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Efficacy and Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on CT Pulmonary Angiography Ordering Behavior in the Emergency Department

Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Simon, Emma; Swartz, Jordan L; Smith, Silas W; Martinez, Leticia Santos; Babb, James S; Horwitz, Leora I; Makarov, Danil V
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of a multimodal intervention in reducing CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) overutilization in the evaluation of suspected pulmonary embolism in the emergency department (ED). METHODS:Previous mixed-methods analysis of barriers to guideline-concordant CTPA ordering results was used to develop a provider-focused behavioral intervention consisting of a clinical decision support tool and an audit and feedback system at a multisite, tertiary academic network. The primary outcome (guideline concordance) and secondary outcomes (yield and CTPA and D-dimer order rates) were compared using a pre- and postintervention design. ED encounters for adult patients from July 5, 2017, to January 3, 2019, were included. Fisher's exact tests and statistical process control charts were used to compare the pre- and postintervention groups for each outcome. RESULTS:Of the 201,912 ED patient visits evaluated, 3,587 included CTPA. Guideline concordance increased significantly after the intervention, from 66.9% to 77.5% (P < .001). CTPA order rate and D-dimer order rate also increased significantly, from 17.1 to 18.4 per 1,000 patients (P = .035) and 30.6 to 37.3 per 1,000 patients (P < .001), respectively. Percent yield showed no significant change (12.3% pre- versus 10.8% postintervention; P = .173). Statistical process control analysis showed sustained special-cause variation in the postintervention period for guideline concordance and D-dimer order rates, temporary special-cause variation for CTPA order rates, and no special-cause variation for percent yield. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our success in increasing guideline concordance demonstrates the efficacy of a mixed-methods, human-centered approach to behavior change. Given that neither of the secondary outcomes improved, our results may demonstrate potential limitations to the guidelines directing the ordering of CTPA studies and D-dimer ordering.
PMID: 37247831
ISSN: 1558-349x
CID: 5543162

Utility of a 2D kinematic HASTE sequence in magnetic resonance imaging assessment of adjacent segment degeneration following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

Burke, Christopher J; Samim, Mohammad; Babb, James S; Walter, William R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate a dynamic half-Fourier acquired single turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) at the junctional level for adjacent segment degeneration comparing dynamic listhesis to radiographs and assessing dynamic cord contact and deformity during flexion-extension METHODS: Patients with ACDF referred for cervical spine MRI underwent a kinematic flexion-extension sagittal 2D HASTE sequence in addition to routine sequences. Images were independently reviewed by three radiologists for static/dynamic listhesis, and compared to flexion-extension radiographs. Blinded assessment of the HASTE sequence was performed for cord contact/deformity between neutral, flexion, and extension, to evaluate concordance between readers and inter-modality agreement. Inter-reader agreement for dynamic listhesis and impingement grade and inter-modality agreement for dynamic listhesis on MRI and radiographs was assessed using the kappa coefficient and percentage concordance. RESULTS:A total of 28 patients, mean age 60.2 years, were included. Mean HASTE acquisition time was 42 s. 14.3% demonstrated high grade dynamic stenosis (> grade 4) at the adjacent segment. There was substantial agreement for dynamic cord impingement with 70.2% concordance (kappa = 0.62). Concordance across readers for dynamic listhesis using HASTE was 81.0% (68/84) (kappa = 0.16) compared with 71.4% (60/84) (kappa = 0.40) for radiographs. Inter-modality agreement between flexion-extension radiographs and MRI assessment for dynamic listhesis across the readers was moderate (kappa = 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 0.67). CONCLUSIONS:A sagittal flexion-extension HASTE cine sequence provides substantial agreement between readers for dynamic cord deformity and moderate agreement between radiographs and MRI for dynamic listhesis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT/CONCLUSIONS:Degeneration of the adjacent segment with instability and myelopathy is one of the most common causes of pain and neurological deterioration requiring re-operation following cervical fusion surgery. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• A real-time kinematic 2D sagittal HASTE flexion-extension sequence can be used to assess for dynamic listhesis, cervical cord, contact and deformity. • The additional kinematic cine sequence was well tolerated and the mean acquisition time for the 2D HASTE sequence was 42 s (range 31-44 s). • A sagittal flexion-extension HASTE cine sequence provides substantial agreement between readers for dynamic cord deformity and moderate agreement between radiographs and MRI for dynamic listhesis.
PMID: 37594524
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 5619202

FDG-PET/MRI for the preoperative diagnosis and staging of peritoneal carcinomatosis: a prospective multireader pilot study

Vietti Violi, Naik; Gavane, Somali; Argiriadi, Pamela; Law, Amy; Heiba, Sherif; Bekhor, Eliahu Y; Babb, James S; Ghesani, Munir; Labow, Daniel M; Taouli, Bachir
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/MRI for the preoperative diagnosis and staging of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) using surgical Sugarbaker's PC index (PCI) as the reference in a multireader pilot study. METHODS:Fourteen adult patients (M/F: 3/11, mean age: 57 ± 12 year) with PC were prospectively included in this single-center study. Patients underwent FDG-PET/MRI prior to surgery (mean delay: 14 d, range: 1-63 d). Images were reviewed independently by 2 abdominal radiologists and 2 nuclear medicine physicians. The radiologists assessed contrast-enhanced abdominal MR images, while the nuclear medicine physicians assessed PET images fused with T2-weighted images. The abdomen was divided in 13 regions, scored from 0 to 3. A hybrid FDG-PET/MRI radiological PCI was created by combining the study data. Radiological PCI was compared to the surgical PCI on a per-patient and per-region basis. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated. RESULTS:Mean surgical PCI was 10 ± 8 (range: 0-24). Inter-reader agreement was almost perfect for all sets for radiologic PCI (Kappa: 0.81-0.98). PCI scores for all reading sets significantly correlated with the surgical PCI score (r range: 0.57-0.74, p range: < 0.001-0.003). Pooled per-patient sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 75%/50%/71.4% for MRI, 66.7%/50%/64.3% for FDG-PET, and 91.7%/50%/85.7% for FDG-PET/MRI, without significant difference (p value range 0.13-1). FDG-PET/MRI achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for a cutoff PCI of 20. Per-region sensitivity and accuracy were lower: 37%/61.8% for MRI, 17.8%/64.3% for FDG-PET, and 52.7%/60.4% for FDG-PET/MRI, with significantly higher sensitivity for FDG-PET/MRI. Per-region specificity was higher for FDG-PET (95%) compared to MRI (78.4%) and FDG-PET/MRI (66.5%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:FDG-PET/MRI achieved an excellent diagnostic accuracy per-patient and weaker performance per-region for detection of PC. The added value of PET/MRI compared to MRI and FDG-PET remains to be determined.
PMID: 36308554
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5359752

Differentiating Imaging Features of Post-lobectomy Right Middle Lobe Torsion

Tamizuddin, Farah; Ocal, Selin; Toussie, Danielle; Azour, Lea; Wickstrom, Maj; Moore, William H; Kent, Amie; Babb, James; Fansiwala, Kush; Flagg, Eric; Ko, Jane P
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to identify differences in imaging features between patients with confirmed right middle lobe (RML) torsion compared to those suspected yet without torsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This retrospective study entailing a search of radiology reports from April 1, 2014, to April 15, 2021, resulted in 52 patients with suspected yet without lobar torsion and 4 with confirmed torsion, supplemented by 2 additional cases before the search period for a total of 6 confirmed cases. Four thoracic radiologists (1 an adjudicator) evaluated chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) examinations, and Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests were used to identify any significant differences in imaging features (P<0.05). RESULTS:A reversed halo sign was more frequent for all readers (P=0.001) in confirmed RML torsion than patients without torsion (83.3% vs. 0% for 3 readers, one the adjudicator). The CT coronal bronchial angle between RML bronchus and bronchus intermedius was larger (P=0.035) in torsion (121.28 degrees) than nontorsion cases (98.26 degrees). Patients with torsion had a higher percentage of ground-glass opacity in the affected lobe (P=0.031). A convex fissure towards the adjacent lobe on CT (P=0.009) and increased lobe volume on CT (P=0.001) occurred more often in confirmed torsion. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A reversed halo sign, larger CT coronal bronchial angle, greater proportion of ground-glass opacity, fissural convexity, and larger lobe volume on CT may aid in early recognition of the rare yet highly significant diagnosis of lobar torsion.
PMID: 37732714
ISSN: 1536-0237
CID: 5614062

Cardiac Phase and Flow Compensation Effects on REnal Flow and Microstructure AnisotroPy MRI in Healthy Human Kidney

Sigmund, Eric E; Mikheev, Artem; Brinkmann, Inge M; Gilani, Nima; Babb, James S; Basukala, Dibash; Benkert, Thomas; Veraart, Jelle; Chandarana, Hersh
BACKGROUND:Renal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) involves microstructure and microcirculation, quantified with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), and hybrid models. A better understanding of their contrast may increase specificity. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To measure modulation of DWI with cardiac phase and flow-compensated (FC) diffusion gradient waveforms. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Prospective. POPULATION/METHODS:Six healthy volunteers (ages: 22-48 years, five females), water phantom. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:3-T, prototype DWI sequence with 2D echo-planar imaging, and bipolar (BP) or FC gradients. 2D Half-Fourier Single-shot Turbo-spin-Echo (HASTE). Multiple-phase 2D spoiled gradient-echo phase contrast (PC) MRI. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:), for each tissue (cortex/medulla, segmented on b0/FA respectively), phase, and waveform (BP, FC). Monte Carlo water diffusion simulations aided data interpretation. STATISTICAL TESTS/METHODS:Mixed model regression probed differences between tissue types and pulse sequences. Univariate general linear model analysis probed variations among cardiac phases. Spearman correlations were measured between diffusion metrics and renal artery velocities. Statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS:, MD for FC. FA correlated significantly with velocity. Monte Carlo simulations indicated medullary measurements were consistent with a 34 μm tubule diameter. DATA CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac gating and flow compensation modulate of measurements of renal diffusion. EVIDENCE LEVEL/METHODS:2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.
PMID: 36399101
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5371702

Characterization of motion dependent magnetic field inhomogeneity for DWI in the kidneys

Gilani, Nima; Mikheev, Artem; Brinkmann, Inge M; Basukala, Dibash; Benkert, Thomas; Kumbella, Malika; Babb, James S; Chandarana, Hersh; Sigmund, Eric E
PURPOSE:Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the abdomen has increased dramatically for both research and clinical purposes. Motion and static field inhomogeneity related challenges limit image quality of abdominopelvic imaging with the most conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. While reversed phase encoded imaging is increasingly used to facilitate distortion correction, it typically assumes one motion independent magnetic field distribution. In this study, we describe a more generalized workflow for the case of kidney DWI in which the field inhomogeneity at multiple respiratory phases is mapped and used to correct all images in a multi-contrast DWI series. METHODS:In this HIPAA-compliant and IRB-approved prospective study, 8 volunteers (6 M, ages 28-51) had abdominal imaging performed in a 3 T MRI system (MAGNETOM Prisma; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) with ECG gating. Coronal oblique T2-weighted HASTE images were collected for anatomical reference. Sagittal phase-contrast (PC) MRI images through the left renal artery were collected to determine systolic and diastolic phases. Cardiac triggered oblique coronal DWI were collected at 10 b-values between 0 and 800 s/mm2 and 12 directions. DWI series were distortion corrected using field maps generated by forward and reversed phase encoded b = 0 images collected over the full respiratory cycle and matched by respiratory phase. Morphologic accuracy, intraseries spatial variability, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were compared for results generated with no distortion correction, correction with only one respiratory bin, and correction with multiple respiratory bins across the breathing cycle. RESULTS:Computed field maps showed significant variation in static field with kidney laterality, region, and respiratory phase. Distortion corrected images showed significantly better registration to morphologic images than uncorrected images; for the left kidney, the multiple bin correction outperformed one bin correction. Line profile analysis showed significantly reduced spatial variation with multiple bins than one bin correction. DTI metrics were mostly similar between correction methods, with some differences observed in MD between uncorrected and corrected datasets. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate improved morphology of kidney DWI and derived parametric maps as well as reduced variability over the full image series using the motion-resolved distortion correction. This work highlights some morphologic and quantitative metric improvements can be obtained for kidney DWI when distortion correction is performed in a respiratory-resolved manner.
PMID: 36924807
ISSN: 1873-5894
CID: 5462552

Deep Learning Reconstruction Enables Prospectively Accelerated Clinical Knee MRI

Johnson, Patricia M; Lin, Dana J; Zbontar, Jure; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Sriram, Anuroop; Muckley, Matthew; Babb, James S; Kline, Mitchell; Ciavarra, Gina; Alaia, Erin; Samim, Mohammad; Walter, William R; Calderon, Liz; Pock, Thomas; Sodickson, Daniel K; Recht, Michael P; Knoll, Florian
Background MRI is a powerful diagnostic tool with a long acquisition time. Recently, deep learning (DL) methods have provided accelerated high-quality image reconstructions from undersampled data, but it is unclear if DL image reconstruction can be reliably translated to everyday clinical practice. Purpose To determine the diagnostic equivalence of prospectively accelerated DL-reconstructed knee MRI compared with conventional accelerated MRI for evaluating internal derangement of the knee in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods A DL reconstruction model was trained with images from 298 clinical 3-T knee examinations. In a prospective analysis, patients clinically referred for knee MRI underwent a conventional accelerated knee MRI protocol at 3 T followed by an accelerated DL protocol between January 2020 and February 2021. The equivalence of the DL reconstruction of the images relative to the conventional images for the detection of an abnormality was assessed in terms of interchangeability. Each examination was reviewed by six musculoskeletal radiologists. Analyses pertaining to the detection of meniscal or ligament tears and bone marrow or cartilage abnormalities were based on four-point ordinal scores for the likelihood of an abnormality. Additionally, the protocols were compared with use of four-point ordinal scores for each aspect of image quality: overall image quality, presence of artifacts, sharpness, and signal-to-noise ratio. Results A total of 170 participants (mean age ± SD, 45 years ± 16; 76 men) were evaluated. The DL-reconstructed images were determined to be of diagnostic equivalence with the conventional images for detection of abnormalities. The overall image quality score, averaged over six readers, was significantly better (P < .001) for the DL than for the conventional images. Conclusion In a clinical setting, deep learning reconstruction enabled a nearly twofold reduction in scan time for a knee MRI and was diagnostically equivalent with the conventional protocol. © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Roemer in this issue.
PMID: 36648347
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5462122

Deep Learning Denoising of Low-Dose Computed Tomography Chest Images: A Quantitative and Qualitative Image Analysis

Azour, Lea; Hu, Yunan; Ko, Jane P; Chen, Baiyu; Knoll, Florian; Alpert, Jeffrey B; Brusca-Augello, Geraldine; Mason, Derek M; Wickstrom, Maj L; Kwon, Young Joon Fred; Babb, James; Liang, Zhengrong; Moore, William H
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess deep learning denoised (DLD) computed tomography (CT) chest images at various low doses by both quantitative and qualitative perceptual image analysis. METHODS:Simulated noise was inserted into sinogram data from 32 chest CTs acquired at 100 mAs, generating anatomically registered images at 40, 20, 10, and 5 mAs. A DLD model was developed, with 23 scans selected for training, 5 for validation, and 4 for test.Quantitative analysis of perceptual image quality was assessed with Structural SIMilarity Index (SSIM) and Fréchet Inception Distance (FID). Four thoracic radiologists graded overall diagnostic image quality, image artifact, visibility of small structures, and lesion conspicuity. Noise-simulated and denoised image series were evaluated in comparison with one another, and in comparison with standard 100 mAs acquisition at the 4 mAs levels. Statistical tests were conducted at the 2-sided 5% significance level, with multiple comparison correction. RESULTS:At the same mAs levels, SSIM and FID between noise-simulated and reconstructed DLD images indicated that images were closer to a perfect match with increasing mAs (closer to 1 for SSIM, and 0 for FID).In comparing noise-simulated and DLD images to standard-dose 100-mAs images, DLD improved SSIM and FID. Deep learning denoising improved SSIM of 40-, 20-, 10-, and 5-mAs simulations in comparison with standard-dose 100-mAs images, with change in SSIM from 0.91 to 0.94, 0.87 to 0.93, 0.67 to 0.87, and 0.54 to 0.84, respectively. Deep learning denoising improved FID of 40-, 20-, 10-, and 5-mAs simulations in comparison with standard-dose 100-mAs images, with change in FID from 20 to 13, 46 to 21, 104 to 41, and 148 to 69, respectively.Qualitative image analysis showed no significant difference in lesion conspicuity between DLD images at any mAs in comparison with 100-mAs images. Deep learning denoising images at 10 and 5 mAs were rated lower for overall diagnostic image quality (P < 0.001), and at 5 mAs lower for overall image artifact and visibility of small structures (P = 0.002), in comparison with 100 mAs. CONCLUSIONS:Deep learning denoising resulted in quantitative improvements in image quality. Qualitative assessment demonstrated DLD images at or less than 10 mAs to be rated inferior to standard-dose images.
PMID: 36790870
ISSN: 1532-3145
CID: 5432132

Replicability of proton MR spectroscopic imaging findings in mild traumatic brain injury: Implications for clinical applications

Chen, Anna M; Gerhalter, Teresa; Dehkharghani, Seena; Peralta, Rosemary; Gajdošík, Mia; Gajdošík, Martin; Tordjman, Mickael; Zabludovsky, Julia; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Ahn, Sinyeob; Babb, James S; Bushnik, Tamara; Zarate, Alejandro; Silver, Jonathan M; Im, Brian S; Wall, Stephen P; Madelin, Guillaume; Kirov, Ivan I
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:H MRS) offers biomarkers of metabolic damage after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but a lack of replicability studies hampers clinical translation. In a conceptual replication study design, the results reported in four previous publications were used as the hypotheses (H1-H7), specifically: abnormalities in patients are diffuse (H1), confined to white matter (WM) (H2), comprise low N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels and normal choline (Cho), creatine (Cr) and myo-inositol (mI) (H3), and correlate with clinical outcome (H4); additionally, a lack of findings in regional subcortical WM (H5) and deep gray matter (GM) structures (H6), except for higher mI in patients' putamen (H7). METHODS:26 mTBI patients (20 female, age 36.5 ± 12.5 [mean ± standard deviation] years), within two months from injury and 21 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were scanned at 3 Tesla with 3D echo-planar spectroscopic imaging. To test H1-H3, global analysis using linear regression was used to obtain metabolite levels of GM and WM in each brain lobe. For H4, patients were stratified into non-recovered and recovered subgroups using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended. To test H5-H7, regional analysis using spectral averaging estimated metabolite levels in four GM and six WM structures segmented from T1-weighted MRI. The Mann-Whitney U test and weighted least squares analysis of covariance were used to examine mean group differences in metabolite levels between all patients and all controls (H1-H3, H5-H7), and between recovered and non-recovered patients and their respectively matched controls (H4). Replicability was defined as the support or failure to support the null hypotheses in accordance with the content of H1-H7, and was further evaluated using percent differences, coefficients of variation, and effect size (Cohen's d). RESULTS:Patients' occipital lobe WM Cho and Cr levels were 6.0% and 4.6% higher than controls', respectively (Cho, d = 0.37, p = 0.04; Cr, d = 0.63, p = 0.03). The same findings, i.e., higher patients' occipital lobe WM Cho and Cr (both p = 0.01), but with larger percent differences (Cho, 8.6%; Cr, 6.3%) and effect sizes (Cho, d = 0.52; Cr, d = 0.88) were found in the comparison of non-recovered patients to their matched controls. For the lobar WM Cho and Cr comparisons without statistical significance (frontal, parietal, temporal), unidirectional effect sizes were observed (Cho, d = 0.07 - 0.37; Cr, d = 0.27 - 0.63). No differences were found in any metabolite in any lobe in the comparison between recovered patients and their matched controls. In the regional analyses, no differences in metabolite levels were found in any GM or WM region, but all WM regions (posterior, frontal, corona radiata, and the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum) exhibited unidirectional effect sizes for Cho and Cr (Cho, d = 0.03 - 0.34; Cr, d = 0.16 - 0.51). CONCLUSIONS:H MRS biomarkers for mTBI may best be achieved by using high signal-to-noise-ratio single-voxels placed anywhere within WM. The biochemical signature of the injury, however, may differ and therefore absolute levels, rather than ratios may be preferred. Future replication efforts should further test the generalizability of these findings.
PMID: 36724732
ISSN: 2213-1582
CID: 5426722

Cardiac MRI of characteristic motion findings in right bundle branch block

Axel, Leon; Kanski, Mikael; Gomez, Geraldine Villasana; Gozansky, Elliott; Babb, James S.
While there have been many descriptions of characteristic motion findings in left bundle branch block (LBBB), there are few published descriptions of such findings in right bundle branch block (RBBB). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of particular regional motion findings in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) studies of patients with RBBB, compared with normal subjects. We focused on three distinctive motion patterns that can be seen in RBBB during early systole: delayed apex-ward motion of the RV base, "reverse septal flash", and "basal bulge". The presence and relative magnitude of these findings were independently scored by four experienced observers, in 3-chamber and 4-chamber CMR cines, for both normal subjects and patients with RBBB. These motion patterns were found to be strongly associated with the presence of RBBB. While only moderately sensitive, they were quite specific for RBBB, when present. In particular, with ROC analysis, a combined feature set of the findings in the 4-chamber view had an area under the curve of 0.81.This previously undescribed set of RBBB-associated early-systolic regional motion features (delayed apex-ward motion of the RV base, "reverse septal flash", and "basal bulge") is strongly suggestive of RBBB when present, particularly in the 4-chamber view. Although here evaluated with CMR, it is also likely to be associated with RBBB when seen with other cardiac imaging modalities.
ISSN: 1569-5794
CID: 5616712