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Association between lower body temperature and increased tau pathology in cognitively normal older adults

Blessing, Esther M; Parekh, Ankit; Betensky, Rebecca A; Babb, James; Saba, Natalie; Debure, Ludovic; Varga, Andrew W; Ayappa, Indu; Rapoport, David M; Butler, Tracy A; de Leon, Mony J; Wisniewski, Thomas; Lopresti, Brian J; Osorio, Ricardo S
BACKGROUND:Preclinical studies suggest body temperature (Tb) and consequently brain temperature has the potential to bidirectionally interact with tau pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Tau phosphorylation is substantially increased by small (<1 °C) decreases in temperature within the human physiological range, and thermoregulatory nuclei are affected by tau pathology early in the AD continuum. In this study we evaluated whether Tb (as a proxy for brain temperature) is cross-sectionally associated with clinically utilized markers of tau pathology in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS:Tb was continuously measured with ingestible telemetry sensors for 48-h. This period also included two nights of nocturnal polysomnography to delineate whether Tb during waking vs sleep is differentially associated with tau pathology. Tau phosphorylation was assessed with plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau), sampled the day following Tb measurement. In addition, neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) burden in early Braak stage regions was imaged with PET-MR using the [18F]MK-6240 radiotracer on average one month later. RESULTS:Lower Tb was associated with increased NFT burden, as well as increased plasma and CSF P-tau levels (p < 0.05). NFT burden was associated with lower Tb during waking (p < 0.05) but not during sleep intervals. Plasma and CSF Ptau levels were highly correlated with each other (p < 0.05), and both variables were correlated with tau tangle radiotracer uptake (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:These results, the first available for human, suggest that lower Tb in older adults may be associated with increased soluble and aggregated tau pathology. Our findings add to the substantial preclinical literature associating lower body and brain temperature with tau hyperphosphorylation. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER/BACKGROUND:NCT03053908.
PMID: 35550158
ISSN: 1095-953x
CID: 5214682

Outcomes of Incidental Lung Nodules With Structured Recommendations and Electronic Tracking

Bagga, Barun; Fansiwala, Kush; Thomas, Shailin; Chung, Ryan; Moore, William H; Babb, James S; Horwitz, Leora I; Blecker, Saul; Kang, Stella K
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the impact of structured recommendations on follow-up completion for incidental lung nodules (ILNs). METHODS:Patients with ILNs before and after implementation of structured Fleischner recommendations and electronic tracking were sampled randomly. The cohorts were compared for imaging follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess appropriate follow-up and loss to follow-up, with independent variables including use of structured recommendations or tracking, age, gender, race, ethnicity, setting of the index test (inpatient, outpatient, emergency department), smoking history, and nodule features. RESULTS:In all, 1,301 patients met final inclusion criteria, including 255 patients before and 1,046 patients after structured recommendations or tracking. Baseline differences were found in the pre- and postintervention groups, with smaller ILNs and younger age after implementing structured recommendations. Comparing pre- versus postintervention outcomes, 40.0% (100 of 250) versus 29.5% (309 of 1,046) of patients had no follow-up despite Fleischner indications for imaging (P = .002), and among the remaining patients, 56.6% (82 of 145) versus 75.0% (553 of 737) followed up on time (P < .001). Delayed follow-up was more frequent before intervention. Differences postintervention were mostly accounted for by nodules ≤ 8 mm in the outpatient setting (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, younger age, White race, outpatient setting, and larger nodule size showed significant association with appropriate follow-up completion (P < .015), but structured recommendations did not. Similar results applied for loss to follow-up. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Consistent use of structured reporting is likely key to mitigate selection bias when benchmarking rates of appropriate follow-up of ILN. Emergency department patients and inpatients are at high risk of missed or delayed follow-up despite structured recommendations.
PMID: 34896068
ISSN: 1558-349x
CID: 5109552

Inter-Reader Variability of Volumetric Subsolid Pulmonary Nodule Radiomic Features

Azour, Lea; Moore, William H; O'Donnell, Thomas; Truong, Mylene T; Babb, James; Niu, Bowen; Wimmer, Andreas; Kiumehr, Saman; Ko, Jane P
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the inter-observer consistency for subsolid pulmonary nodule radiomic features. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Subsolid nodules were selected by reviewing radiology reports of CT examinations performed December 1, 2015 to April 1, 2016. Patients with CTs at two time points were included in this study. There were 55 patients with subsolid nodules, of whom 14 had two nodules. Of 69 subsolid nodules, 66 were persistent at the second time point, yielding 135 lesions for segmentation. Two thoracic radiologists and an imaging fellow segmented the lesions using a semi-automated volumetry algorithm (Syngo.via Vb20, Siemens). Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess consistency of 91 quantitative measures extracted from the subsolid nodule segmentations, including first and higher order texture features. The accuracy of segmentation was visually graded by an experienced thoracic radiologist. Influencing factors on radiomic feature consistency and segmentation accuracy were assessed using generalized estimating equation analyses and the Exact Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS:Mean patient age was 71 (38-93 years), with 39 women and 16 men. Mean nodule volume was 1.39mL, range .03-48.2mL, for 135 nodules. Several radiomic features showed high inter-reader consistency (CV<5%), including entropy, uniformity, sphericity, and spherical disproportion. Descriptors such as surface area and energy had low consistency across inter-reader segmentations (CV>10%). Nodule percent solid component and attenuation influenced inter-reader variability of some radiomic features. The presence of contrast did not significantly affect the consistency of subsolid nodule radiomic features. Near perfect segmentation, within 5% of actual nodule size, was achieved in 68% of segmentations, and very good segmentation, within 25% of actual nodule size, in 94%. Morphologic features including nodule margin and shape (each p <0.01), and presence of air bronchograms (p = 0.004), bubble lucencies (p = 0.02) and broad pleural contact (p < 0.01) significantly affected the probability of near perfect segmentation. Stroke angle (p = 0.001) and length (p < 0.001) also significantly influenced probability of near perfect segmentation. CONCLUSIONS:The inter-observer consistency of radiomic features for subsolid pulmonary nodules varies, with high consistency for several features, including sphericity, spherical disproportion, and first and higher order entropy, and normalized non-uniformity. Nodule morphology influences the consistency of subsolid nodule radiomic features, and the accuracy of subsolid nodule segmentation.
PMID: 33610452
ISSN: 1878-4046
CID: 4794062

T1 and T2 quantification using magnetic resonance fingerprinting in mild traumatic brain injury

Gerhalter, Teresa; Cloos, Martijn; Chen, Anna M; Dehkharghani, Seena; Peralta, Rosemary; Babb, James S; Zarate, Alejandro; Bushnik, Tamara; Silver, Jonathan M; Im, Brian S; Wall, Stephen; Baete, Steven; Madelin, Guillaume; Kirov, Ivan I
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To assess whether MR fingerprinting (MRF)-based relaxation properties exhibit cross-sectional and prospective correlations with patient outcome and compare the results with those from DTI. METHODS:from MRF were compared in 12 gray and white matter regions with Mann-Whitney tests. Bivariate associations between MR measures and outcome were assessed using the Spearman correlation and logistic regression. RESULTS:, accounted for five of the six MR measures with the highest utility for identification of non-recovered patients at timepoint 2 (AUC > 0.80). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:, FA, and ADC for predicting 3-month outcome after mTBI. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:, and FA.
PMID: 34410458
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 5006382

Factors predicting hip joint aspiration yield or "dry taps" in patients with total hip arthroplasty

Ong, Justin; Tang, Alex; Rozell, Joshua C; Babb, James S; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Lin, Dana
BACKGROUND:Image-guided joint aspirations used to assist the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) may commonly result in a dry tap-or insufficient fluid for culture and cell count analysis. Dry tap aspirations are painful and invasive for patients and often utilize a subsequent saline lavage to obtain a microbiology sample. Currently, there is a paucity of the literature addressing predictors that could suggest whether a dry tap will occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various factors on "dry tap" occurrence in patients with suspected PJI following total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:A retrospective review was performed among THA patients suspected for PJI who received image-guided joint aspiration procedures at our institution from May 2016 to February 2020. The procedural factors included the imaging modality used for aspiration, anatomic approach, needle gauge size used, and the presence of a trainee. The patient-specific factors included number of prior ipsilateral hip surgeries, femoral head size, ESR/CRP values, and BMI. RESULTS:In total, 336 patients met our inclusion criteria. One hundred and twenty hip aspirations resulted in a dry tap (35.7%) where the patients underwent a saline lavage. Among the procedural and patient-specific factors, none of the factors were found to be statistically different between the two cohorts nor conferred any greater odds of a dry tap occurring. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:No associations with dry tap occurrence were found among the procedural and patient-specific factors studied. Further research is needed to identify additional factors that may be more predictive of dry taps.
PMID: 35065660
ISSN: 1749-799x
CID: 5152482

Repeatability, robustness, and reproducibility of texture features on 3 Tesla liver MRI

Prabhu, Vinay; Gillingham, Nicolas; Babb, James S; Mali, Rahul D; Rusinek, Henry; Bruno, Mary T; Chandarana, Hersh
OBJECTIVE:Texture features are proposed for classification and prognostication, with lacking information about variability. We assessed 3 T liver MRI feature variability. METHODS:Five volunteers underwent standard 3 T MRI, and repeated with identical and altered parameters. Two readers placed regions of interest using 3DSlicer. Repeatability (between standard and repeat scan), robustness (between standard and parameter changed scan), and reproducibility (two reader variation) were computed using coefficient of variation (CV). RESULTS:67%, 49%, and 61% of features had good-to-excellent (CV ≤ 10%) repeatability on ADC, T1, and T2, respectively, least frequently for first order (19-35%). 22%, 19%, and 21% of features had good-to-excellent robustness on ADC, T1, and T2, respectively. 52%, 35%, and 25% of feature measurements had good-to-excellent inter-reader reproducibility on ADC, T1, and T2, respectively, with highest good-to-excellent reproducibility for first order features on ADC/T1. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated large variations in texture features on 3 T liver MRI. Further study should evaluate methods to reduce variability.
PMID: 35092926
ISSN: 1873-4499
CID: 5155042

Artificial intelligence system reduces false-positive findings in the interpretation of breast ultrasound exams

Shen, Yiqiu; Shamout, Farah E; Oliver, Jamie R; Witowski, Jan; Kannan, Kawshik; Park, Jungkyu; Wu, Nan; Huddleston, Connor; Wolfson, Stacey; Millet, Alexandra; Ehrenpreis, Robin; Awal, Divya; Tyma, Cathy; Samreen, Naziya; Gao, Yiming; Chhor, Chloe; Gandhi, Stacey; Lee, Cindy; Kumari-Subaiya, Sheila; Leonard, Cindy; Mohammed, Reyhan; Moczulski, Christopher; Altabet, Jaime; Babb, James; Lewin, Alana; Reig, Beatriu; Moy, Linda; Heacock, Laura; Geras, Krzysztof J
Though consistently shown to detect mammographically occult cancers, breast ultrasound has been noted to have high false-positive rates. In this work, we present an AI system that achieves radiologist-level accuracy in identifying breast cancer in ultrasound images. Developed on 288,767 exams, consisting of 5,442,907 B-mode and Color Doppler images, the AI achieves an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.976 on a test set consisting of 44,755 exams. In a retrospective reader study, the AI achieves a higher AUROC than the average of ten board-certified breast radiologists (AUROC: 0.962 AI, 0.924 ± 0.02 radiologists). With the help of the AI, radiologists decrease their false positive rates by 37.3% and reduce requested biopsies by 27.8%, while maintaining the same level of sensitivity. This highlights the potential of AI in improving the accuracy, consistency, and efficiency of breast ultrasound diagnosis.
PMID: 34561440
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5039442

Impact of COVID-19 on Radiology Faculty - An Exacerbation of Gender Differences in Unpaid Home Duties and Professional Productivity

Plaunova, Anastasia; Heller, Samantha L; Babb, James S; Heffernan, Cathleen C
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The COVID-19 pandemic stresses the tenuous balance between domestic obligations and academic output for women across professions. Our investigation aims to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the home duties and workplace productivity of academic radiologists with respect to gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A 49-question survey was distributed to 926 members of Association of University Radiologists in October 2020. Several categories were addressed: demographics; workplace changes; stress levels and personal experiences with illness; time spent on domestic obligations; and perception of productivity during COVID-19. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4 software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). RESULTS:A total of 96 responses across 30 states, 53.1% male and 46.9% female were received. Women report spending more time on unpaid domestic duties than men prior to COVID-19, with men spending a median of 5-10 h/wk and women spending a median of 10-15 h/wk (p = 0.043). With pandemic onset, both genders reported that women did more of the homecare, when not split equally. Women with young children reported a significant decrease in work-from-home productivity compared to men with young children (p = 0.007). Men reported they had more time to be productive compared to women (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to disrupt the advancement of women in radiology leadership roles by creating disparate effects on productivity due to increased workloads at home for women. This could potentially lead to decreases in promotions and research productivity in years to come that far outlast the acute phases of the pandemic.
PMID: 34266739
ISSN: 1878-4046
CID: 4938912

Influence of coronary dominance on coronary artery calcification burden

Azour, Lea; Steinberger, Sharon; Toussie, Danielle; Titano, Ruwanthi; Kukar, Nina; Babb, James; Jacobi, Adam
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the influence of coronary artery dominance on observed coronary artery calcification burden in outpatients presenting for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS:A 12-month retrospective review was performed of all CCTAs at a single institution. Coronary arterial dominance, Agatston score and presence or absence of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidemia (HLD), diabetes and smoking were recorded. Dominance groups were compared in terms of calcium score adjusted for covariates using analysis of covariance based on ranks. Only covariates observed to be significant independent predictors of the relevant outcome were included in each analysis. All statistical tests were conducted at the two-sided 5% significance level. RESULTS:1223 individuals, 618 women and 605 men were included, mean age 60 years (24-93 years). Right coronary dominance was observed in 91.7% (n = 1109), left dominance in 8% (n = 98), and codominance in 1.3% (n = 16). The distribution of patients among Agatston score severity categories significantly differed between codominant and left (p = 0.008), and codominant and right (p = 0.022) groups, with higher prevalence of either zero or severe CAC in the codominant patients. There was no significant difference in Agatston score between dominance groups. In the subset of individuals with coronary artery calcification, Agatston score was significantly higher in codominant versus left dominant patients (mean Agatston score 595 ± 520 vs. mean 289 ± 607, respectively; p = 0.049), with a trend towards higher scores in comparison to the right-dominant group (p = 0.093). Significance was not maintained upon adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSIONS:While the distribution of Agatston score severity categories differed in codominant versus right- or left-dominant patients, there was no significant difference in Agatston score based on coronary dominance pattern in our cohort. Reporting and inclusion of codominant subsets in larger investigations may elucidate whether codominant anatomy is associated with differing risk.
PMID: 34171741
ISSN: 1873-4499
CID: 4925862

Non-invasive quantification of inflammation, axonal and myelin injury in multiple sclerosis

Schiavi, Simona; Petracca, Maria; Sun, Peng; Fleysher, Lazar; Cocozza, Sirio; El Mendili, Mohamed Mounir; Signori, Alessio; Babb, James S; Podranski, Kornelius; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Inglese, Matilde
The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of diffusion basis spectrum imaging in multiple sclerosis at 7 T and to investigate the pathological substrates of tissue damage in lesions and normal-appearing white matter. To this end, 43 patients with multiple sclerosis (24 relapsing-remitting, 19 progressive), and 21 healthy control subjects were enrolled. White matter lesions were classified in T1-isointense, T1-hypointense and black holes. Mean values of diffusion basis spectrum imaging metrics (fibres, restricted and non-restricted fractions, axial and radial diffusivities and fractional anisotropy) were measured from whole brain white matter lesions and from both lesions and normal appearing white matter of the corpus callosum. Significant differences were found between T1-isointense and black holes (P ranging from 0.005 to <0.001) and between lesions' centre and rim (P < 0.001) for all the metrics. When comparing the three subject groups in terms of metrics derived from corpus callosum normal appearing white matter and T2-hyperintense lesions, a significant difference was found between healthy controls and relapsing-remitting patients for all metrics except restricted fraction and fractional anisotropy; between healthy controls and progressive patients for all metrics except restricted fraction and between relapsing-remitting and progressive multiple sclerosis patients for all metrics except fibres and restricted fractions (P ranging from 0.05 to <0.001 for all). Significant associations were found between corpus callosum normal-appearing white matter fibres fraction/non-restricted fraction and the Symbol Digit Modality Test (respectively, r = 0.35, P = 0.043; r = -0.35, P = 0.046), and between black holes radial diffusivity and Expanded Disability Status Score (r = 0.59, P = 0.002). We showed the feasibility of diffusion basis spectrum imaging metrics at 7 T, confirmed the role of the derived metrics in the characterization of lesions and normal appearing white matter tissue in different stages of the disease and demonstrated their clinical relevance. Thus, suggesting that diffusion basis spectrum imaging is a promising tool to investigate multiple sclerosis pathophysiology, monitor disease progression and treatment response.
PMID: 33253366
ISSN: 1460-2156
CID: 4693932