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Neuroinflammation in World Trade Center responders at midlife: A pilot study using [18F]-FEPPA PET imaging

Deri, Yael; Clouston, Sean A P; DeLorenzo, Christine; Gardus, John D; Bartlett, Elizabeth A; Santiago-Michels, Stephanie; Bangiyev, Lev; Kreisl, William C; Kotov, Roman; Huang, Chuan; Slifstein, Mark; Parsey, Ramin V; Luft, Benjamin J
BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has long been theorized to arise from exposures to fine particulate matter and to be modulated when individuals experience chronic stress, both of which are also though to cause cognitive decline in part as a result of neuroinflammation. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Hypothesizing that neuroinflammation might be linked to experiences at the World Trade Center (WTC) events, this study explored associations between glial activation and neuropsychological measures including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and WTC exposure duration. METHODS:F]-FEPPA total distribution volumes as the outcomes. RESULT/RESULTS:F]-FEPPA binding in the parietal cortex. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Findings from this study of WTC responders at midlife suggest that glial activation is associated with PTSD symptoms, and WTC exposure duration. Future investigation is needed to understand the important role of neuroinflammation in highly exposed WTC responders.
PMID: 34589784
ISSN: 2666-3546
CID: 5345692

White matter correlates of slowed information processing speed in unimpaired multiple sclerosis patients with young age onset

Govindarajan, Sindhuja Tirumalai; Liu, Yilin; Parra Corral, Maria Andrea; Bangiyev, Lev; Krupp, Lauren; Charvet, Leigh; Duong, Tim Q
Slowed information processing speed is among the earliest markers of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been associated with white matter (WM) structural integrity. Localization of WM tracts associated with slowing, but not significant impairment, on specific cognitive tasks in pediatric and young age onset MS can facilitate early and effective therapeutic intervention. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected on 25 MS patients and 24 controls who also underwent the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the computer-based Cogstate simple and choice reaction time tests. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivities were correlated voxel-wise with processing speed measures. All DTI metrics of several white matter tracts were significantly different between groups (p < 0.05). Notably, higher MD, RD, and AD, but not FA, in the corpus callosum correlated with lower scores on both SDMT and simple reaction time. Additionally, all diffusivity metrics in the left corticospinal tract correlated negatively with SDMT scores, whereas only MD in the right superior fronto-occipital fasciculus correlated with simple reaction time. In conclusion, subtle slowing of processing speed is correlated with WM damage in the visual-motor processing pathways in patients with young age of MS onset.
PMID: 32748319
ISSN: 1931-7565
CID: 4553842

Metabolic positron-emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in primary progressive aphasia and frontotemporal lobar degeneration subtypes: Reassessment of expected [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake patterns

Franceschi, Ana M; Naser-Tavakolian, Kiyon; Clifton, Michael; Bangiyev, Lev; Cruciata, Giuseppe; Clouston, Sean; Franceschi, Dinko
Clinical assessment of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)/primary progressive aphasia (PPA) patients is challenging, given that common cognitive assessments rely extensively on language. Since asymmetry in neuroimaging biomarkers is often described as a central finding in these patients, our study evaluated [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake patterns in patients meeting clinical and imaging criteria for FTLD, with emphasis on PPA. Fifty-one subjects underwent brain [18F]-FDG positron-emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) as part of their routine clinical workup for dementia and neurodegenerative disease. Images were obtained using a Siemens Biograph mMR integrated 3T PET/MRI scanner. PET surface maps and fusion fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-PET images were generated utilizing MIMneuro software. Two board-certified neuroradiologists and one nuclear medicine physician blinded to patient history classified each FTLD/PPA subtype and assessed for left- versus right-side dominant hypometabolism. Qualitative and semiquantitative assessment demonstrated 18 cases of PPA, 16 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 12 corticobasal degeneration, and 5 progressive supranuclear palsy. Among the 18 PPA subjects (11 svPPA, 5 lvPPA, and 2 agPPA), 12 (67%) demonstrated left-dominant hypometabolism and 6 (33%) right-dominant hypometabolism. While existing literature stresses left-dominant hypometabolism as a key imaging feature in the PPA subtypes, a third of our cases demonstrated right-dominant hypometabolism, suggesting that emphasis should be placed on the functionality of specific brain regions affected, rather than left versus right sidedness of hypometabolism patterns.
PMID: 34703399
ISSN: 1450-1147
CID: 5345702

(18F)-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging assessment of hypometabolism patterns in clinical phenotypes of suspected corticobasal degeneration

Franceschi, Ana M; Clifton, Michael; Naser-Tavakolian, Kiyon; Ahmed, Osama; Cruciata, Giuseppe; Bangiyev, Lev; Clouston, Sean; Franceschi, Dinko
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder presenting with atypical parkinsonian symptoms that characteristically involves the frontoparietal region including the primary sensorimotor cortex, ipsilateral basal ganglia, and thalamus, typically in an asymmetric pattern. We aim to evaluate the metabolic and volumetric abnormalities in patients with clinically suspected CBD phenotypes utilizing hybrid 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/ MR) brain imaging. A retrospective analysis was performed on 75 patients (mean age 74 years, 31 males and 44 females) who underwent 18F-FDG PET/MR imaging (MRI) as part of their clinical dementia workup. Images were obtained using an integrated Siemens mMR 3T PET/MRI scanner. Two board-certified neuroradiologists and a nuclear medicine physician evaluated the metabolic and volumetric data of each hemisphere to assess for symmetric or asymmetric involvement of regions of interest in the subset of patients with suspected CBD. Of the 75 patients, 12 were diagnosed with suspected CBD based on a combination of clinical symptoms, neurocognitive testing, and hybrid neuroimaging findings. Ten of 12 patients (87%) demonstrated asymmetrically decreased FDG uptake involving a single cerebral hemisphere and ipsilateral subcortical structures, whereas two of 12 patients (13%) demonstrated striking hypometabolism of the bilateral sensorimotor cortices. Our study highlights two characteristic patterns of hypometabolism in patients with clinical and neuroimaging findings suggestive of the underlying CBD. The first pattern is asymmetric hypometabolism and volume loss, particularly within the frontoparietal and occipital cortices with involvement of ipsilateral subcortical structures, including the basal ganglia and thalamus. The second, more atypical pattern, is symmetric hypometabolism with striking involvement of the bilateral sensorimotor cortices.
PMID: 34321971
ISSN: 1450-1147
CID: 4949822

Hybrid imaging in dementia: A semi-quantitative (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging approach in clinical practice

Franceschi, Ana Marija; Naser-Tavakolian, Kiyon; Clifton, Michael; Ahmed, Osama; Stoffers, Katarina; Bangiyev, Lev; Cruciata, Giuseppe; Clouston, Sean; Franceschi, Dinko
Neurodegenerative disorders may demonstrate typical lobar and regional patterns of volume loss with corresponding decreased glucose metabolism. In this retrospective study, we correlated semi-quantitative volumetric changes utilizing NeuroQuant morphometric analysis with decreased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake age-matched calculated z-scores utilizing 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Eighty-nine patients (mean age 71.4) with clinical findings suggestive of various subtypes of dementia underwent PET/MR brain imaging. Cases were categorized as follows: Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). NeuroQuant software provided semi-quantitative assessment of lobar-specific patterns of volume loss compared to age-matched controls. MIMneuro software provided semi-quantitative FDG uptake data, with metabolic z-scores generated in comparison to age-matched controls. Volumetric and metabolic data were then correlated for statistical significance. In 29 AD cases, Pearson correlation coefficient between z-score and lobar volume was 0.3 (P = 0.120) and 0.38 (P < 0.05), for parietal and temporal lobes, respectively. In 34 FTLD cases, it was 0.35 (P = 0.051) and 0.02 (P = 0.916), for frontal and temporal lobes, respectively. In 14 DLB cases, it was 0.42 (P = 0.130), 0.5 (P = 0.067), and 0.22 (P = 0.447) for the occipital lobes, middle occipital gyrus, and parietal lobes, respectively. In 12 CBD cases, it was 0.58 (P < 0.05) for the superior parietal lobule. Semi-quantitative (F18)-FDG PET/MRI analysis demonstrated a positive relationship between volumetric loss and hypometabolism within certain lobar-specific regions, depending on neurodegenerative disorder subtype. Our findings may add diagnostic confidence in the accurate imaging diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease.
PMID: 33850486
ISSN: 1450-1147
CID: 4845972

White Matter Connectivity in Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Study of World Trade Center Responders at Midlife

Huang, Chuan; Kritikos, Minos; Clouston, Sean A P; Deri, Yael; Serrano-Sosa, Mario; Bangiyev, Lev; Santiago-Michels, Stephanie; Gandy, Sam; Sano, Mary; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J
BACKGROUND:Individuals who participated in response efforts at the World Trade Center (WTC) following 9/11/2001 are experiencing elevated incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at midlife. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that white matter connectivity measured using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) would be restructured in WTC responders with MCI versus cognitively unimpaired responders. METHODS:Twenty responders (mean age 56; 10 MCI/10 unimpaired) recruited from an epidemiological study were characterized using NIA-AA criteria alongside controls matched on demographics (age/sex/occupation/race/education). Axial DSI was acquired on a 3T Siemen's Biograph mMR scanner (12-channel head coil) using a multi-band diffusion sequence. Connectometry examined whole-brain tract-level differences in white matter integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and quantified anisotropy were extracted for region of interest (ROI) analyses using the Desikan-Killiany atlas. RESULTS:Connectometry identified both increased and decreased connectivity within regions of the brains of responders with MCI identified in the corticothalamic pathway and cortico-striatal pathway that survived adjustment for multiple comparisons. MCI was also associated with higher FA values in five ROIs including in the rostral anterior cingulate; lower MD values in four ROIs including the left rostral anterior cingulate; and higher MD values in the right inferior circular insula. Analyses by cognitive domain revealed nominal associations in domains of response speed, verbal learning, verbal retention, and visuospatial learning. CONCLUSIONS:WTC responders with MCI at midlife showed early signs of neurodegeneration characterized by both increased and decreased white matter diffusivity in regions commonly affected by early-onset Alzheimer's disease.
PMID: 33646156
ISSN: 1875-8908
CID: 4801152

FDG PET/MRI for Visual Detection of Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis in Patients With Dementia

Franceschi, Ana M; Clifton, Michael A; Naser-Tavakolian, Kiyon; Ahmed, Osama; Bangiyev, Lev; Clouston, Sean; Franceschi, Dinko
OBJECTIVE:F-FDG PET/MRI for suspected neurodegenerative disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:In total, 75 patients (31 men, 44 women; mean age, 74 years) underwent hybrid FDG PET/MRI for clinical workup of neurodegenerative disease. Images were obtained with an integrated 3-T PET/MRI system. PET surface maps, fused T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo and axial FLAIR/PET images were generated with postprocessing software. Two board-certified neuroradiologists and a nuclear medicine physician blinded to patient history evaluated for pattern of neurodegenerative disease and CCD. RESULTS:Qualitative assessment showed that 10 of 75 (7.5%) patients had decreased FDG activity in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the supratentorial cortical hypometabolism consistent with CCD. Six of the 10 patients had characteristic imaging findings of frontotemporal dementia (three behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, two semantic primary progressive aphasia, and one logopenic primary progressive aphasia), three had suspected corticobasal degeneration, and one had Alzheimer dementia. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study results suggest that CCD occurs most commonly in frontotemporal dementia, particularly the behavioral variant, and in patients with cortico-basal degeneration. Careful attention to cerebellar metabolism may assist in the clinical evaluation of patients with cognitive impairment undergoing FDG PET/MRI as part of their routine dementia workup.
PMID: 33170738
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 4665022

Convolutional Neural Network Detection of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis Using Standard Clinical Breast MRI

Ren, Thomas; Cattell, Renee; Duanmu, Hongyi; Huang, Pauline; Li, Haifang; Vanguri, Rami; Liu, Michael Z; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Ha, Richard; Wang, Fusheng; Cohen, Jules; Bernstein, Clifford; Bangiyev, Lev; Duong, Timothy Q
BACKGROUND:Axillary lymph node status is important for breast cancer staging and treatment planning as the majority of breast cancer metastasis spreads through the axillary lymph nodes. There is currently no reliable noninvasive imaging method to detect nodal metastasis associated with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images. Normal nodes were those with negative diagnosis of breast cancer. The convolutional neural network consisted of 5 convolutional layers with filters from 16 to 128. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate prediction performance. For comparison, an expert radiologist also scored the same nodes as normal or abnormal. RESULTS:The convolutional neural network model yielded a specificity of 79.3% ± 5.1%, sensitivity of 92.1% ± 2.9%, positive predictive value of 76.9% ± 4.0%, negative predictive value of 93.3% ± 1.9%, accuracy of 84.8% ± 2.4%, and receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.91 ± 0.02 for the validation data set. These results compared favorably with scoring by radiologists (accuracy of 78%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results are encouraging and suggest that this approach may prove useful for classifying lymph node status on MRI in clinical settings in patients with breast cancer, although additional studies are needed before routine clinical use can be realized. This approach has the potential to ultimately be a noninvasive alternative to lymph node biopsy.
PMID: 32139272
ISSN: 1938-0666
CID: 4339912

Editorial for "Texture Analysis of High b-value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Evaluating Consistency of Pituitary Macroadenomas" [Editorial]

van Staalduinen, Eric K; Bangiyev, Lev
PMID: 32154956
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 4348932

Abnormal blood-brain barrier water exchange in chronic multiple sclerosis lesions: A preliminary study

Wengler, Kenneth; Ha, Jason; Syritsyna, Olga; Bangiyev, Lev; Coyle, Patricia K; Duong, Tim Q; Schweitzer, Mark E; He, Xiang
Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is associated with persistent blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. The impact of this persistent dysfunction in both active and chronic MS lesions has yet to be investigated due to technological challenges associated with invasive assessment of BBB water transportation (e.g. 15O-PET). The purpose of this study was to test if persistent BBB dysfunction in RRMS manifests as lower BBB water exchange in chronic lesions using a recently developed noninvasive MRI paradigm. Patients with relapsing-remitting MS and healthy subjects were recruited for this prospective study. The novel Intrinsic Diffusivity Encoding of Arterial Labeled Spins (IDEALS) MRI method was used to map BBB water extraction fraction (Ew) and water permeability surface area product (PSw), as well as cerebral blood flow (CBF). Regional differences in BBB water exchange were evaluated between MS patients (normal appearing white matter [NAWM] and normal appearing gray matter [NAGM]) and healthy subjects (white matter [WM] and gray matter [GM]) and within MS subjects in non gadolinium-based contrast-agent (GBCA) enhancing chronic lesions, perilesional areas, and NAWM. Significantly lower PSw and Ew were observed in NAWM compared to WM (ΔPSw: -11.9 mL/100 g/min, p < .05; ΔEw: -4.3%, p < .01). Significantly lower Ew was observed in NAGM compared to GM (ΔEw: -12.1%, p < .01). Significantly lower PSw and CBF were observed in non-GBCA contrast enhancing lesions compared to NAWM (ΔPSw = -11.5 mL/100 g/min, p < .05; ΔCBF = -8.1 mL/100 g/min, p < .05). Ew was significantly higher in non-GBCA enhancing chronic MS lesions compared to NAWM (ΔEw = 1.6%, p < .05). The lower BBB water exchange in chronic MS lesions is consistent with previously reported observations and may demonstrate metabolic changes associated with MS.
PMID: 32353529
ISSN: 1873-5894
CID: 4412722