Ondansetron Prescription Is Associated With Reduced Return Visits to the Pediatric Emergency Department for Children With Gastroenteritis
STUDY OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE:We determine whether an ondansetron prescription for pediatric patients with vomiting or gastroenteritis is associated with decreased return visits to the emergency department (ED), and whether alternate diagnoses are more frequent on return visits in patients prescribed ondansetron. METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort study of patients 6 months to 18 years of age, presenting to a pediatric ED or its affiliated urgent care centers between 2012 and 2017 with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision diagnosis of gastroenteritis, gastritis, vomiting, or vomiting with diarrhea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between an ondansetron prescription and the odds of 72-hour return visits. Rates of alternate diagnoses on return visits (appendicitis, intussusception, intracranial mass, meningitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis) were compared between patients who were prescribed ondansetron for home use and those who were not. RESULTS:A total of 82,139 patients were studied, with a median age of 4 years. An ondansetron prescription was given to 13.4% of patients on discharge. The 72-hour return visit rate was 4.7%. Patients receiving an ondansetron prescription had decreased odds of 72-hour return visits (adjusted odds ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.93). The subgroup of patients specifically receiving a diagnosis of gastroenteritis had decreased odds of 72-hour return visits (adjusted odds ratio 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.72 to 0.95). There was no significant difference between groups in the diagnosis of appendicitis on return visit (odds ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 2.18). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:An ondansetron prescription is associated with reduced 72-hour ED return visit rates for children with vomiting or acute gastroenteritis and is not associated with masking alternate diagnoses.
Advanced bone age and hyperinsulinemia in overweight and obese children
OBJECTIVE:In obese children, bone age (BA) tends to significantly exceed chronological age (CA). In vitro studies in mice suggest that insulin may directly modulate skeletal growth. We investigated whether there is an association between fasting insulin and BA maturation in obese children. METHODS:The study cohort comprised 74 overweight and obese children ages 4 to 13 years. BA divided by CA was used as an index for bone advancement. Participants were classified into tertiles based on their BA:CA ratio. Advanced BA maturation was defined as the third tertile, with BA:CA > 1.21. Components of the metabolic syndrome, including fasting insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, were measured. RESULTS:Children with advanced BA were significantly younger, had a higher body mass index (BMI)-Z score (BMI-Z), and were taller than children with bone advancement in the lower tertiles. Females had a 4.7-fold increased risk for advanced BA compared with males (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-17.1; P = .02). Children with a BMI-Z â‰¥ 1.96 and fasting insulin â‰¤ 30 Î¼U/L had a 3.6-fold increased risk of advanced BA (95% CI, 1.00-12.8; P = 0.05). Moreover, hyperinsulinemia (fasting insulin > 30 Î¼U/L) was associated with a 6.8-fold increased risk for advanced BA, independent of the degree of obesity (95% CI, 1.45-32.1; P = .01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Marked hyperinsulinemia is associated with advanced BA in obese children. Insulin appears to modulate skeletal growth in humans.