Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk in Autistic Youth: Findings from a Clinician Survey in a Pediatric Psychiatric Emergency Setting
Cervantes, Paige E; Li, Annie; Sullivan, Katherine A; Seag, Dana E M; Baroni, Argelinda; Horwitz, Sarah M
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) and emergency department (ED) utilization are prevalent in autistic youth. The current study surveyed clinicians in a pediatric psychiatric ED to examine differences in attitudes on suicide-related care for autistic and non-autistic patient populations. While clinicians rated addressing STB in ASD as important and adaptations to care as necessary, less than half identified ASD as a suicide risk factor and confidence ratings were significantly lower for autistic patients. Previous ASD training predicted confidence and accounted for approximately 25% of the variance in confidence scores. Findings highlight the urgency to develop and disseminate ED clinician training, and address the lack of validated assessment tools, adapted suicide prevention practices, and evidence-based treatments for STB in autistic youth.
Using Behavioral Measures to Assess Suicide Risk in the Psychiatric Emergency Department for Youth
Shin, Ki Eun; Baroni, Argelinda; Gerson, Ruth S.; Bell, Kerri Anne; Pollak, Olivia H.; Tezanos, Katherine; Spirito, Anthony; Cha, Christine B.
Suicide screening is critical in pediatric emergency departments (EDs). Behavioral measures of suicide risk may complement self-report measures. The current study examines suicide-specific behavioral measures and tests their potential short-term within-person effects among respondents, ability to discriminate future suicide attempt from suicidal ideation, and translation into interpretable categorical composite scores. The sample included 167 youth (10"“17 years), presenting for suicide-related reasons to a pediatric psychiatric ED. During their ED visit, participants completed the Death/Life Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Suicide Stroop Task. Recurrent suicidal thoughts and attempts were assessed within 6 months of the ED visit via medical records and email surveys. Youth displayed a decrease in the levels of distress and self-injurious desires (negative mood, desire to hurt themselves, and desire to die) after completing the behavioral tasks. The Death/Life IAT prospectively differentiated with 68% accuracy between youth who attempted suicide after their ED visit and those who had suicidal ideation but no attempt, p = 0.04, OR = 5.65, although this effect became marginally significant after controlling for self-report and demographic covariates. Neither the Suicide Stroop Task, nor the categorical composite scores predicted suicide attempts, ps = 0.08"“0.87, ORs = 0.96"“3.95. Behavioral measures of suicide risk administered in the ED do not appear to increase distress or self-injurious desires. They may be able to distinguish those who go on to attempt suicide (vs. consider suicide) within six months after discharge.
Pathogenesis of parasomnias
Chapter by: Sardar, Haniyyah; Baroni, Argelinda
in: Encyclopedia of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms: Volume 1-6, Second Edition by
[S.l.] : Elsevier, 2023
I'm Coming Home: Providing Parent Training to Support Inpatient Discharge Programs
Feder, Michael A; Brodman, Douglas M; Yang, Zi Chun; Ng, Vanessa YT; Glickman, Samantha; Smith, Jacquline; Baroni, Argelinda; Willheim, Erica; Verduin, Timothy L
Mental health service availability for autistic youth in New York City: An examination of the developmental disability and mental health service systems
Cervantes, Paige E; Conlon, Greta R; Seag, Dana Em; Feder, Michael; Lang, Qortni; Meril, Samantha; Baroni, Argelinda; Li, Annie; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M
LAY ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Autistic children and adolescents experience high rates of co-occurring mental health conditions, including depression and suicidality, which are frequently identified by stakeholders as treatment priorities. Unfortunately, accessing community-based mental health care is often difficult for autistic youth and their families. The first obstacle families confront is finding a provider that offers mental health treatment to autistic youth within the many service systems involved in supporting the autism community. The mental health and developmental disability systems are two of the most commonly accessed, and previous work has shown there is often confusion over which of these systems is responsible for providing mental health care to autistic individuals. In this study, we conducted a telephone survey to determine the availability of outpatient mental health services for autistic youth with depressive symptoms or suicidal thoughts or behaviors in New York City across the state's mental health and developmental disability systems. Results showed that while a greater percentage of clinics in the mental health system compared with in the developmental disability system offered outpatient mental health services to autistic youth (47.1% vs 25.0%), many more did not offer care to autistic youth and there were very few options overall. Therefore, it is important that changes to policy are made to increase the availability of services and that mental health care providers' knowledge and confidence in working with autistic youth are improved.
Barriers to Universal Suicide Risk Screening for Youth in the Emergency Department
Seag, Dana E M; Cervantes, Paige E; Baroni, Argelinda; Gerson, Ruth; Knapp, Katrina; Tay, Ee Tein; Wiener, Ethan; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
OBJECTIVE:Given the increasing rates of youth suicide, it is important to understand the barriers to suicide screening in emergency departments. This review describes the current literature, identifies gaps in existing research, and suggests recommendations for future research. METHODS:A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Web of Science was conducted. Data extraction included study/sample characteristics and barrier information categorized based on the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment model. RESULTS:All studies focused on inner context barriers of implementation and usually examined individuals' attitudes toward screening. No study looked at administrative, policy, or financing issues. CONCLUSIONS:The lack of prospective, systematic studies on barriers and the focus on individual adopter attitudes reveal a significant gap in understanding the challenges to implementation of universal youth suicide risk screening in emergency departments.
Universal Suicide Risk Screening for Youths in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review
Cervantes, Paige E; Seag, Dana E M; Baroni, Argelinda; Gerson, Ruth; Knapp, Katrina; Tay, Ee Tein; Wiener, Ethan; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:To address escalating youth suicide rates, universal suicide risk screening has been recommended in pediatric care settings. The emergency department (ED) is a particularly important setting for screening. However, EDs often fail to identify and treat mental health symptoms among youths, and data on implementation of suicide risk screening in EDs are limited. A systematic review was conducted to describe the current literature on universal suicide risk screening in EDs, identify important gaps in available studies, and develop recommendations for strategies to improve youth screening efforts. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was conducted. Studies focused on universal suicide risk screening of youths served in U.S. EDs that presented screening results were coded, analyzed, and evaluated for reporting quality. Eleven studies were included. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:All screening efforts occurred in teaching or children's hospitals, and research staff administered suicide screens in eight studies. Thus scant information was available on universal screening in pediatric community ED settings. Large variation was noted across studies in participation rates (17%-86%) and in positive screen rates (4.1%-50.8%), although positive screen rates were influenced by type of presenting concern (psychiatric versus nonpsychiatric). Only three studies concurrently examined barriers to screening, providing little direction for effective implementation. STROBE guidelines were used to rate reporting quality, which ranged from 51.9% to 87.1%, with three studies having ratings over 80%. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Research is needed to better inform practice guidelines and clinical pathways and to establish sustainable screening programs for youths presenting for care in EDs.
Just Let Me Sleep in: Identifying and Treating Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder in Adolescents
Feder, Michael A; Baroni, Argelinda
Individuals with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) are unable to naturally fall asleep and awake at conventional times; for this reason, DSPD is often mistaken for insomnia. However, unlike many patients with insomnia, those with DSPD struggle to get up at appropriate times. DSPD is associated with school refusal, academic difficulties, and lower employment rate. DSPD in youth has prevalence as high as 16%, and is often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Treatments include appropriate light exposure during the day, melatonin use, developing an evening routine that minimizes arousal-increasing activities, and gradually shifting sleep-wake times toward more functional ones.
Pediatric Sleep Disorders: A Unique Opportunity for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [Editorial]
Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Baroni, Argelinda
When Night Falls Fast: Sleep and Suicidal Behavior Among Adolescents and Young Adults
Fernandes, Sara N; Zuckerman, Emily; Miranda, Regina; Baroni, Argelinda
Sleep disturbances have been linked to suicidal ideation and behaviors in adolescents. Specifically, insomnia and nightmares are associated with current suicide risk and predict future ideation. Associations between hypersomnia, sleep apnea, and suicide remain inconclusive. Potential biological mechanisms underlying these relationships include executive functioning deficits and hyperarousal. Related psychological factors may include thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and negative appraisals. Assessing suicide risk in patients with sleep disturbances, and vice versa, is needed. Therapeutic interventions such as cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia and imagery rehearsal treatment, as well as pharmacologic treatments, show promise in treating sleep disorders and suicidal behavior.