Perioperative cardiovascular outcomes among older adults undergoing in-hospital noncardiac surgery
BACKGROUND:Older adults undergoing noncardiac surgery have a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). This study aims to estimate the magnitude of increased perioperative risk, and examine national trends in perioperative MACE following in-hospital noncardiac surgery in older adults compared to middle-aged adults. DESIGN/METHODS:Time-series analysis of retrospective longitudinal data. SETTING/METHODS:The United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Inpatient Sample (NIS). PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Hospitalizations for major noncardiac surgery among adults age â‰¥45â€‰years between January 2004 and December 2014. MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Inpatient perioperative MACE was defined as a composite of in-hospital death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke. In hospital death was determined from the NIS discharge disposition. MI and ischemic stroke were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. RESULTS:Of an estimated 55,349,978 surgical hospitalizations, 26,423,039 (47.7%) were for adults age 45-64, 14,231,386 (25.7%) age 65-74, 10,621,029 (19.2%) age 75-84â€‰years, and 4,074,523 (7.4%) age â‰¥85â€‰years. MACE occurred in 1,601,022 surgical hospitalizations (2.9%). Adults 65-74 (2.8%; aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.14-1.17), 75-84â€‰years (4.5%; aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.28-1.32), and â‰¥85â€‰years (6.9%; aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.52-1.57) had greater risk of MACE than those 45-64â€‰years (1.7%). From 2004 to 2014, MACE declined among adults 65-74 (3.1-2.5%, pÂ <â€‰0.001), 75-85â€‰years (4.9-3.9%, pÂ <â€‰0.001), and â‰¥85â€‰years (7.7-6.1%, pÂ <â€‰0.001), but was unchanged for adults age 45-64. Declines in MACE were driven by decreased MI and mortality despite increased stroke. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Older adults accounted for half of hospitalizations, but experienced the majority of MACE. Older adults had greater adjusted odds of MACE than younger individuals. The proportion of perioperative MACE declined over time, despite increases in ischemic stroke. These data highlight risks of noncardiac surgery in older adults that warrant increased attention to improve perioperative outcomes.
Association between Heart Failure and Perioperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery
BACKGROUND:Heart failure (HF) affects âˆ¼5.7 million United States adults and many of these patients develop non-cardiac disease that requires surgery. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative outcomes associated with HF in a large cohort of patients undergoing in-hospital non-cardiac surgery. METHODS:Adults â‰¥18 years old undergoing non-cardiac surgery between 2012-2014 were identified using the HCUP National Inpatient Sample. Patients with HF were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis codes. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between HF and outcomes. RESULTS:A total of 21,560,996 surgical hospitalizations were identified, of which 1,063,405 (4.9%) had a diagnosis of HF. Among hospitalizations with HF, 4.7% had acute HF, 11.3% had acute on chronic HF, 27.8% had chronic HF, and 56.2% had an indeterminate diagnosis code that did not specify temporality. In-hospital perioperative mortality was more common with a diagnosis of any HF compared to without HF (4.8% vs. 0.78%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001; adjusted OR [aOR] 2.15 [95% CI 2.09-2.22]), and the association between HF and mortality was greatest at small and non-teaching hospitals. Acute HF without chronic HF was associated with 8.0% mortality. Among patients with a chronic HF diagnosis, perioperative mortality was greater in those with acute on chronic HF compared to chronic HF alone (7.8% vs. 3.9%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001; aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.67-1.90). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In patients hospitalized for non-cardiac surgery, HF was common and was associated with increased risk of perioperative mortality. The greatest risks were in patients with acute HF.
SEX DIFFERENCES IN EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF YOUNG ADULTS PRESENTING TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT WITH CHEST PAIN [Meeting Abstract]
Early Termination of Cardiac Rehabilitation Is More Common With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction Than With Ischemic Heart Disease
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Despite known benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), early termination (failure to complete >1 mo of CR) attenuates these benefits. We analyzed whether early termination varied by referral indication in the context of recent growth in patients referred for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS:We reviewed records from 1111 consecutive patients enrolled in the NYU Langone Health Rusk CR program (2013-2017). Sessions attended, demographics, and comorbidities were abstracted, as well as primary referral indication: HFrEF or ischemic heart disease (IHD; including post-coronary revascularization, post-acute myocardial infarction, or chronic stable angina). We compared rates of early termination between HFrEF and IHD, and used multivariable logistic regression to determine whether differences persisted after adjusting for relevant characteristics (age, race, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and depression). RESULTS:Mean patient age was 64 yr, 31% were female, and 28% were nonwhite. Most referrals (85%) were for IHD; 15% were for HFrEF. Early termination occurred in 206 patients (18%) and was more common in HFrEF (26%) than in IHD (17%) (P < .01). After multivariable adjustment, patients with HFrEF remained at higher risk of early termination than patients with IHD (unadjusted OR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.17-2.54; adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.01-2.31). CONCLUSIONS:Nearly 1 in 5 patients in our program terminated CR within 1 mo, with HFrEF patients at higher risk than IHD patients. While broad efforts at preventing early termination are warranted, particular attention may be required in patients with HFrEF.
Time to diagnostic resolution after an uncertain screening mammogram in an underserved population
BACKGROUND:Screening mammography has reduced breast cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Approximately 10% of patients require further diagnostic testing after an uncertain screening mammogram (Breast imaging reporting and data system [BI-RADS]Â =Â 0), and time to diagnostic resolution varies after BI-RADSÂ =Â 0 screening mammogram. There is little data about factors associated with diagnostic resolution in patients of Chinese origin ("Chinese") receiving care in the US. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis to identify patterns of diagnostic resolution in an urban US hospital with a large population of Chinese patients. We evaluated whether location of primary care provider (PCP) impacted time to resolution among Chinese patients, hypothesizing that patients with a PCP outside of the hospital would have longer time to diagnostic resolution than those patients with a PCP within the institution. RESULTS:Between 2015 and 2016, 368 patients at Tufts Medical Center (Tufts MC) had resulting BI-RADSÂ =Â 0 after screening mammogram. The majority of patients (341/368, 93%) achieved diagnostic resolution with median time to resolution 27Â days (Q1: 14, Q3: 40). Seven percent (27/368) never achieved resolution. Among those with diagnostic resolution, 10% of patients required >60Â days to achieve resolution. Chinese origin, no previous breast cancer, subsidized insurance, and outside referring physician were associated with longer time to resolution in univariable analysis. In multivariable regression, after adjusting for age, insurance, marital status, and prior breast cancer, Chinese patients with Tufts MC PCP experienced timelier diagnostic resolution vs Chinese patients without a Tufts MC PCP (hazard ratio [HR]Â =Â 1.85, PÂ =Â .02). Location of PCP did not impact time to resolution among non-Chinese patients. CONCLUSION:We identified patterns of diagnostic resolution in an urban hospital with a large historically underserved population. We found that Chinese patients without integrated primary care within the institution are at risk for delayed diagnostic resolution. Future interventions need to target at-risk patients to prevent loss of follow-up after uncertain screening mammogram.
Early termination of cardiac rehabilitation in older adults [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Among older adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD), cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has multiple benefits including improved quality of life and reduced mortality. Despite the known benefits of CR, early termination (ET) by patients (attending <12/36 recommended sessions) may attenuate these benefits. Our aim was to determine the incidence of ET in our older adult patient population, as well as risk factors associated with this outcome.
Method(s): We reviewed records from 792 consecutive older adult patients (>= 65 years old) enrolled in the NYU Langone Rusk CR program (2013-2017). Sessions attended, demographics, comor-bidities, and primary referral diagnosis were abstracted. We analyzed the overall rate of ET (defined as attending <12 sessions). Categorical variables were described with percentages and continuous variables with mean values. Multivariable logistic regression was subsequently used to analyze predictors of ET, considering age, race, ethnicity, sex, body mass index, diabetes, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke.
Result(s): In our total study population, mean age was 74 +/- 7 years, mean BMI was 26 +/- 5, 38% were female, and 18% were nonwhite. Most patients (65%) were referred to CR due to ischemic heart disease (chronic stable angina, post-myocardial infarction, CABG, or elective PCI), with an additional 23% referred for valvular heart disease, 9% for systolic heart failure, and 3% for congenital heart disease. Early termination occurred in 129 patients (16.3%). Patients who terminated early were significantly older (75.6 vs. 73.9, p=0.005) and less likely to have coronary artery disease (13.6% vs. 19.5%, p=0.03). After multivariable logistic regression, the independent risk factors for ET were age (adjusted OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) and Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.01-5.33).
Conclusion(s): Nearly 1 in 6 older adults terminated CR within 1 month (<12/36 sessions), potentially limiting the benefits of CR within this subgroup. Among factors we analyzed, age and Hispanic ethnicity were risk factors for ET, but the overall strength of associ-ation was weak. Further research is necessary to identify novel risk factors for ET in order to better target prevention efforts
Is the Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivor at Risk for Late Effects? It Depends on Where You Look
PURPOSE:The adolescent and young adult (AYA) population is a growing group of survivors, exceeding more than 600,000, at high risk for late effects of cancer-directed therapy. While many guidelines exist for cancer survivorship care, choosing which to use for an AYA cancer survivor is challenging, yet vital, to ensure comprehensive follow-up care. METHODS:Survivorship care plans (SCPs), including treatment summaries (TS) and follow-up care plans, were created for three clinical vignettes (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, osteosarcoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma). Four sets of guidelines were used, including the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines (COG LTFU), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines for Age- Related Recommendations: AYA Oncology (NCCN-AYA), NCCN Guidelines for Treatment of Cancer by Site (NCCN-Site), and NCCN Guidelines for Supportive Care: Survivorship (NCCN-Survivorship) and NCCN supplemental cancer screening guidelines. The follow-up care plans were compared across guidelines to determine the extent and nature of the similarities and differences concerning AYA cancer survivorship care. RESULTS:The guidelines disagree on the link between treatment exposures and late effects, the population to be screened, the screening test to be used, and the time interval of testing. Specific examples of this include screening for cardiac toxicity, breast cancer, and neurocognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS:While many guidelines exist for AYA survivorship care, there is discordance among the recommendations. This has significant implications for the long-term follow-up care of an AYA survivor. This study offers solutions to harmonize guidelines in order to ensure comprehensive quality survivorship care for this population.