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Swallow efficiency in patients with pulmonary disease due to nontuberculous mycobacteria [Meeting Abstract]

Balou, M; Kamelhar, D
Introduction: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an intracellular microorganism that causes cavitary disease and nodular bronchiectatic disease of the lung. Patients with NTM appear to have impaired swallow function as represented by impaired airway protection and pharyngeal bolus clearance. It is unknown whether impaired swallowing contributes to the pathophysiology of NTM. Our aim is to determine swallow physiology in patients with bronchiectasis and NTM compared with a control group.
Method(s): Video fluoroscopy (VF) was prospectively collected from 195 patients: 132 patients with NTM (90 females; ages 30-90) and 63 agematched and sex-matched controlswith noNTM(39 females; ages 27-92). Two boluses of 3, 5, 10ml thin liquid, two 5ml puree Varibar, and cracker were analyzed per subject (N = 1755 swallows). Outcome measures included ordinal ratings of residue in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses.
Result(s): Inter-and intra-rater reliability of the ordinal ratings were assessed using one-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1)) on 20% of the data with good results (intra-rater: ICC = 0.92, 95% range CI 0.70-0.97 and inter-rater: ICC = 0.92, 95% range CI 0.81-0.97). The ratings of residue in the valleculae were significantly higher (worse) in the NTM group compared to the control group for one of the 3mL bolus (p = 0.008), for both 5 mL boluses (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), both 10mL boluses (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0006), puree (p = 0.006), cracker (p = 0.005). The ratings of residue in the pyriform sinuses were also significantly higher in the NTM group for 3 mL boluses (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.01), both 5 mL boluses (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.002), both 10mL boluses (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001), both puree trials (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001).
Conclusion(s): Future work is needed to elucidate responsiveness to swallowing treatment for patients with NTM
EMBASE:631571547
ISSN: 1432-0460
CID: 4413792

Swallow function and airway protection in patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria [Meeting Abstract]

Balou, M; Salvo, C; Hon, S; Castillo, G; Casale, M; Wang, B; Kamelhar, D
Purpose: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause clinically significant lung disease and frequent pneumonias. It is unknown whether impaired swallowing contributes to the pathophysiology of NTM. Patients with NTM may exhibit decreased airway protection. Our aim is to determine airway protection and bolus clearance in patients with NTM. Method(s): Videofluoroscopy (VF) was prospectively collected from 98 patients with NTM (67 female; ages 33-88). Two boluses of 3,5,10 ml thin liquid, two 5 cc puree Varibar, cracker were analyzed per subject (N = 980 swallows).Outcome measures included Penetration/Aspiration Scale (PAS) and ordinal ratings of residue in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses. Worst PAS scores categorized subject as unsafe (C 3) or safe (B 2). The correlation between clinical information and the present of penetration/aspiration and pharyngeal residue structures was analyzed. Result(s): Inter-and intra-rater reliability of PAS ratings were assessed using two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) on 20% of the data with excellent results (intra-rater: ICC 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-0.98 and inter-rater: ICC 0.85, 95% CI 0.69-0.92). The proportion of impaired swallows in the whole dataset was 12.9% (127/980 swallows with PAS scores C 3). There was no correlation between presence of penetration/aspiration and pharyngeal residue with productive cough, pneumonia, smoking history and presence of acid reflux. Conclusions (Including Clinical Relevance): Patients with NTM appear to have impaired swallow function as represented by impaired airway protection. Future work should explore swallowing physiology compared to a control group
EMBASE:628578275
ISSN: 1432-0460
CID: 4001222

An intensive swallowing exercise protocol for improving swallowing physiology in older adults with radiographically confirmed dysphagia

Balou, Matina; Herzberg, Erica G; Kamelhar, David; Molfenter, Sonja M
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:The aim of this study was to investigate improvements in swallowing function and physiology in a series of healthy older adults with radiographically confirmed dysphagia, following completion of an exercise-based swallowing intervention. Patients and methods/UNASSIGNED:Nine otherwise healthy older adults (six females, mean age =75.3, SD =5.3) had confirmed impairments in swallowing safety and/or efficiency on a modified barium swallow study. Each participant completed an 8-week swallowing treatment protocol including effortful swallows, Mendelsohn maneuvers, tongue-hold swallows, supraglottic swallows, Shaker exercises and effortful pitch glides. Treatment sessions were conducted once per week with additional daily home practice. Penetration-Aspiration Scale and the Modified Barium Swallowing Impairment Profile (MBSImP) were scored in a blind and randomized fashion to examine changes to swallowing function and physiology from baseline to post-treatment. Results/UNASSIGNED:There were significant improvements in swallowing physiology as represented by improved oral and pharyngeal composite scores of the MBSImP. Specific components to demonstrate statistical improvement included initiation of the pharyngeal swallow, laryngeal elevation and pharyngeal residue. There was a nonsignificant reduction in median PAS scores. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Swallowing physiology can be improved using this standardized high-intensity exercise protocol in healthy adults with evidence of dysphagia. Future research is needed to examine the individual potential of each exercise in isolation and to determine ideal dose and frequency. Studies on various etiological groups are warranted.
PMCID:6375531
PMID: 30804667
ISSN: 1178-1998
CID: 3698302

Outcomes of a standardized exercise protocol in healthy adults with incidental findings of swallowing impairment on video fluoroscopy [Meeting Abstract]

Balou, M; Herzberg, E G; Kamelhar, D; Molfenter, S M
Purpose: Despite being widely adopted in clinical practice, the rehabilitative potential of swallowing exercises is not well documented (Langmore & Pisegna, 2015). While collecting a sample of 98 videofluoroscopies (VF) from healthy individuals to serve as a control group for an unrelated study, we discovered 13 subjects with incidental findings of impaired swallowing (safety and/or efficiency deficits). Our purpose was to explore the impact of a standardized 'one-size-fits-all' treatment (tx) protocol on impaired swallowing function in this cohort of otherwise healthy individuals. Method(s): 13 healthy individuals (9 F, mean age = 71.5, SD = 11.9) completed 8 weeks of swallowing exercises. Treatment sessions (once per week) consisted of 20 repetitions of each of the following exercises: effortful swallows, tongue hold swallows, supraglottic swallows, Shaker exercises and Mendelsohn maneuvers, as well as 10 repetitions of effortful pitch glides. Subjects were also asked to complete daily homework consisting of 3 additional treatment sets per day. VF was collected pre-and post-tx with a standardized protocol and scored using the MBSimPTM method. Scores for components 1-5 and 6-16 were combined for an oral total (OT) and pharyngeal total (PT) respectively. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compared OT and PT scores from pre-to post-tx. Result(s): The pre-tx and post-tx OT median scores remained unchanged (4). The median PT score was 10 pre-tx (range 2-14) and reduced to 7 post-tx (range 3-11), though this change narrowly missed statistical significance (Z =-1.99; p = .058). Post-hoc evaluations revealed that 8 subjects demonstrated improved PT scores, 2 worsened, 3 were unchanged and that the greatest changes came from components 6 (initiation of the pharyngeal swallow), 8 (laryngeal elevation), 15 (tongue base retraction) and 16 (pharyngeal residue). Conclusions (Including Clinical Relevance): Our sample of otherwise healthy individuals with VF evidence of impaired swallowing completed a standardized 'one-size-fits-all' approach to dysphagia rehabilitation that is common place in clinical practice. The approach appeared to rehabilitate aspects of swallowing function-especially in the pharyngeal phase-for the majority of subjects. Future research should compare physiologically-targeted exercises with one-size-fits all approaches. Further investigations into dose, frequency and maintenance of exercise interventions will be vital contributions
EMBASE:631570687
ISSN: 1432-0460
CID: 4413802

Pharyngeal bolus clearance in patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria [Meeting Abstract]

Balou, M; Castillo, G; Wang, B; Kamelhar, D
Purpose: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an intracellular microorganism that causes cavitary disease and nodular bronchiectatic disease of the lung. Common symptoms include chronic cough, sputum production and frequent pneumonias. Patients with NTM appear to have impaired swallow function as represented by impaired airway protection. Our aim is to determine bolus clearance in patients with NTM compared with a control. Method(s): Videofluoroscopy (VF) was prospectively collected from 195 patients:132 patients with NTM (90 females; ages 30-90) and 63 age-and sex-matched normal controls with normal pulmonary function tests and no pulmonary disease (39 females; ages 27-92).Two boluses of 3, 5, 10 mL thin liquid, two 5 mL puree Varibar, and cracker were analyzed per subject (N = 1,755 swallows).Outcome measures included ordinal ratings of residue in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses. The correlation between clinical information and the present of pharyngeal residue structures was analyzed by Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon's rank sum test for comparisons of continuous variables between groups. Result(s): Inter-and intra-rater reliability of the ordinal ratings were assessed using two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) on 20% of the data with good results (intra-rater: ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.70-0.97 and inter-rater: ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.81-0.97).The ratings of residue in the valleculae were significantly higher in the NTM group compared to the control group for one of the 3 mL bolus (p = 0.008), for 5 mL boluses (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), 10 mL boluses (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0006), puree (p = 0.006), cracker (p = 0.005).The ratings of residue in the pyriform sinuses were also significantly higher in the NTM group for 3 mL boluses (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.01), 5 mL boluses (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.002), 10 mL boluses (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001), puree trials (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001).Wilcoxon's rank sum test determined no age difference and Fisher's exact test determined no gender difference between the NTM and control groups. Conclusions (Including Clinical Relevance): Patients with NTM appear to have reduced bolus clearance than healthy individuals with no pulmonary disease, as represented by ratings of residue in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses.Future work is needed to elucidate the interaction between the respiratory-swallowing systems and airway protection and responsiveness to swallowing treatment for patients with NTM
EMBASE:631570672
ISSN: 1432-0460
CID: 4413812

Quantifying pharyngeal edema over time in head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation [Meeting Abstract]

Molfenter, S M; Turcotte, M C; Herzberg, E G; Balou, M
Introduction: Edema is a frequent clinical observation after chemoradiation treatment (CRT) for oral/oropharyngeal cancer (O/OP Ca). Our aims were to reliably quantify edema from video fluoroscopy (VF) at 3 time points (baseline 1-month (mo) and 4-mo post CRT) and to explore the relationship between edema and (a) patient-reported outcomes (EAT-10) and (b) functional impairment on VF (Dynamic Imaging Grade of Swallowing Toxicity DIGEST).
Material(s) and Method(s): 15 patients (7 M; age 38-76) with O/OP Ca received radiotherapy (70 Gy 7 weeks) and 3 weekly doses of cisplatin. VF was completed pre-CRT 1-mo and 4-mo post-CRT. Edema was captured by measuring posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) thickness and pharyngeal area (PA) at rest. EAT-10 surveys were completed on the day of VF. DIGEST scores were rated according to published protocols. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were run for each edema measure (PPW PA) to test for the effect of TIME EAT-10 and DIGEST while controlling for age and sex.
Result(s): For PPW we found a main effect of TIME but not EAT-10 or DIGEST (Table 1). Post-hoc comparisons revealed a significant worsening from mean at baseline (4.1 mm) to 4-mo post CRT (6.0 mm) but not at 1-mo post CRT (5.4 mm). For PA we found a main effect of TIME and of DIGEST grade (Table 2). Mean PA was significantly smaller at 1-mo post CRT (527 mm2) compared with baseline (716 mm2) but not different from 4-mo post CRT (652 mm2). Mean PA was significantly greater for grade 2 (751 mm2) compared with grade 0 (442 mm2) contrary to the hypothesized direction.
Conclusion(s): The data confirm that post-CRT edema can be quantified on 2D lateral VF. Patient reported outcomes (EAT-10) were not independently predictive of edema. Surprisingly worse DIGEST grades were associated with increased pharyngeal area at rest perhaps reflecting impairment associated with pharyngeal atrophy not edema. Future work should monitor patients' edema and swallow function over a longer time period and at a greater frequency
EMBASE:631603502
ISSN: 1432-0460
CID: 4425862

Correlation between video fluoroscopic swallow study and laryngological clinical evaluation in patients with cough [Meeting Abstract]

Balou, M; Dion, G R; Brates, D; Amin, M
Introduction: Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) are commonly requested by otolaryngologists to evaluate swallow function in patients with cough but no data exists on the utility of VFSS in this population. We aim to determine which history clinical exam and laryngoscopy findings correlate with abnormal VFSS findings in patients with cough.
Material(s) and Method(s): Ten items from flexible videolaryngoscopy were recorded including: motion abnormalities pooling of secretions pharyngeal asymmetry and glottal insufficiency. VFSS findings recorded included penetration aspiration delayed initiation and presence of residue after swallow. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed to determine correlations between history and clinical exam observation and VFSS findings. A total of 405 patients with a chief complaint of cough were referred to speech language pathology. Of those 107 had a VFSS and 93 had an esophagram. Forty-five patients had a VFSS after referral and were included in the analysis.
Result(s): Age (p = 0.35) glottal insufficiency (p = 0.33) pooling of secretions (p = 0.10) any videolaryngoscopy abnormality (p = 0.07) cardiopulmonary history (p = 0.29) and other variables did not correlate VFSS abnormalities in patients with cough. Only gender (p = 0.02) was a predictor of an abnormal VFSS (86% males and 57% females).
Conclusion(s): This study found that videolaryngoscopy and clinical exam were not predictive of VFSS abnormalities in patients with cough
EMBASE:631602527
ISSN: 1432-0460
CID: 4425872

Analysis of pharyngeal edema post-chemoradiation for head and neck cancer: Impact on swallow function

Turcotte, Maria C; Herzberg, Erica G; Balou, Matina; Molfenter, Sonja M
Objectives/UNASSIGNED:Edema is a frequent clinical observation following chemoradiation treatment (CRT) of oral/oropharyngeal cancer and is thought to contribute to post-CRT swallowing impairment. Our aims were to reliably quantify pharyngeal edema pre- and post-CRT from videofluoroscopic (VF) swallowing studies and to explore the relationship between edema and swallowing impairment. Swallowing impairment was captured using patient-reported swallowing outcomes (EAT-10) and with VF confirmation of impairment (DIGEST). Methods/UNASSIGNED:40 patients (24 M, age 38-76) with oral/oropharyngeal cancer received radiotherapy (70 Gy, 7 weeks) and 3 weekly doses of cisplatin. VF and EAT-10 were completed pre- and 1-month post-CRT. Edema was captured by measuring posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) thickness, vallecular space, and pharyngeal area (PA) on a single post-swallow rest frame. Wilcoxon sign rank tests and paired t-tests evaluated within-subject changes in impairment and edema respectively. A linear mixed effect regression model explored the influence of time, patient-reported outcomes, and functional impairment on measures of edema. Results/UNASSIGNED:Swallowing function (EAT-10 and DIGEST) was significantly worse post-CRT. PPW thickness (but not vallecular space and pharyngeal area) was significantly worse post-CRT. PPW thickness was only significantly influenced by time (pre- vs. post-CRT) but not by measures of swallow function. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Our findings establish the use of PPW thickness as a reliable measure of acute edema in post-CRT treatment. In this small, retrospective sample, edema was not significantly correlated with either patient-reported or measured swallow function. Prospective longitudinal work, examining the relationship between objective measures of edema, patient perception of impairment, and swallow function and biomechanics is warranted. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:4.
PMID: 30410991
ISSN: 0023-852x
CID: 3413282

Respiratory care in familial dysautonomia: Systematic review and expert consensus recommendations

Kazachkov, Mikhail; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Spalink, Christy L; Barnes, Erin P; Amoroso, Nancy E; Balou, Stamatela M; Bess, Shay; Chopra, Arun; Condos, Rany; Efrati, Ori; Fitzgerald, Kathryn; Fridman, David; Goldenberg, Ronald M; Goldhaber, Ayelet; Kaufman, David A; Kothare, Sanjeev V; Levine, Jeremiah; Levy, Joseph; Lubinsky, Anthony S; Maayan, Channa; Moy, Libia C; Rivera, Pedro J; Rodriguez, Alcibiades J; Sokol, Gil; Sloane, Mark F; Tan, Tina; Kaufmann, Horacio
BACKGROUND:Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome, hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type-III) is a rare genetic disease caused by impaired development of sensory and afferent autonomic nerves. As a consequence, patients develop neurogenic dysphagia with frequent aspiration, chronic lung disease, and chemoreflex failure leading to severe sleep disordered breathing. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disorders in familial dysautonomia. METHODS:We performed a systematic review to summarize the evidence related to our questions. When evidence was not sufficient, we used data from the New York University Familial Dysautonomia Patient Registry, a database containing ongoing prospective comprehensive clinical data from 670 cases. The evidence was summarized and discussed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts. Evidence-based and expert recommendations were then formulated, written, and graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. RESULTS:Recommendations were formulated for or against specific diagnostic tests and clinical interventions. Diagnostic tests reviewed included radiological evaluation, dysphagia evaluation, gastroesophageal evaluation, bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage, pulmonary function tests, laryngoscopy and polysomnography. Clinical interventions and therapies reviewed included prevention and management of aspiration, airway mucus clearance and chest physical therapy, viral respiratory infections, precautions during high altitude or air-flight travel, non-invasive ventilation during sleep, antibiotic therapy, steroid therapy, oxygen therapy, gastrostomy tube placement, Nissen fundoplication surgery, scoliosis surgery, tracheostomy and lung lobectomy. CONCLUSIONS:Expert recommendations for the diagnosis and management of respiratory disease in patients with familial dysautonomia are provided. Frequent reassessment and updating will be needed.
PMCID:6084453
PMID: 30053970
ISSN: 1532-3064
CID: 3216612

Comprehensive swallowing rehabilitation after full face transplantation: A case report [Meeting Abstract]

Balou, M; Rodriguez, E D
Purpose: Facial composite defects resulting from trauma can cause devastating and life limiting deformities. Full face transplants have been restoring the oral cavity and the upper airway in a single stage procedure. Literature on face transplants mostly consists of detailed surgical techniques and allograft selection, but do not constitute a compilation of data on postoperative outcomes such as swallow function. This is the first reported case of systematic review of the swallowing rehabilitation course post-facial transplantation. Method(s): Fourty one-year old male with oropharyngeal dysphagia after full face vascularized allotransplant is presented. Videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) was conducted prior to surgery and at 8 time points post-operatively (day 13, 26, 48, 63, 77, 105, 6 months and 9 months) to assess swallow function. Outcome measures included Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) and ordinal ratings of residue in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses for 3 and 5 ml thin liquid boluses. Worst PAS scores categorized subject as unsafe (>=3) or safe (<=2). Result(s): Despite rigorous daily swallow treatment, the patient's liquid dysphagia did not imrpove. Unsafe PAS (>=3) were present in the first 7 VFSS post-operatively for 3 ml and 5 ml thin liquid boluses. Worse residue was noted in pyriform sinuses vs. valleculae in all VFSS. Conclusions (Including Clinical Relevance): Early swallow treatment is crucial for safety and successful oral intake of thin liquid postfull facial transplantation. Future analyses will examine the relationship between post-operatively edema and residue with the longterm goal of maximizing therapeutic protocols
EMBASE:619557772
ISSN: 1432-0460
CID: 2862842