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Presenting signs and symptoms of artificial urinary sphincter cuff erosion

Diao, Linley; Nealon, Samantha W; Carpinito, Gianpaolo P; Badkhshan, Shervin; Wolfe, Avery R; Dropkin, Benjamin M; Sanders, Sarah C; Hudak, Steven J; Morey, Allen F
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To characterize the most common presentation and clinical risk factors for artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) cuff erosion to distinguish the relative frequency of symptoms that should trigger further evaluation in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed our tertiary center database to identify men who presented with AUS cuff erosion between 2007 - 2020. A similar cohort of men who underwent AUS placement without erosion were randomly selected from the same database for symptom comparison. Risk factors for cuff erosion - pelvic radiation, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8) - were recorded for each patient. Presenting signs and symptoms of cuff erosion were grouped into three categories: obstructive symptoms, worsening incontinence, and localized scrotal inflammation (SI). RESULTS:Of 893 men who underwent AUS placement during the study interval, 61 (6.8%) sustained cuff erosion. Most erosion patients (40/61, 66%) presented with scrotal inflammatory changes including tenderness, erythema, and swelling. Fewer men reported obstructive symptoms (26/61, 43%) and worsening incontinence (21/61, 34%). Men with SI or obstructive symptoms presented significantly earlier than those with worsening incontinence (SI 14 ± 18 vs. obstructive symptoms 15 ± 16 vs. incontinence 37 ± 48 months after AUS insertion, p<0.01). Relative to the non-erosion control group (n=61), men who suffered erosion had a higher prevalence of pelvic radiation (71 vs. 49%, p=0.02). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:AUS cuff erosion most commonly presents as SI symptoms. Obstructive voiding symptoms and worsening incontinence are also common. Any of these symptoms should prompt further investigation of cuff erosion.
PMID: 35503704
ISSN: 1677-6119
CID: 5261622

Long-Term Experience with Balloon Dilation for Short Bulbar and Membranous Urethral Strictures: Establishing a Baseline in the Active Drug Treatment Era

Beeder, Lauren A; Cook, Grayden S; Nealon, Samantha W; Badkhshan, Shervin; Sanders, Sarah C; Perito, Dylan P; Hudak, Steven J; Morey, Allen F
Transurethral balloon dilation (BD) is a minimally invasive treatment for urethral stricture disease (USD) performed primarily or as a recurrence salvage maneuver. With the introduction of drug-coated balloons, we sought to characterize patient outcomes using non-medicated balloons. A retrospective review identified patients who underwent BD from 2007 to 2021. Patient and stricture characteristics were collected. All dilations employed the 24Fr UroMaxTM system. Clinical failure was defined by patient-reported lower urinary tract symptom recurrence or need for further stricture management. Ninety-one patients underwent BD with follow-up median (IQR) 12 (3-40) months. Most (75/91, 82%) had prior treatment for USD (endoscopic 50/91 (55%), 51/91 (56%) urethroplasty) before BD. Recurrence rates did not significantly differ between treatment-naïve and salvage patients (44% vs. 52% (p = 0.55)). Median (IQR) time to failure was 6 (3-13) months. The most common complications were urinary tract infection (8%) and post-operative urinary retention requiring catheterization (3%). Radiation history was noted in 33/91 (36%) with 45% recurrence. Patients without previous radiation had a similar recurrence rate of 52% (p = 0.88). Balloon dilation had minimal complications and overall, 50% recurrence rate, consistent regardless of stricture characteristics, radiation history, or prior treatments. These results represent an important clinical benchmark for comparing outcomes using drug-coated balloons.
PMID: 35683482
ISSN: 2077-0383
CID: 5261632

Cross-sectional Survey-based Study of Underrepresented Minorities in Urology Academic Leadership Roles

Hamann, Harold C; Levine, Jordan; Badkhshan, Shervin; Danforth, Teresa L
OBJECTIVE:To define the current proportion of underrepresented minority (URM) academic urologists in leadership positions. METHODS:A cross-sectional observational study of leadership positions in active United States Urology Residency Programs in 2020 was conducted. Academic urologists in leadership positions were electronically mailed a survey asking about personal and professional demographics. Self-reported variables including administrative position, race, and ethnicity were collected and analyzed. RESULTS:Over the study period, 133 urologists completed the survey out of a possible 320 academic urologists for a response rate of 41.6%. Overall, African-Americans represented 9.0%, Hispanics represented 3.8%, and American Indians/Alaska Natives made up 0.8% of leadership roles in the study sample. African-Americans comprised 8.5% (4 of 47) and Hispanics comprised 2.1% (1 of 47) of department chairs. African-Americans made up 7.4% (4 of 54) and Hispanics made up 1.9% (1 of 54) of program directors. The highest proportion of African-Americans in leadership positions was seen in oncology (18.2%), minimally invasive surgery (18.2%), and general urology (10%). The only subspecialties with Hispanics in leadership positions were in andrology/sexual medicine (16.7%) and female urology (15.4%). There were no reported URMs in leadership positions in endourology, neurourology, pediatrics, and reconstructive urology. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify the representation of URM urologists in academic leadership. There are multiple subspecialties without URMs in leadership positions. This information is vital to understanding the presence and lack of racial representation of the leadership of our field.
PMID: 33610653
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 5261582

Periurethral Abscess Following Urethral Reconstruction: Clinical Features and Prognosis

Cook, Grayden S; Kavoussi, Mehraban; Badkhshan, Shervin; Carpinito, Gianpaolo P; Dropkin, Benjamin M; Bhanvadia, Raj R; Joice, Gregory A; Nealon, Samantha W; Sanders, Sarah C; Hudak, Steven J; Morey, Allen F
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical and prognostic details of periurethral abscess (PUA) formation following urethroplasty (UP). METHODS:A retrospective review was performed to identify men who developed PUA after UP between 2007 and 2019 at a single tertiary care referral center. Patient demographics, stricture characteristics, and UP technique were recorded. Outcomes included time to PUA, presenting symptoms, wound cultures, imaging, and ultimate management. Comparative analysis between PUA and non-PUA patients was performed using Fisher's Exact test and Student's t-test. RESULTS:Among 1499 UP cases, 9 (0.6%) developed PUA. Mean stricture length was 4.6 cm with most located in the bulbar urethra (5/9, 56%), while 4/9 (44%) had undergone prior UP. PUA rates were 7/288 (2.4%) and 2/815 (0.3%) for substitution and anastomotic UP respectively. Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) demonstrated extravasation in 67% (4/6) of available UP cases imaged. Subsequent VCUG confirmed leak improvement or resolution in all cases. Wound cultures were frequently polymicrobial (4/6, 67%). Management included antibiotics with (6/9) and without (3/9) incision and drainage (I/D). Urinary drainage was performed in 5 patients using suprapubic tube (3/5) and foley placement (2/5). PUA resolution was observed in all patients while stricture symptom recurrence was observed in 2/9 (22%) patients with mean time to recurrence of 15 months. Overall mean follow-up time was 22 months. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:PUA is a rare complication of UP that may be more common in setting of postoperative urine leak. PUA is safely managed with I/D, urethral rest, and antibiotics, with low risk of recurrent stricture formation thereafter.
PMID: 34979218
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 5261612

#UroStream101: Social Media as a Medium for Mentorship in Urology

Ernst, Michael; Badkhshan, Shervin
OBJECTIVE:Show feasibility of and develop a program to provide mentorship for applicants to urology residency during COVID-19 using a virtual program, #UroStream101. METHODS:Urology resident volunteers were paired with fourth year medical students based on shared areas of urologic interest and geographic location. A mentorship guide was provided. Mentees were offered an opportunity to design a twitter based educational resource, tweetorial, with mentor supervision. Program success was assessed by participation and with MEMeQ, a validated mentorship assessment survey. RESULTS:A total of 111 students and 93 urology residents enlisted in #Urostream101. All AUA sections were represented. At time of enrollment, 19% (n = 21) of medical students lacked affiliation with urology department, 24% (n = 27) lacked urology mentors, and 32% (n = 36) had no formal clinical exposure to urology. Many students joined twitter during the application cycle (45% within 1 month of enrollment, n = 50) for solely professional reasons (71% of participants, n = 79). When asked their top priority in participating in #UroStream101, most students answered resident mentorship (61%, n = 68) followed by exposure to a geographically distant urology program (32%, n = 36). Twenty tweetorials were created spanning the breadth of urology. A total of 29 students (26%) completed the full MEMeQ evaluation survey, assessing a student's goals and satisfaction with mentor. Overall program satisfaction was 6.1/7 on Likert scale, "very satisfied." Students identified program selection and ERAS application assistance as their main goals. CONCLUSION:#UroStream101 was a successful mentorship program for students interested in urology. This was desperately needed during an atypical application cycle and provides invaluable insight into further development of formal mentorship programs.
PMID: 34411596
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 5261592

Radiographic Assessment of Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Location Variability in Contemporary Practice

Kavoussi, Mehraban; Cook, Grayden S; Nordeck, Shaun M; Dropkin, Benjamin M; Joice, Gregory A; Badkhshan, Shervin; Sanders, Sarah C; Hudak, Steven J; Pruitt, Jeffrey H; Morey, Allen F
BACKGROUND:Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) reservoirs are typically placed into the Space of Retzius (SOR) or alternative locations including the High Submuscular (HSM) space via transinguinal (TI) or counter incision (CI) techniques. A cadaver study showed variability in reservoir location after TI-HSM placement. AIM:To evaluate reservoir location using cross-sectional imaging following IPP insertion. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database and identified men who underwent virgin penoscrotal IPP insertion between 2007 and 2019. We then identified those men who subsequently underwent cross-sectional imaging prior to October 2019. Radiologists evaluated cross-sectional imaging in a blinded manner and categorized reservoir locations as follows: 1) submuscular; 2) posterior to the external oblique fascia and lateral to the rectus abdominis musculature; 3) preperitoneal; 4) retroperitoneal; 5) intraperitoneal; 6) inguinal canal; 7) subcutaneous. Patients were stratified by reservoir placement technique, transinguinal space of Retzius (TI-SOR), transinguinal high submuscular (TI-HSM), or counterincision high submuscular (CI-HSM). Clinical characteristics and outcomes were reviewed and compared. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. OUTCOMES:Variability exists in the TI placement of SOR and HSM reservoirs, CI-HSM reservoirs were associated with a low level of variability. RESULTS:Among 561 men who underwent virgin IPP insertion during the 12-year study period, 114 had postoperative cross-sectional imaging (29 TI-SOR, 80 TI-HSM, and 5 CI-HSM). Among the 114 patients imaged, TI-HSM reservoirs were more likely than TI-SOR to be located anterior to the transversalis fascia (48 vs 14%, P < .01) and were less likely to be located in the preperitoneal space (18 vs 62%, P < .01). Rates of intraperitoneal reservoir location were similar between the TI-HSM and TI-SOR groups (5 vs 7%, P = .66). Among imaged CI-HSM reservoirs, 4 (80%) were anterior to the transversalis fascia and 1 (20%) was within the inguinal canal. Among all 536 transinguinal cases (131 TI-SOR and 405 TI-HSM), rates of reservoir-related complications requiring operative intervention were similar between groups (5 vs 2%, P = .24). No complications were noted among the 25 patients in the CI-HSM cohort. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS:The level of variability seen in this study did not seem to impact patient safety, complications were rare in all cohorts. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS:This study is the first and largest of its kind in evaluating reservoir positioning in live patients with long-term follow-up. This study is limited in its retrospective and nonrandomized nature. CONCLUSIONS:Despite variability with both TI-HSM and TI-SOR techniques, reservoir related complications remain rare. Kavoussi M, Cook G, Nordeck S, et al. Radiographic Assessment of Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Location Variability in Contemporary Practice. J Sex Med 2021;18:2039-2044.
PMID: 34753688
ISSN: 1743-6109
CID: 5261602


Ernst, Michael; Badkhshan, Shervin
ISSN: 0022-5347
CID: 5261692

Hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus totalis [Case Report]

Chevli, Eric M; Maiers, Tyler J; Abramowitz, David J; Badkhshan, Shervin; Bodkin, John J
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare condition with left-right mirror imaging of both abdominal and thoracic organs. While this configuration is rarely of medical importance, an understanding of this unique anatomy is essential in the setting of surgical intervention. Here we review a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the setting of SIT. The patient underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Pathology revealed pT3aNxMx Fuhrman Grade 2 clear cell RCC.
PMID: 31788431
ISSN: 2214-4420
CID: 5261572


Cheema, Amandip; Bragayrac, Luciano Nunez; Hussein, Ahmed; Attwood, Kristopher; Badkhshan, Shervin; Pop, Elena; James, Gaybrielle; Osei, Jennifer; Murekeysoni, Christine; Kauffman, Eric
ISSN: 0022-5347
CID: 5261682

Identification and Validation of Radiographic Enhancement for Reliable Differentiation of CD117(+) Benign Renal Oncocytoma and Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

Amin, Jay; Xu, Bo; Badkhshan, Shervin; Creighton, Terrance T; Abbotoy, Daniel; Murekeyisoni, Christine; Attwood, Kristopher M; Schwaab, Thomas; Hendler, Craig; Petroziello, Michael; Roche, Charles L; Kauffman, Eric C
PMID: 29752278
ISSN: 1557-3265
CID: 5261562