzing outcomes of only the more severe Winquist type III and IV fractures. Additionally, surgeon experience was not significantly predictive of post-operative version for either trauma or non-trauma surgeons (p>0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative version or percentage of DFV >15 degrees did not significantly differ following IMN of diaphyseal femur fractures between surgeons with and without trauma fellowship training. However, prospective data that removes the inherent bias that the more complex cases are left for the traumatologists are required before a definitive comparison is made.