Does the geriatric nutritional risk index predict complication rates and implant survivorship in revision total joint arthroplasty?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Malnutrition is associated with poorer outcomes after revision total joint arthroplasty (rTJA), though no universal metric for assessing malnutrition in rTJA patients has been reported. This study sought to determine if malnutrition as defined by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) can independently predict short-term complication rates and re-revision risk in patients undergoing rTJA. METHODS:All patients ≥ 65 years old undergoing rTJA from 2011 to 2021 at a single orthopaedic specialty hospital were identified. Preoperative albumin, height, and weight were used to calculate GNRI. Based on the calculated GNRI value, patients were stratified into three groups: normal nutrition (GNRI > 98), moderate malnutrition (GNRI 92-98), and severe malnutrition (GNRI < 92). Chi-squared and independent samples t-tests were used to compare groups. RESULTS:A total of 531 rTJA patients were included. Patients with normal nutrition were younger (p < 0.001), had higher BMI (p < 0.001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, patients with severe and moderate malnutrition had longer length of stay (p < 0.001), were less likely to be discharged home (p = 0.049), and had higher 90-day major complication (p = 0.02) and readmission (p = 0.005) rates than those with normal nutrition. 90-day revision rates were similar. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, patients with severe and moderate malnutrition had worse survivorship free of all-cause re-revision at 1-year (p = 0.001) and 2-year (p = 0.002) follow-up compared to those with normal nutrition. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Moderate and severe malnutrition, as defined by GNRI, independently predicted higher complication and revision rates in rTJA patients. This suggests that the GNRI may serve as an effective screening tool for nutritional status in patients undergoing rTJA.
A Second Dose of Dexamethasone Reduces Postoperative Opioid Consumption and Pain in Total Joint Arthroplasty
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The optimal administration of dexamethasone for postoperative pain management and recovery following primary, elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a second intravenous (IV) dose of dexamethasone on postoperative pain scores, inpatient opioid consumption, and functional recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of 2,256 primary elective THA, and 1,951 primary elective TKA between May 2020 and April 2021. Patients who received two perioperative doses (2D) of dexamethasone 10 mg IV were propensity-matched 1:1 to a control group who received one perioperative dose (1D). Primary outcomes were opiate consumption as morphine milligram equivalences (MMEs), postoperative pain as Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) pain scores, and functional status assessed by the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) scores. RESULTS:The 2D THA and 2D TKA cohorts consumed significantly less opiates at the 24 to 48 hour and 48 to 72 hour intervals. The 2D TKA cohort had significantly lower total opiate consumption compared to the 1D TKA cohort. Compared to the 1D cohorts, the 2D THA cohort and 2D TKA cohorts had significantly lower pain scores at the 48 to 60 hour interval; additionally, the 2D TKA cohort had significantly lower pain scores in the 36 to 48 hour interval. AM-PAC scores did not differ between cohorts for both TKA and THA at any interval. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The administration of a second perioperative dexamethasone dose significantly decreased opioid consumption in the immediate postoperative period. Inpatient opioid administration can be significantly reduced while maintaining comparable functional recovery and superior pain control.
Pain, Analgesic Use, and Patient Satisfaction With Spinal Versus General Anesthesia for Hip Fracture Surgery : A Randomized Clinical Trial
BACKGROUND:The REGAIN (Regional versus General Anesthesia for Promoting Independence after Hip Fracture) trial found similar ambulation and survival at 60 days with spinal versus general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery. Trial outcomes evaluating pain, prescription analgesic use, and patient satisfaction have not yet been reported. OBJECTIVE:To compare pain, analgesic use, and satisfaction after hip fracture surgery with spinal versus general anesthesia. DESIGN:Preplanned secondary analysis of a pragmatic randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02507505). SETTING:46 U.S. and Canadian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS:Patients aged 50 years or older undergoing hip fracture surgery. INTERVENTION:Spinal or general anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS:Pain on postoperative days 1 through 3; 60-, 180-, and 365-day pain and prescription analgesic use; and satisfaction with care. RESULTS:A total of 1600 patients were enrolled. The average age was 78 years, and 77% were women. A total of 73.5% (1050 of 1428) of patients reported severe pain during the first 24 hours after surgery. Worst pain over the first 24 hours after surgery was greater with spinal anesthesia (rated from 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain imaginable]; mean difference, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.68]). Pain did not differ across groups at other time points. Prescription analgesic use at 60 days occurred in 25% (141 of 563) and 18.8% (108 of 574) of patients assigned to spinal and general anesthesia, respectively (relative risk, 1.33 [CI, 1.06 to 1.65]). Satisfaction was similar across groups. LIMITATION:Missing outcome data and multiple outcomes assessed. CONCLUSION:Severe pain is common after hip fracture. Spinal anesthesia was associated with more pain in the first 24 hours after surgery and more prescription analgesic use at 60 days compared with general anesthesia. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:
A comparison of utilization and short-term complications of technology-assisted versus conventional total knee arthroplasty
BACKGROUND:While technology-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TA-TKA) improves implant positioning, whether it confers improved clinical outcomes remains inconclusive. We sought to examine national TA-TKA utilization trends and to compare outcomes between TA-TKA and unassisted TKA (U-TKA). METHODS:Patients who underwent primary, elective TKA from 2010 to 2018 were identified using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Demographic, perioperative, and 30-day outcomes were collected. Patients were stratified on the basis of whether they underwent TA-TKA, which included computer navigation and robotics, or U-TKA. The proportion of patients undergoing TKA using TA-TKA was calculated. One-to-one propensity-score matching paired patients undergoing TA-TKA or U-TKA. Independent samples t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare continuous variables, and chi-squared tests were used to compare categorical variables. RESULTS:Of the 402,284 TKA patients, 10,429 (2.6%) cases were performed using TA-TKA. Comparing the unmatched TA-TKA and U-TKA groups, race (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), smoking status (pâ€‰=â€‰0.050), baseline functional status (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) significantly differed. Propensity-score matching yielded 8633 TA-TKA and U-TKA pairs. The TA-TKA cohort had shorter hospital length of stay (LOS) (2.7â€‰Â±â€‰2.5 versus 2.8â€‰Â±â€‰1.9Â days, pâ€‰=â€‰0.017) but similar operative times (92.4â€‰Â±â€‰33.4 versus 92.6â€‰Â±â€‰39.8Â min, pâ€‰=â€‰0.670). Compared with the U-TKA group, the TA-TKA group had lower major complication (7.6% versus 9.4%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) and transfusion (3.9% versus 5.1%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) rates and higher rates of discharge to home (73.9% versus 70.4%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Reoperation and readmission rates did not significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS:TA-TKA utilization remains low among orthopedic surgeons. Compared with U-TKA, TA-TKA yielded improved perioperative and 30-day outcomes. Nonetheless, surgeons must consider the benefits and drawbacks of TA-TKA when determining the proper surgical technique and technology for each patient. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study.
Engaging patients as partners in a multicentre trial of spinal versus general anaesthesia for older adults
Engaging patients-defined broadly as individuals with lived experience of a given condition, family members, caregivers, and the organisations that represent them-as partners in research is a priority for policymakers, funders, and the public. Nonetheless, formal efforts to engage patients are absent from most studies, and models to support meaningful patient engagement in clinical anaesthesia research have not been previously described. Here, we review our experience in developing and implementing a multifaceted patient engagement strategy within the Regional Versus General Anesthesia for Promoting Independence After Hip Fracture (REGAIN) surgery trial, an ongoing randomised trial comparing spinal vs general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery in 1600 older adults across 45 hospitals in the USA and Canada. This strategy engaged patients and their representatives at both the level of overall trial oversight and at the level of individual recruiting sites. Activities spanned a continuum ranging from events designed to elicit patients' input on key decisions to longitudinal collaborations that empowered patients to actively participate in decision-making related to trial design and management. Engagement activities were highly acceptable to participants and led to concrete changes in the design and conduct of the REGAIN trial. The REGAIN experience offers a model for future efforts to engage patients as partners in clinical anaesthesia research, and highlights potential opportunities for investigators to increase the relevance of anaesthesia studies by incorporating patient voices and perspectives into the research process.
Is There a Role for CT Pan-Scans in the Initial Workup of Fragility Fracture Patients?
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Computed tomography (CT) pan-scans have become increasingly commonplace as part of the initial diagnostic workup for patients sustaining traumatic injuries. They have proven effective in improving diagnostic accuracy in those with high-energy mechanisms of injury. However, the utility of pan-scans in the geriatric population sustaining low-energy traumatic injuries remains unproven. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective review was conducted of patients who sustained a fragility fractureÂ at a level-1 trauma center over a 15-month period. Radiologist interpretations of any CT pan-scans were reviewed for acute findings, and charts were reviewed for resulting changes in orthopedic and nonorthopedic management. Additionally, mechanism of injury, definitive management, time to surgery, length of stay, level of care at discharge, and demographic data were compared against similar patients who did not receive a pan-scan. Results/UNASSIGNED:This study found that only 1 of the included patients had a change in orthopedic management and 12 had a change in nonorthopedic management, despite over half of the study population being found to have additional findings. Furthermore, patients who underwent a pan-scan did not have expedited surgical intervention or earlier discharges compared to those who were not pan-scanned. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:This study demonstrates whole-body CT imaging provides little benefit in geriatric patients who sustain fragility fractures and should be utilized judiciously and in a targeted fashion instead of as a routine part of trauma surgery or emergency department protocol in this patient population. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:Level III Retrospective Study.
Clavicular Fracture Associated with Life-Threatening Hemorrhage: A Case Report
CASE/METHODS:A sixty-four-year-old woman sustained a displaced midshaft clavicular fracture. Shortly after admission to the hospital, she developed symptoms of hypovolemic shock as well as neurologic compromise of the ipsilateral upper extremity. Her workup demonstrated a large periclavicular hematoma. She underwent surgical exploration, during which a subclavian artery laceration was identified and repaired. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This case serves as a reminder to the treating physician to maintain an appropriate index of suspicion for associated injuries when treating clavicular fractures.
Dietary iron and exposure to lead influence susceptibility to seizures
Previous work in this laboratory showed that concurrent consumption of an iron-deficient diet and exposure to lead caused seizure activity in Albany heterogeneous (HET) stock mice. In the present investigation, 26 Albany HET mice (ages 35 to 57 days of age) ate either an American Institute of Nutrition approved iron-sufficient (30 ppm) diet or an iron-deficient (less than 3 ppm) diet and drank either a 0.5% lead solution or distilled water for 12 weeks. We measured several activities in an open-field, hole-board apparatus, and spontaneous seizures which occurred during testing, changes in body weight, and hemoglobin levels. Replicating previous findings, mice fed the iron-deficient diet and treated with lead had more seizures with longer durations and longer postictal periods than animals given the iron-sufficient diet but also treated with lead. Mice not exposed to lead did not seize. Both lead-treated groups had lower rates of body-weight gain over the 3-mo. period and lower hemoglobin values than nonlead-treated animals. Changes in activity were observed in the open field as a function of diet and exposure to lead.