Short-Term DAPT and DAPT De-Escalation Strategies for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
BACKGROUND:Short-term (≤6 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and DAPT de-escalation become attractive for patients with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS:inhibitor or clopidogrel at 1 month; and (5) guided selection DAPT with genotype or platelet function tests. The primary efficacy outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events) was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety outcome was major or minor bleeding. RESULTS:inhibitor was ranked the best for major bleeding and all-cause death. CONCLUSIONS:inhibitor was associated with the lowest risk of major bleeding and all-cause death.
Biomarkers and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary disease in the ISCHEMIA Trials
IMPORTANCE/OBJECTIVE:Biomarkers may improve prediction of cardiovascular events for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), but their importance in addition to clinical tests of inducible ischemia and CAD severity is unknown. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the prognostic value of multiple biomarkers in stable outpatients with obstructive CAD and moderate or severe inducible ischemia. DESIGN AND SETTING/METHODS:The ISCHEMIA and ISCHEMIA CKD trials randomized 5,956 participants with CAD to invasive or conservative management from July 2012 to January 2018; 1,064 participated in the biorepository. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. Secondary outcome was cardiovascular death or MI. Improvements in prediction were assessed by cause-specific hazard ratios (HR) and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for an interquartile increase in each biomarker, controlling for other biomarkers, in a base clinical model of risk factors, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ischemia severity. Secondary analyses were performed among patients in whom core-lab confirmed severity of CAD was ascertained by computed cardiac tomographic angiography (CCTA). EXPOSURES/METHODS:Baseline levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), lipoprotein a (Lp[a]), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), Cystatin C, soluble CD 40 ligand (sCD40L), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3). RESULTS:Among 757 biorepository participants, median (IQR) follow-up was 3 (2-5) years, age was 67 (61-72) years, and 144 (19%) were female; 508 had severity of CAD by CCTA available. In an adjusted multimarker model with hsTnT, GDF-15, NT-proBNP and sCD40L, the adjusted HR for the primary outcome per interquartile increase in each biomarker was 1.58 (95% CI 1.22, 2.205), 1.60 (95% CI 1.16, 2.20), 1.61 (95% 1.22, 2.14), and 1.46 (95% 1.12, 1.90), respectively. The adjusted multimarker model also improved prediction compared with the clinical model, increasing the AUC from 0.710 to 0.792 (P < .01) and 0.714 to 0.783 (P < .01) for the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Similar findings were observed after adjusting for core-lab confirmed atherosclerosis severity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Among ISCHEMIA biorepository participants, biomarkers of myocyte injury/distension, inflammation, and platelet activity improved cardiovascular event prediction in addition to risk factors, LVEF, and assessments of ischemia and atherosclerosis severity. These biomarkers may improve risk stratification for patients with stable CAD.
Outcomes of Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Admitted With Myocardial Infarction: Insights From National Inpatient Sample
Background: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell neoplasms with a high risk of thrombosis, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, outcomes after AMI have not been thoroughly characterized. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize outcomes after AMI in patients with MPNs compared with patients without MPNs. Methods: Patients with a primary admission of AMI from January 2006 to December 2018 were identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital death or cardiac arrest (CA) and major bleeding. Propensity score weighting was used to compare outcomes between MPN and non-MPN groups. Results: A total of 1,644,304 unweighted admissions for AMI were included; of these admissions, 5,374 (0.3%) were patients with MPNs. After propensity score weighting, patients with MPNs had a lower risk of in-hospital death or CA (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.82-0.84) but a higher risk of major bleeding (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.28-1.30) compared with non-MPN patients. There was a decreasing temporal rate of in-hospital death or CA and bleeding in patients without MPNs (Ptrend < 0.001 for both). However, there was an increasing temporal rate of in-hospital death or CA (Ptrend < 0.001) and a stable rate of major bleeding (Ptrend = 0.48) in patients with MPNs. Conclusions: Among patients hospitalized with AMI, patients with MPNs have a lower risk of in-hospital death or CA compared with patients without MPNs, although they have a higher risk of bleeding. More investigation is needed in order to improve post-AMI bleeding outcomes in patients with MPN.
Outcomes of Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Admitted With Myocardial Infarction: Insights From National Inpatient Sample
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell neoplasms with a high risk of thrombosis, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, outcomes after AMI have not been thoroughly characterized. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of this study was to characterize outcomes after AMI in patients with MPNs compared with patients without MPNs. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients with a primary admission of AMI from January 2006 to December 2018 were identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital death or cardiac arrest (CA) and major bleeding. Propensity score weighting was used to compare outcomes between MPN and non-MPN groups. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Among patients hospitalized with AMI, patients with MPNs have a lower risk of in-hospital death or CA compared with patients without MPNs, although they have a higher risk of bleeding. More investigation is needed in order to improve post-AMI bleeding outcomes in patients with MPN.
Complete Revascularization and Angina-Related Health Status in the ISCHEMIA Trial
BACKGROUND:The impact of complete revascularization (CR) on angina-related health status (symptoms, function, quality of life) in chronic coronary disease (CCD) has not been well studied. OBJECTIVES:Among patients with CCD randomized to invasive (INV) vs conservative (CON) management in ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches), we compared the following: 1) the impact of anatomic and functional CR on health status compared with incomplete revascularization (ICR); and 2) the predicted impact of achieving CR in all INV patients compared with CON. METHODS:Multivariable regression adjusting for patient characteristics was used to compare 12-month health status after independent core laboratory-defined CR vs ICR in INV patients who underwent revascularization. Propensity-weighted modeling was then performed to estimate the treatment effect had CR or ICR been achieved in all INV patients, compared with CON. RESULTS:Anatomic and functional CR were achieved in 43.3% and 57.8% of 1,641 INV patients, respectively. Among revascularized patients, CR was associated with improved Seattle Angina Questionnaire Angina Frequency compared with ICR after adjustment for baseline differences. After modeling CR and ICR in all INV patients, patients with CR and ICR each had greater improvements in health status than CON, with better health status with CR than ICR. The projected benefits of CR were most pronounced in patients with baseline daily/weekly angina and not seen in those with no angina. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with CCD in ISCHEMIA, health status improved more with CR compared with ICR or CON, particularly in those with frequent angina. Anatomic and functional CR provided comparable improvements in quality of life. (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches [ISCHEMIA]; NCT01471522).
Treatment of Purulent Pericarditis With Intrapericardial Alteplase
Impact of Complete Revascularization in the ISCHEMIA Trial
BACKGROUND:Anatomic complete revascularization (ACR) and functional complete revascularization (FCR) have been associated with reduced death and myocardial infarction (MI) in some prior studies. The impact of complete revascularization (CR) in patients undergoing an invasive (INV) compared with a conservative (CON) management strategy has not been reported. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Among patients with chronic coronary disease without prior coronary artery bypass grafting randomized to INV vs CON management in the ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) trial, we examined the following: 1) the outcomes of ACR and FCR compared with incomplete revascularization; and 2) the potential impact of achieving CR in all INV patients compared with CON management. METHODS:ACR and FCR in the INV group were assessed at an independent core laboratory. Multivariable-adjusted outcomes of CR were examined in INV patients. Inverse probability weighted modeling was then performed to estimate the treatment effect had CR been achieved in all INV patients compared with CON management. RESULTS:ACR and FCR were achieved in 43.4% and 58.4% of 1,824 INV patients. ACR was associated with reduced 4-year rates of cardiovascular death or MI compared with incomplete revascularization. By inverse probability weighted modeling, ACR in all 2,296 INV patients compared with 2,498 CON patients was associated with a lower 4-year rate of cardiovascular death or MI (difference -3.5; 95% CI: -7.2% to 0.0%). In comparison, the event rate difference of cardiovascular death or MI for INV minus CON in the overall ISCHEMIA trial was -2.4%. Results were similar but less pronounced with FCR. CONCLUSIONS:The outcomes of an INV strategy may be improved if CR (especially ACR) is achieved. (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches [ISCHEMIA]; NCT01471522).
Mortality in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction Without Standard Modifiable Risk Factors: The ARIC Study Community Surveillance
Background Prevention strategies targeting standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (SMuRFs; diabetes, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia) are critical to improving cardiovascular disease outcomes. However, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among individuals who lack 1 or more SMuRFs is not uncommon. Moreover, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of SMuRFless individuals are not well characterized. Methods and Results We analyzed AMI hospitalizations from 2000 to 2014 captured by the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Community) study community surveillance. AMI was classified by physician review using a validated algorithm. Clinical data, medications, and procedures were abstracted from the medical record. Main study outcomes included short- and long-term mortality within 28 days and 1 year of AMI hospitalization. Between 2000 and 2014, a total of 742 (3.6%) of 20 569 patients with AMI were identified with no documented SMuRFs. Patients without SMuRFs were less likely to receive aspirin, nonaspirin antiplatelet therapy, or beta blockers and less often underwent angiography and revascularization. Compared with those with one or more SMuRFs, patients without SMuRFs had significantly higher 28-day (odds ratio, 3.23 [95% CI, 1.78-5.88]) and 1-year (hazard ratio, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.29-3.37]) adjusted mortality. When examined across 5-year intervals from 2000 to 2014, the incidence of 28-day mortality significantly increased for patients without SMuRFs (7% to 15% to 27%), whereas it declined for those with 1 or more SMuRFs (7% to 5% to 5%). Conclusions Individuals without SMuRFs presenting with AMI have an increased risk of all-cause mortality with an overall lower prescription rate for guideline-directed medical therapy. These findings highlight the need for evidence-based pharmacotherapy during hospitalization and the need to discover new markers and mechanisms for early risk identification in this population.
Timing of Antihypertensive Drug Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
BACKGROUND:The timing of antihypertensive drugs administration is controversial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of dosing of antihypertensive drugs in the morning versus evening. METHODS:A PubMed, EMBASE, and clinicaltrials.gov databases search for randomized clinical trials of antihypertensive therapies where patients were randomized to morning versus evening dosing. The outcomes were ambulatory blood pressure parameters (day-time, night-time, and 24/48-hour systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) and cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS: CONCLUSIONS:Evening dosing of antihypertensive drugs significantly reduced ambulatory blood pressure parameters and lowered cardiovascular events but the effect was mainly driven by trials by Hermida group. Unless the intention is to specifically lower night-time blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs should be taken at a time of day that is convenient, optimizes adherence, and minimizes undesirable effects.
Outcomes With Percutaneous Debulking of Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis
BACKGROUND:In patients with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis, percutaneous debulking is a treatment option. However, the outcomes of this approach are less well known. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent percutaneous vegetation debulking for tricuspid valve infective endocarditis from August 2020 to November 2022 at a large academic tertiary care public hospital. The primary efficacy outcome was procedural success defined by clearance of blood cultures. The primary safety outcome was any procedural complication. For the composite outcome of in-hospital mortality or heart block, outcomes were compared (sequential noninferiority and superiority) with published surgical outcomes data. RESULTS:=0.016). CONCLUSIONS:Percutaneous debulking is feasible, effective, and safe in treating patients with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis refractory to medical therapy.