Imaging of Spine Trauma
Every year in North America, approximately 3 million patients are evaluated for spinal injury. Of blunt trauma patients presenting to the emergency department, 3% to 4% will have a cervical spine injury, and up to 18% will suffer a thoracolumbar spine injury. Failure to identify an unstable spine injury can lead to devastating outcomes.
Imaging Genitourinary Trauma
Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has become a critical tool in the evaluation of the trauma patient. MDCT can quickly and accurately assess trauma patients for renal, ureteral, and bladder injuries. Moreover, CT guides clinical management triaging patients to those requiring discharge, observation, angioembolization, and surgery. Recognition of urinary tract trauma on initial scan acquisition should prompt delayed excretory phase imaging to identify urine leaks. Urethral and testicular trauma are imaged with retrograde urethrography and sonography, respectively.
Gender differences in aortic neck morphology in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing evar [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction and Objectives: Prior studies have alluded to gender differences in aortic neck morphology resulting in anatomic exclusion of some women from EVAR. The objective of this study is to correlate gender differences in aortic neck morphology and changes in the neck and aneurysm sac after EVAR. Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive EVARs performed for infrarenal AAA was conducted from 2004 to 2013 at a single institution. Pre- and post-operative imaging studies were utilized to measure aortic neck length and diameter, shape, and angulation, aneurysm sac diameter. Volumetric analysis of neck thrombus burden was performed using TeraRecon. Results: 146 patients met inclusion criteria 21% were women with a mean age of 75.5 (p=0.724) with comparable baseline comorbidities to men. Neck angulation was greater in women 23.9degreevs 13.5degree (P<0.028). The percent thrombus of the aortic neck was greater in female patients at 35.7% vs 30%(P=0.02). Preoperative AAA diameter was 5.8 in female and 5.5 in males (p=0.348). Abdominal aneurysm sacs were smaller in women at 1 year follow up (4.2cm vs. 5.1cm, P<0.002). In addition, although not statistically significant, reintervention rates post-EVAR for type 1 leaks were higher in men (3.5% vs. 0% P=0.27). Neck shape, changes in neck diameter, neck length, percent oversizing of graft where not significantly different between gender (table 1). Conclusions: Although female patients have more hostile aortic neck morphology compared to males, AAAs post-EVAR have acceptable sac regression and reintervention rates. Long term follow up is necessary to further validate findings
Differentiating shunt-responsive normal pressure hydrocephalus from Alzheimer disease and normal aging: pilot study using automated MRI brain tissue segmentation
Evidence suggests that normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is underdiagnosed in day to day radiologic practice, and differentiating NPH from cerebral atrophy due to other neurodegenerative diseases and normal aging remains a challenge. To better characterize NPH, we test the hypothesis that a prediction model based on automated MRI brain tissue segmentation can help differentiate shunt-responsive NPH patients from cerebral atrophy due to Alzheimer disease (AD) and normal aging. Brain segmentation into gray and white matter (GM, WM), and intracranial cerebrospinal fluid was derived from pre-shunt T1-weighted MRI of 15 shunt-responsive NPH patients (9 men, 72.6 +/- 8.0 years-old), 17 AD patients (10 men, 72.1 +/- 11.0 years-old) chosen as a representative of cerebral atrophy in this age group; and 18 matched healthy elderly controls (HC, 7 men, 69.7 +/- 7.0 years old). A multinomial prediction model was generated based on brain tissue volume distributions. GM decrease of 33 % relative to HC characterized AD (P < 0.005). High preoperative ventricular and near normal GM volumes characterized NPH. A multinomial regression model based on gender, GM and ventricular volume had 96.3 % accuracy differentiating NPH from AD and HC. In conclusion, automated MRI brain tissue segmentation differentiates shunt-responsive NPH with high accuracy from atrophy due to AD and normal aging. This method may improve diagnosis of NPH and improve our ability to distinguish normal from pathologic aging.
Single spiral sweep: Emergency evaluation of the head & face, and head, face & cervical spine [Meeting Abstract]
Purpose: A pilot study was performed to assess the feasibility of a single pass spiral technique to image the head and face, or head, face, and cervical spine in the emergency setting. Materials and Methods: 23 patients requiring emergency imaging of head, face and cervical spine, and 5 patients for head and face were enrolled. Radiation dose (DLP) was measured and compared with isolated CT head and face and cervical spine acquisitions. Time to perform the single spiral scan was also measured. The quality of spiral CT heads was compared with 21 consecutive trauma axial CT heads on a five point scale in a blinded fashion. Results: Average DLP for single spiral CT head, face, and cervical spine was 2581.24, compared with DLP of 2867.22 for these performed separately. Average DLP for single pass head and face (including mandible) CT was 1749.45, compared with standard 2 scan DLP of 1887.81. Time to scan a single pass CT head, face, and cervical spine ranged from 4.4 to 5.8 s. Quality of spiral head CTcomparedwith axial in trauma patients showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Single pass emergency CT head & face, and head, face, & cervical spine is both time and radiation efficient without reduction in image quality
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2011
Radiologic and clinical spectrum of occipital condyle fractures: retrospective review of 107 consecutive fractures in 95 patients
OBJECTIVE: We proposed to characterize the radiologic spectrum of occipital condyle fractures in a large series of patients and to correlate fracture pathology with neurosurgical treatment and patient outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the findings on conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging in 95 patients with 107 occipital condyle fractures. We described fracture patterns according to two previously published classification systems. Clinical findings, neurosurgical management, and patient outcome were obtained from the medical records. RESULTS: Inferomedial avulsions (Anderson and Montesano type III) were the most common type of occipital condyle fracture, constituting 80 (75%) of 107 overall fractures. Unilateral occipital condyle fractures were found in 73 (77%) of 95 patients, and 58 patients were treated nonoperatively; occipitocervical fusion was required in nine patients for complex C1-C2 injuries, and six patients died. Bilateral occipital condyle fractures or occipitoatlantoaxial joint injuries were seen in 22 (23%) of 95 patients. Occipitocervical fusion or halo traction for the craniocervical junction was required in 12 patients, all of whom had CT evidence of bilateral occipitoatlantoaxial joint disruption and six of whom showed normal craniocervical relationships on conventional radiographs. Six patients with nondisplaced fractures were treated nonoperatively, and four patients died. Thirty (32%) of 95 patients showed continued disability, whereas 55 (57.5%) of 95 patients had good outcomes at 1 month. Associated cervical spine injuries were present in 29 (31%) of 95 patients. CONCLUSION: Given their associated traumatic brain and cervical spine injuries, occipital condyle fractures are markers of high-energy traumas. That conventional radiographs alone may miss up to half of the patients with acute craniocervical instability has not been well established. Avulsion fracture type and fracture displacement are associated with both injury mechanism and the need for surgical stabilization. In this series, most unilateral occipital condyle fractures were treated nonoperatively, whereas bilateral occipitoatlantoaxial joint injuries with findings of instability usually required surgical stabilization
Potentially life-saving role for temporary endovascular balloon occlusion in atypical mediastinal hematoma [Case Report]
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis complicating myxedema coma treated with corticosteroids [Case Report]
Withdrawal of support in intracerebral hemorrhage may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies [Case Report]
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of support in patients with severe brain injury invariably leads to death. Preconceived notions about futility of care in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may prompt withdrawal of support, and modeling outcome in patient populations in whom withdrawal of support occurs may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies. METHODS: Subjects included consecutive patients with supratentorial ICH. Radiographic characteristics of the hemorrhage, clinical variables, and neurologic outcome were assessed. Attitudes about futility of care were examined among members of the departments of neurology and neurologic surgery through a written survey and case presentations. RESULTS: There were 87 patients with supratentorial ICH; overall mortality was 34.5% (30/87). Mortality was 66.7% (18/27) in patients with Glasgow Coma Score < or = 8 and ICH volume > 60 cm(3). Medical support was withdrawn in 76.7% (23/30) of patients who died. Inclusion of a variable to account for the withdrawal of support in a model predicting outcome negated the predictive value of all other variables. Patients undergoing surgical decompression were unlikely to have support withdrawn, and surgery was less likely to be performed in older patients (p < 0.01) and patients with left hemispheric hemorrhage (p = 0.04). Survey results suggested that practitioners tend to be overly pessimistic in prognosticating outcome based upon data available at the time of presentation. CONCLUSIONS: The most important prognostic variable in determining outcome after ICH is the level of medical support provided. Withdrawal of support in patients felt likely to have a 'poor outcome' biases predictive models and leads to self-fulfilling prophecies. Our data show that individual patients in traditionally 'poor outcome' categories can have a reasonable neurologic outcome when treated aggressively