Adapting the Diabetes Prevention Program for Older Adults: Descriptive Study
BACKGROUND:Prediabetes affects 26.4 million people aged 65 years or older (48.8%) in the United States. Although older adults respond well to the evidence-based Diabetes Prevention Program, they are a heterogeneous group with differing physiological, biomedical, and psychosocial needs who can benefit from additional support to accommodate age-related changes in sensory and motor function. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this paper is to describe adaptations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Diabetes Prevention Program aimed at preventing diabetes among older adults (ages ≥65 years) and findings from a pilot of 2 virtual sessions of the adapted program that evaluated the acceptability of the content. METHODS:The research team adapted the program by incorporating additional resources necessary for older adults. A certified lifestyle coach delivered 2 sessions of the adapted content via videoconference to 189 older adults. RESULTS:The first session had a 34.9% (38/109) response rate to the survey, and the second had a 34% (30/88) response rate. Over three-quarters (50/59, 85%) of respondents agreed that they liked the virtual program, with 82% (45/55) agreeing that they would recommend it to a family member or a friend. CONCLUSIONS:This data will be used to inform intervention delivery in a randomized controlled trial comparing in-person versus virtual delivery of the adapted program.
Establishing the criterion validity of an adapted dietary screener for Asian Americans amongst Chinese American adults
OBJECTIVE:To assess the criterion validity of a dietary screener questionnaire adapted for Asian Americans (ADSQ) compared to Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA-24) food diary data amongst Chinese American Adults (CHAs). The ADSQ incorporated example ethnic foods from six Asian American groups. Lessons learned with respect to translating the ADSQ from English into Simplified Chinese were also documented. DESIGN/METHODS:Agreement between a two-day food diary (one weekend day and one weekday) and the ADSQ was assessed for vegetable, fruit, dairy, added sugar, fiber, calcium, and whole grain intake using paired t-tests to compare means and Spearman correlations to assess agreement between intake of food components. SETTING/METHODS:Data were collected online and via phone interviews. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Thirty-three CHAs aged 19-62 years (63.6% female). RESULTS:Mean differences were small for fruit, dairy, fiber, calcium, and whole grain intake, but were significantly different for vegetables and added sugar intake. Spearman correlations were < 0.5 and non-significant (p > 0.05) for all components. Both the ASA-24 and the ADSQ identified the same categories where CHAs intake is misaligned with dietary recommendations: whole grains, total fruit, and dairy. Difficulties were encountered in translating 13 out of 26 questions. CONCLUSIONS:The ADSQ may be a useful tool to identify intervention targets for improving dietary quality, but caution is warranted when interpreting vegetable and added sugar estimates. Differences in the English and Chinese languages underscore the need to take into account both literal translations and semantics in translating the ADSQ into other languages.
Assessing Equitable Inclusion of Underrepresented Older Adults in Alzheimer's Disease, Related Cognitive Disorders, and Aging-Related Research: A Scoping Review
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The rapidly aging and diversifying U.S. population is challenged by increases in prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aging-related disorders. We conducted a scoping review to assess equitable inclusion of diverse older adult populations in aging research focused on National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored research. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:The scoping review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-Scr) Protocol. The search was limited to NIH-funded studies focusing on aging, AD and Alzheimer's disease-related dementias (ADRD) and included adults aged 55+. The priority populations and health disparities put forth by the NIA Health Disparities Framework serve as a model for guiding inclusion criteria and for interpreting the representation of these underrepresented groups, including racial ethnic minorities, socioeconomically disadvantaged, rural populations, groups with disabilities, and LGBTQ communities. RESULTS:Our search identified 1,177 records, of which 436 articles were included in the analysis. Inclusion of individuals with ADRD and mild cognitive impairment, racial ethnic minorities, rural populations, socioeconomically disadvantaged, groups with disabilities, and LGBTQ communities were poorly specified in most studies. Studies used multiple recruitment methods, conducting studies in community settings (59%) and hospitals/clinics (38%) most frequently. Incentives, convenience factors, and sustained engagement via community-based and care partners were identified as key strategies for improved retention. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:This scoping review identified gaps in existing literature and aims for future work, including stronger research focus on, better inclusion of, and improved data collection and reporting of older adults from underrepresented groups.
Relative validity of a Diet Risk Score (DRS) for Chinese American adults
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of the nine-item Diet Risk Score (DRS) among Chinese American adults using Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 scores. We provide insights into the application of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) for this population, and report on lessons learned from carrying out participant recruitment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Thirty-three Chinese American adults (mean age=40; 36% male) were recruited from the community and through ResearchMatch. Participants completed the DRS and two 24-hour food records, which were entered into the ASA 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) by community health workers (CHWs). HEI-2015 scores were calculated from each food record and an average score was obtained for each participant. One-way analysis of variance and Spearman correlations were used to compare total and component scores between the DRS and HEI-2015. Results: Mean HEI-2015 score was 56.7/100 (SD 10.6) and mean DRS score was 11.8/27 (SD 4.7), with higher scores reflecting better and worse diets, respectively. HEI-2015 and DRS scores were inversely correlated (r=-0.43, p<0.05). The strongest correlations were between HEI-2015 Total Vegetables and DRS Vegetables (r=-0.5, p<0.01), HEI-2015 Total Vegetables and Green Vegetables (r=-0.43, p=0.01) and HEI-2015 Seafood/Plant Protein and DRS Fish (r=-0.47, p<0.01). The inability to advertise and recruit for the study in person at community centres due to pandemic restrictions impeded the recruitment of less-acculturated individuals. A lack of cultural food items in the ASA24 database made it difficult to record dietary intake as reported by participants. Conclusion: The DRS can be a valuable tool for physicians to identify and reach Chinese Americans at risk of cardiometabolic disease.
Dietary Protein Sources, Mediating Biomarkers, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative and the UK Biobank
OBJECTIVE:Whether and how dietary protein intake is linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of protein intake with development of T2D and the potential mediating roles of T2D biomarkers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:We included 108,681 postmenopausal women without T2D at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (primary cohort) and 34,616 adults without T2D from the U.K. Biobank (UKB) (replication cohort). Cox proportional hazard models were used for estimation of protein-T2D associations. Mediation analysis was performed to assess the mediating roles of biomarkers in case-control studies nested in the WHI. RESULTS:In the WHI, 15,842 incident T2D cases were identified during a median follow-up of 15.8 years. Intake of animal protein was associated with increased T2D risk (hazard ratio in comparing the highest to the lowest quintile = 1.31 [95% CI 1.24-1.37]) and plant protein with decreased risk (0.82 [0.78-0.86]). Intakes of red meat, processed meat, poultry, and eggs were associated with increased T2D risk and whole grains with decreased risk. Findings from the UKB were similar. These findings were materially attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI. Substituting 5% energy from plant protein for animal protein was associated with 21% decreased T2D risk (0.79 [0.74-0.84]), which was mediated by levels of hs-CRP, interleukin-6, leptin, and SHBG. CONCLUSIONS:Findings from these two large prospective cohorts support the notion that substituting plant protein for animal protein may decrease T2D risk mainly by reducing obesity-related inflammation.
Lessons Learned in Using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment (ASA24) System Among Chinese American Adults
Diabetes and hypertension among South Asians in New York and Atlanta leveraging hospital electronic health records
BACKGROUND:Diabetes and hypertension disparities are pronounced among South Asians. There is regional variation in the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in the US, but it is unknown whether there is variation among South Asians living in the US. The objective of this study was to compare the burden of diabetes and hypertension between South Asian patients receiving care in the health systems of two US cities. METHODS:Cross-sectional analyses were performed using electronic health records (EHR) for 90,137 South Asians receiving care at New York University Langone in New York City (NYC) and 28,868 South Asians receiving care at Emory University (Atlanta). Diabetes was defined as having 2â€‰+â€‰encounters with a diagnosis of diabetes, having a diabetes medication prescribed (excluding Acarbose/Metformin), or having 2â€‰+â€‰abnormal A1C levels (â‰¥â€‰6.5%) and 1â€‰+â€‰encounter with a diagnosis of diabetes. Hypertension was defined as having 3â€‰+â€‰BP readings of systolic BPâ€‰â‰¥â€‰130Â mmHg or diastolic BPâ€‰â‰¥â€‰80Â mmHg, 2â€‰+â€‰encounters with a diagnosis of hypertension, or having an anti-hypertensive medication prescribed. RESULTS:Among South Asian patients at these two large, private health systems, age-adjusted diabetes burden was 10.7% in NYC compared to 6.7% in Atlanta. Age-adjusted hypertension burden was 20.9% in NYC compared to 24.7% in Atlanta. In Atlanta, 75.6% of those with diabetes had comorbid hypertension compared to 46.2% in NYC. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest differences by region and sex in diabetes and hypertension risk. Additionally, these results call for better characterization of race/ethnicity in EHRs to identify ethnic subgroup variation, as well as intervention studies to reduce lifestyle exposures that underlie the elevated risk for type 2 diabetes and hypertension development in South Asians.
Self-Rated Diet Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Among U.S. Adults, 2011-2018
INTRODUCTION:Self-rated health has been extensively studied, but the utility of a similarly structured question to rate diet quality is not well characterized. This study aims to assess the relative validity of self-rated diet quality, compared with that of a validated diet quality measure (Healthy Eating Index-2015) and to examine the associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS:Analyses were conducted in 2020-2021 using cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2018. Nonpregnant adults who responded to the question: How healthy is your overall diet? and provided 2 dietary recalls were eligible (n=16,913). Associations between self-rated diet quality (modeled as a 5-point continuous variable, poor=1 to excellent=5) and Healthy Eating Index-2015 scores and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed by linear regression, accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for demographic and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS:. CONCLUSIONS:Self-rated diet quality was associated with Healthy Eating Index-2015 scores and cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This single-item assessment may be useful in time-limited settings to quickly and easily identify patients in need of dietary counseling to improve cardiometabolic health.
Adaptation of a Dietary Screener for Asian Americans
No brief dietary screeners are available that capture dietary consumption patterns of Asian Americans. The purpose of this article is to describe the cultural adaptation of the validated Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ) for use by clinicians, researchers, and community-based partners seeking to understand and intervene on dietary behaviors among English-speaking Asian Americans, for the six largest Asian subgroups (Chinese, Filipino, Asian Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese) in the United States. This was mainly accomplished by adding culturally specific examples of foods to the questionnaire items via searching online databases and soliciting input from members of our community partner network representing each of the six largest Asian subgroups. Over half of the 26 items on the DSQ were modified to include more culturally specific foods. Developing high-quality tools that reflect the diversity of the U.S. population are critical to implement nutrition interventions that do not inadvertently widen health disparities.
A Community Health Worker-Led Intervention to Improve Blood Pressure Control in an Immigrant Community With Comorbid Diabetes: Data From Two Randomized, Controlled Trials Conducted in 2011-2019
Evidence-based strategies addressing comorbid hypertension and diabetes are needed among minority communities. We analyzed the outcome of blood pressure (BP) control using pooled data from two community health worker interventions in New York City conducted between 2011 and 2019, focusing on participants with comorbid hypertension and diabetes. The adjusted odds of controlled BP (<â€‰140/90 mmHg) for the treatment group were significant compared with the control group (odds ratioâ€‰=â€‰1.4; 95% confidence intervalâ€‰=â€‰1.1, 1.8). The interventions demonstrated clinically meaningful reductions in BP among participants with comorbid hypertension and diabetes.