A new technique of deploying dynamic y stent using flexible bronchoscope, video laryngoscope, and laryngeal mask airway
Dynamic Y stents are used in tracheobronchial obstruction, tracheal stenosis, and tracheomalacia. Placement may be difficult and is usually accomplished using a rigid grasping forceps (under fluoroscopic guidance) or a rigid bronchoscope. We report using a new stent placement technique on an elderly patient with a central tracheobronchial tumor. It included using a flexible bronchoscope, video laryngoscope, and laryngeal mask airway. The new technique we used has the advantages of continuous direct endoscopic visualization during stent advancement and manipulation, and securing the airways with a laryngeal mask airway at the same time. This technique eliminates the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy.
Concurrent smoking-related interstitial lung diseases in a single patient [Case Report]
The three smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH). They are considered discrete entities, yet it is not unusual to find a mixture of pathologic features rendering the histopathologic diagnosis difficult. It is uncommon to have overlap in the different radiologic findings between these diseases. We present a unique case, in that the extent of DIP and PLCH-like changes were manifested both histologically and on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with ground-glass attenuation and upper lobe cystic changes suggestive of both diseases.
Mechanical ventilation management by pulmonologists and surgeons in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome
BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is complex, and management by a specialist with expertise in pulmonary mechanics may improve outcomes. We compared mechanical ventilation management of patients with ARDS by pulmonologists and surgeons. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 97 patients with an ICD-9 diagnosis of ARDS at 2 community hospitals. We collected information on demographics and all necessary parameters to calculate the acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score. Main outcomes included mortality and total days spent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and on mechanical ventilation. All outcomes were adjusted for APACHE II score using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Mechanical ventilation was managed by a pulmonologist in 62 patients and by a surgeon in 35 patients. Mortality rate was 35.5% (n = 22) in the patients treated by pulmonologists and 45.7% (n = 16) in patients treated by surgeons (P = 0.32). This result was unaffected by adjustment for APACHE II score. However, those surviving spent fewer days in the ICU (median of 10 vs 16 days; P = 0.07) and fewer days on mechanical ventilation (median of 7 vs 15 days; P = 0.003) when treated by pulmonologists. These results were unaffected by adjustment for APACHE II score. CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients who survived with ARDS spent fewer days on mechanical ventilation, and there was a trend for spending fewer days in the ICU when mechanical ventilation is managed by a pulmonologist compared with a surgeon. There was a lower mortality rate in the pulmonologist group, although this did not reach statistical significance. A small sample size and the retrospective design limit our findings. Further study using a multicenter design to determine if a disease specific specialist improves efficiency of care is needed because if our findings are confirmed, it would translate into significant cost savings.