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The central nervous norepinephrine network links a diminished sense of emotional well-being to an increased body weight

Melasch, J; Rullmann, M; Hilbert, A; Luthardt, J; Becker, G A; Patt, M; Villringer, A; Arelin, K; Meyer, P M; Lobsien, D; Ding, Y-S; Muller, K; Sabri, O; Hesse, S; Pleger, B
OBJECTIVES: The neurobiological mechanisms linking obesity to emotional distress remain largely undiscovered. METHODS: In this pilot study, we combined positron emission tomography, using the norepinephrine transporter (NET) tracer [11C]-O-methylreboxetine, with functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, the Beck depression inventory (BDI), and the impact of weight on quality of life-Lite questionnaire (IWQOL-Lite), to investigate the role of norepinephrine in the severity of depression (BDI), as well as in the loss of emotional well-being with body weight (IWQOL-Lite). RESULTS: In a small group of lean-to-morbidly obese individuals (n=20), we show that an increased body mass index (BMI) is related to a lowered NET availability within the hypothalamus, known as the brain's homeostatic control site. The hypothalamus displayed a strengthened connectivity in relation to the individual hypothalamic NET availability to the anterior insula/frontal operculum, as well as the medial orbitofrontal cortex, assumed to host the primary and secondary gustatory cortex, respectively (n=19). The resting-state activity in these two regions was correlated positively to the BMI and IWQOL-Lite scores, but not to the BDI, suggesting that the higher the resting-state activity in these regions, and hence the higher the BMI, the stronger the negative impact of the body weight on the individual's emotional well-being was. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that the loss in emotional well-being with weight is embedded within the central norepinephrine network.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 1 December 2015; doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.216.
PMID: 26620766
ISSN: 1476-5497
CID: 1863292

Improved microvessel repair: laser welding with an anti-thrombotic solder

Stewart, Robert B; Bass, Lawrence S; Thompson, Jeffrey K; Nikoi, Naa Dei; Becker, Glenn; Kung, Robert T V
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Concentrated protein solutions can be used as thermally polymerized solders in laser welding. Solders supplemented with biologically active chemicals may provide in situ drug delivery for localized therapeutics. These studies characterize a serum albumin (SA) solder containing heparin, designed to reduce microvascular thrombosis rates. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of heparin added to 30% SA to obtain heparin-to-albumin molar ratios (HAMR) of 4:1 and 2:1 were thermally polymerized, and heparin release into saline was measured. Using a rat thrombosis model, patency was determined for suture, and 0 U/ml (control), 2.5 U/ml, 50 U/ml heparin solder repairs. RESULTS: Heparin release was five times higher for 4:1 than 2:1 HAMR solder acutely, but was equivalent after 2 days. Animal patency rates were: 50% suture, 0% control, 50% low heparin, 66% high heparin (P < 0.05 vs. control). CONCLUSIONS: Solders incorporating heparin should provide in situ anti-thrombotic therapy reducing the risk of microvascular thromboses
PMID: 12124713
ISSN: 0196-8092
CID: 66228

Ulnar neuropathy caused by a thrombosed ulnar vein. Case report and literature review [Case Report]

Grossman, J A; Becker, G A
A previously unreported finding of ulnar nerve compression at the wrist caused by a thrombosed ulnar artery vena comitans is described. The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating wrist masses is reviewed
PMID: 9001109
ISSN: 1153-2424
CID: 71320