COPD in Smoking and Non-Smoking Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Dust and Fumes
BACKGROUND:The characteristics of community members exposed to World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can provide insight into mechanisms of airflow obstruction in response to an environmental insult, with potential implications for interventions. METHODS:We performed a baseline assessment of respiratory symptoms, spirometry, small airway lung function measures using respiratory impulse oscillometry (IOS), and blood biomarkers. COPD was defined by the 2019 GOLD criteria for COPD. Patients in the WTC Environmental Health Center with <5 or â‰¥5 pack year smoking history were classified as nonsmoker-COPD (ns-COPD) or smoker-COPD (sm-COPD), respectively. MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:= 0.007). CONCLUSIONS:Spirometry findings and small airway measures, as well as inflammatory markers, differed between patients with ns-COPD and sm-COPD. These findings suggest potential for differing mechanisms of airway injury in patients with WTC environmental exposures and have potential therapeutic implications.
The Clinical Approach to the Patient with Sleep Disorders
Oakville, ON ; Waretown, NJ : Apple Academic Press, 
Temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation at different sites for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND:This study seeks to determine the efficacy of temperature controlled radiofrequency tissue ablation (TCRFTA) to alleviate symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and reduce polysomnographic measures of OSA in the first year post-treatment. METHODS:Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two independent searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE bibliographic databases, and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews to identify publications relevant to OSA and TCRFTA. Effectiveness of TCRFTA was measured separately for application of TCRFTA at the base of tongue and soft palate, and for multilevel intervention using the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and bed partner's rating of snoring using a visual analogue scale (VAS snoring). The most recent search was conducted in April 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager Version 5.2 using a relative measure of effect, i.e., ratio of means (RoM). RESULTS:Our initial search resulted in 29 eligible studies, and subsequently, 20 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Substantial and consistent improvement in PSG and subjective outcomes were observed post-TCRFTA in the base of tongue (BOT) and multilevel surgery groups only. Application of TCRFTA at the BOT was associated with a significant reduction in RDI (RoM 0.60, CI 0.47-0.76), ESS (RoM 0.59, CI 0.51-0.67), and VAS snoring (RoM 0.48, CI 0.37-0.62) and increase in lowest oxygen saturation (RoM 1.05, CI 1.01-1.10). Similarly, a significant reduction in RDI (RoM 0.61, CI 0.47-0.80) and ESS (RoM 0.79, CI -0.71 to 0.88) was observed after multilevel TCRFTA, but substantial heterogeneity between these studies was observed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:TCRFTA is clinically effective in reducing RDI levels and symptoms of sleepiness in patients with OSA syndrome when directed at the base of tongue or as a multilevel procedure.