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Fatty Acid Composition of Proximal Femur Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematous Using 3 T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Martel, Dimitri; Saxena, Amit; Belmont, Howard Michael; Honig, Stephen; Chang, Gregory
BACKGROUND:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, inflammatory disease with common musculoskeletal manifestations, notably reductions in bone quality. Bone marrow adipose tissue composition and quantity has been previously linked to bone quality and may play a role in SLE pathophysiology but has not been thoroughly studied. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate bone marrow adipose tissue quantity and composition in proximal femur subregions of untreated SLE patients compared to controls and treated patients. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Prospective. SUBJECTS/METHODS:A total of 64 female subjects: 28 SLE, 15 glucocorticoid (GC)-treated SLE and 21 matched controls. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:Stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence at 3 T. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:MRS was performed at multiple echo times in the femoral neck and trochanter regions and fatty acids (FA) composition was computed. STATISTICAL TESTS/UNASSIGNED:Intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:SLE patients had significantly higher saturated FA compared to controls in both the femoral neck (+0.12) and trochanter (+0.11), significantly lower monounsaturated FA in the trochanter compared to controls (-0.05), and significantly lower polyunsaturated FA in the femoral neck compared to both controls (-0.07) and SLE patients on GC therapy (-0.05). DATA CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:SLE patients have altered proximal femur marrow fat metabolism, which may reflect a manifestation of, or play a role in, the altered inflammatory response of these patients. EVIDENCE LEVEL/UNASSIGNED:2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
PMID: 34964533
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5108212

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, morbidity, and seroreactivity following initial COVID-19 vaccination series and additional dose in patients with SLE in New York City

Saxena, Amit; Engel, Alexis J; Banbury, Brittany; Hasan, Ghadeer; Fraser, Nicola; Zaminski, Devyn; Masson, Mala; Haberman, Rebecca H; Scher, Jose U; Ho, Gary; Law, Jammie; Rackoff, Paula; Tseng, Chung-E; Belmont, H Michael; Clancy, Robert M; Buyon, Jill P; Izmirly, Peter M
PMCID:9275793
PMID: 35856060
ISSN: 2665-9913
CID: 5279052

The role of anticomplement therapy in lupus nephritis

Fernandez-Ruiz, Ruth; Belmont, H Michael
The complement system plays crucial roles in homeostasis and host defense against microbes. Deficiency of early complement cascade components has been associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), whereas excessive complement consumption is a hallmark of this disease. Although enhanced classical pathway activation by immune complexes was initially thought to be the main contributor to lupus nephritis (LN) pathogenesis, an increasing body of evidence has suggested the alternative and the lectin pathways are also involved. Therapeutic agents targeting complement activation have been used in LN patients and clinical trials are ongoing. We review the mechanisms by which complement system dysregulation contributes to renal injury in SLE and summarize the latest evidence on the use of anticomplement agents to manage this condition.
PMID: 35158097
ISSN: 1878-1810
CID: 5175582

Evaluation of the European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Population Based Registry

Guttmann, Allison; Denvir, Brendan; Aringer, Martin; Buyon, Jill P; Belmont, H Michael; Sahl, Sara; Salmon, Jane E; Askanase, Anca; Bathon, Joan M; Geraldino-Pardilla, Laura; Ali, Yousaf; Ginzler, Ellen M; Putterman, Chaim; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G; Parton, Hilary; Izmirly, Peter M
OBJECTIVE:Using the Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP), a multi-racial/ethnic population-based registry, we compared three commonly used classification criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) to identify unique cases and determine the incidence and prevalence of SLE using the EULAR/ACR criteria. METHODS:SLE cases were defined as fulfilling 1997 ACR, SLICC, or EULAR/ACR classification criteria. We quantified the number of cases uniquely associated with each and the number fulfilling all three. Prevalence and incidence using the EULAR/ACR classification criteria and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS:1,497 cases fulfilled at least one of the three classification criteria, with 1,008 (67.3%) meeting all three classifications, 138 (9.2%) fulfilling only SLICC criteria, 35 (2.3%) fulfilling only ACR criteria and 34 (2.3%) uniquely fulfilling EULAR/ACR criteria. Patients solely satisfying EULAR/ACR criteria had fewer than four manifestations. The majority classified only by the ACR criteria did not meet any of the defined immunologic criteria. Patients fulfilling only SLICC criteria did so based on the presence of features unique to this system. Using the EULAR/ACR classification criteria, age-adjusted overall prevalence and incidence rates of SLE in Manhattan were 59.6 (95%CI:55.9-63.4) and 4.9 (95%CI 4.3-5.5) per 100,000 population, with age-adjusted prevalence and incidence rates highest among non-Hispanic Black females. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Applying the three commonly used classification criteria to a population-based registry identified patients with SLE fulfilling only one validated definition. The most recently developed EULAR/ACR classification criteria revealed similar prevalence and incidence estimates to those previously established for the ACR and SLICC classification schemes.
PMID: 35638708
ISSN: 2151-4658
CID: 5235872

Urine Proteomics and Renal Single Cell Transcriptomics Implicate IL-16 in Lupus Nephritis

Fava, Andrea; Rao, Deepak A; Mohan, Chandra; Zhang, Ting; Rosenberg, Avi; Fenaroli, Paride; Belmont, H Michael; Izmirly, Peter; Clancy, Robert; Monroy Trujillo, Jose; Fine, Derek; Arazi, Arnon; Berthier, Celine C; Davidson, Anne; James, Judith A; Diamond, Betty; Hacohen, Nir; Wofsy, David; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Apruzzese, William; Buyon, Jill; Petri, Michelle
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Current treatments are effective only in 30% of lupus nephritis patients emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic strategies. To develop mechanistic hypotheses and explore novel biomarkers, we analyzed the longitudinal urinary proteomic profiles in patients with lupus nephritis undergoing treatment. METHODS:We quantified 1,000 urinary proteins in 30 patients with lupus nephritis at the time of the diagnostic renal biopsy and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The proteins and molecular pathways detected in the urine proteome were then analyzed with respect to baseline clinical features and longitudinal trajectories. The intrarenal expression of candidate biomarkers was evaluated using single cell transcriptomics of renal biopsies from lupus nephritis patients. RESULTS:Our analysis revealed multiple biological pathways including chemotaxis, neutrophil activation, platelet degranulation, and extracellular matrix organization that could be noninvasively quantified and monitored in the urine. We identified 237 urinary biomarkers associated with lupus nephritis as compared to controls without SLE. IL-16, CD163, and TGF-β mirrored intrarenal nephritis activity. Response to treatment was paralleled by a reduction of urinary IL-16, a CD4 ligand with proinflammatory and chemotactic properties. Single cell RNA sequencing independently demonstrated that IL16 is the second most expressed cytokine by most infiltrating immune cells in lupus nephritis kidneys. IL-16 producing cells were found at key sites of kidney injury. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Urine proteomics may profoundly change the diagnosis and management of lupus nephritis by noninvasively monitor active intrarenal biological pathways. These findings implicate IL-16 in lupus nephritis pathogenesis designating it as a potentially treatable target and biomarker.
PMID: 34783463
ISSN: 2326-5205
CID: 5049062

A Woman With Painful Digital Ulcers

Karagounis, Theodora; Belmont, H Michael; Caplan, Avrom S
PMID: 35344026
ISSN: 1538-3598
CID: 5200912

Whole blood drug levels do not correlate with QTc intervals in hydroxychloroquine treated systemic lupus erythematosus patients

Belmont, H Michael; Haj-Ali, Mayce
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Hydroxychloroquine is recommended for all patients with systemic lupus erythematous, but reports of cardiac toxicity in SARS CoV-2 patients raised concerns. We aimed to study the relationship between hydroxychloroquine blood levels and QTc intervals. METHODS:Cohort 1 is a retrospective review of 90 SLE patients with data collected regarding demographics, QTc interval and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cohort 2 is a prospective study of 84 SLE patients with data collected regarding demographics, dose of HCQ, duration of HCQ treatment, presence of echocardiographic abnormalities, and CKD simultaneous with whole blood HCQ levels measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis utilized one way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient and t test. RESULTS:In the retrospective cohort there was no significant difference in mean QTc based on 75 HCQ-treated (437.91 +/- 20.02) as compared with 15 untreated (434.6 +/- 27.49) patients. In patients with CKD mean QTc in HCQ users (448 +/- 23.37) as compared with non-users (444.5 +/- 24.61) was also with no significant difference. In the prospective cohort HCQ levels did not correlate with QTc interval (r = 0.017) and this applied regardless of dose prescribed (r = 0.113 for 400 mg and r = 0.06 for 200 mg), duration of exposure (p= 0.36 for 0-5, 5-10, or > 10 years), CKD (r = 0.482) or underlying cardiac abnormalities (r = 0.430). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study relying on measured blood levels demonstrating the absence of clinically consequential increase in QTc levels in HCQ treated SLE patients.
PMID: 35426919
ISSN: 1462-0332
CID: 5219132

High Systemic Type I Interferon Activity is Associated with Active Class III/IV Lupus Nephritis

Iwamoto, Taro; Dorschner, Jessica M; Selvaraj, Shanmugapriya; Mezzano, Valeria; Jensen, Mark A; Vsetecka, Danielle; Amin, Shreyasee; Makol, Ashima; Osborn, Thomas; Moder, Kevin; Chowdhary, Vaidehi R; Izmirly, Peter; Belmont, H Michael; Clancy, Robert M; Buyon, Jill P; Wu, Ming; Loomis, Cynthia A; Niewold, Timothy B
OBJECTIVE:Previous studies suggest a link between high serum type I interferon (IFN) and lupus nephritis (LN). We determined whether serum IFN activity is associated with subtypes of LN and studied renal tissues and cells to understand the impact of IFN in LN. METHODS:). Podocyte cell line gene expression was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS:expression was not closely co-localized with pDCs. IFN directly activated podocyte cell lines to induce chemokines and proapoptotic molecules. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Systemic high IFN is involved in the pathogenesis of severe LN. We do not find co-localization of pDCs with IFN signature in renal tissue, and instead observe the greatest intensity of IFN signature in glomerular areas, which could suggest a blood source of IFN.
PMID: 34782453
ISSN: 0315-162x
CID: 5049012

High incidence of proliferative and membranous nephritis in SLE patients with low proteinuria in the Accelerating Medicines Partnership

Carlucci, Philip M; Li, Jessica; Fava, Andrea; Deonaraine, Kristina K; Wofsy, David; James, Judith A; Putterman, Chaim; Diamond, Betty; Davidson, Anne; Fine, Derek M; Monroy-Trujillo, Jose; Atta, Mohamed G; DeJager, Wade; Guthridge, Joel M; Haag, Kristin; Rao, Deepak A; Brenner, Michael B; Lederer, James A; Apruzzese, William; Belmont, H Michael; Izmirly, Peter M; Zaminski, Devyn; Wu, Ming; Connery, Sean; Payan-Schober, Fernanda; Furie, Richard; Dall'Era, Maria; Cho, Kerry; Kamen, Diane; Kalunian, Kenneth; Anolik, Jennifer; Barnas, Jennifer; Ishimori, Mariko; Weisman, Michael H; Buyon, Jill P; Petri, Michelle
OBJECTIVE:Delayed detection of lupus nephritis associates with worse outcomes. There are conflicting recommendations regarding a threshold level of proteinuria at which biopsy will likely yield actionable management. This study addressed the association of urine protein creatinine ratios (UPCR) with clinical characteristics and investigated the incidence of proliferative and membranous histology in patients with a UPCR between 0.5 and 1. METHODS:275 SLE patients (113 first biopsy, 162 repeat) were enrolled in the multicentre multi-ethnic/racial Accelerating Medicines Partnership across 15 U.S. sites at the time of a clinically indicated renal biopsy. Patients were followed for 1 year. RESULTS:At biopsy, 54 patients had UPCR <1 and 221 had UPCR >1. Independent of UPCR or biopsy number, a majority (92%) of patients had class III, IV, V or mixed histology. Moreover, patients with UPCR <1 and class III, IV, V, or mixed had a median activity index of 4.5 and chronicity index of 3, yet 39% of these patients had an inactive sediment. Neither anti-dsDNA nor low complement distinguished class I or II from III, IV, V, or mixed in patients with UPCR <1. Of 29 patients with baseline UPCR <1 and class III, IV, V or mixed, 23 (79%) had a UPCR <0.5 at one year. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective study three quarters of patients with UPCR <1 had histology showing class III, IV, V or mixed with accompanying activity and chronicity despite an inactive sediment or normal serologies. These data support renal biopsy at thresholds lower than a UPCR of 1.
PMID: 35212719
ISSN: 1462-0332
CID: 5172492

Evaluation of Immune Response and Disease Status in SLE Patients Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination

Izmirly, Peter M; Kim, Mimi Y; Samanovic, Marie; Fernandez-Ruiz, Ruth; Ohana, Sharon; Deonaraine, Kristina K; Engel, Alexis J; Masson, Mala; Xie, Xianhong; Cornelius, Amber R; Herati, Ramin S; Haberman, Rebecca H; Scher, Jose U; Guttmann, Allison; Blank, Rebecca B; Plotz, Benjamin; Haj-Ali, Mayce; Banbury, Brittany; Stream, Sara; Hasan, Ghadeer; Ho, Gary; Rackoff, Paula; Blazer, Ashira D; Tseng, Chung-E; Belmont, H Michael; Saxena, Amit; Mulligan, Mark J; Clancy, Robert M; Buyon, Jill P
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate seroreactivity and disease flares after COVID-19 vaccination in a multi-ethnic/racial cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS:90 SLE patients and 20 healthy controls receiving a complete COVID-19 vaccine regimen were included. IgG seroreactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization were used to evaluate B cell responses; IFN-γ production to assess T cell responses was measured by ELISpot. Disease activity was measured by the hybrid SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and flares were assigned by the SELENA/SLEDAI flare index. RESULTS:Overall, fully vaccinated SLE patients produced significantly lower IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD than controls. Twenty-six SLE patients (28.8%) generated an IgG response below that of the lowest control (<100 units/ml). In logistic regression analyses, the use of any immunosuppressant or prednisone and a normal anti-dsDNA level prior to vaccination associated with decreased vaccine responses. IgG seroreactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD strongly correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization titers and antigen-specific IFN-γ production determined by ELISpot. In a subset of patients with poor antibody responses, IFN-γ production was likewise diminished. Pre-/post-vaccination SLEDAI scores were similar. Only 11.4% of patients had a post-vaccination flare; 1.3% were severe. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In a multi-ethnic/racial study of SLE patients 29% had a low response to the COVID-19 vaccine which was associated with being on immunosuppression. Reassuringly, disease flares were rare. While minimal protective levels remain unknown, these data suggest protocol development is needed to assess efficacy of booster vaccination.
PMCID:8426963
PMID: 34347939
ISSN: 2326-5205
CID: 5046532