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Evaluation of Health Related Quality of Life Improvement in Patients Undergoing Spine vs Adult Reconstructive Surgery

Varlotta, Christopher; Fernandez, Laviel; Manning, Jordan; Wang, Erik; Bendo, John; Fischer, Charla; Slover, James; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Davidovitch, Roy; Zuckerman, Joseph; Bosco, Joseph; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Buckland, Aaron J
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis of outcomes in single-level spine and primary hip and knee arthroplasty patients. OBJECTIVE:Compare baseline and post-operative outcomes in patients undergoing spine surgery procedures with total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to further define outcomes in orthopedic surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Computer-adaptive Patient Reported Outcome Information System (PROMIS) allows for standardized assessment of the Health Related Quality of Life across different disease states. METHODS:Patients who underwent spine surgery (anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, cervical disc replacement, lumbar laminectomy, microscopic lumbar discectomy, transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or adult reconstruction surgery (THA, TKA) were grouped. Mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Baseline (BL) and 6-month (6 M) PROMIS scores of Physical Function, Pain Interference, and Pain Intensity were determined. Paired t-tests compared differences in CCI, BL, 6 M, and change in PROMIS scores for spine and adult reconstruction procedures. RESULTS:304 spine surgery patients (Age=58.1 ± 15.6; 42.9% Female) and 347 adult reconstruction patients (Age=62.9 ± 11.8; 54.1% Female) were compared. Spine surgery groups had more disability and pain at baseline than adult reconstruction patients according to Physical Function [(21.0, 22.2, 9.07, 12.6, 10.4) vs (35.8, 35.0), respectively, p < .01], Pain Interference [(80.1, 74.1, 89.6, 92.5, 90.6) vs (64.0, 63.9), respectively, p < .01] and Pain Intensity [(53.0, 53.1, 58.3, 58.5, 56.1) vs (53.4, 53.8), respectively, p < .01]. At 6 M, spine surgery patients remained more disabled and had more pain compared to adult reconstruction patients. Over the 6-month timespan, spine patients experienced greater improvements than adult reconstruction patients in terms of Physical Function [(+8.7, +22.2, +9.7, +12.9, +12.1) vs (+5.3, +3.9), respectively, p < .01] and Pain Interference scores [(-15.4, -28.1, -14.7, -13.1, -12.3) vs (-8.3, -6.0), respectively, p < .01]. CONCLUSIONS:Spinal surgery patients had lower BL and 6 M PROMIS scores, but greater relative improvement in PROMIS scores compared to adult reconstruction patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:3.
PMID: 32576778
ISSN: 1528-1159
CID: 4524922

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Trends in Adult Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review

Tong, Yixuan; Fernandez, Laviel; Bendo, John A; Spivak, Jeffrey M
BACKGROUND:Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal, multidisciplinary approach to optimizing the postsurgical recovery process through preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative interventions. ERAS protocols are emerging quickly within orthopedic spine surgery, yet there is a lack of consensus on optimal ERAS practices. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this systematic review is to identify and discuss the trends in spine ERAS protocols and the associated outcomes. METHODS:A literature search on PubMed was conducted to identify clinical studies that implemented ERAS protocols for various spine procedures in the adult population. The search included English-language literature published through December 2019. Additional sources were retrieved from the reference lists of key studies. Studies that met inclusion criteria were identified manually. Data regarding the study population, study design, spine procedures, ERAS interventions, and associated outcome metrics were extracted from each study that met inclusion criteria. RESULTS:Of the 106 studies identified from the literature search, 22 studies met inclusion criteria. From the ERAS protocols in these studies, common preoperative elements include patient education and modified preoperative nutrition regimens. Perioperative elements include multimodal analgesia and minimally invasive surgery. Postoperative elements include multimodal pain management and early mobilization/rehabilitation/nutrition regimens. Outcomes from ERAS implementation include significant reductions in length of stay, cost, and opioid consumption. Although these trends were observed, there remained great variability among the ERAS protocols, as well as in the reported outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:ERAS may improve cost-effectiveness to varying degrees for spinal procedures. Specifically, the use of multimodal analgesia may reduce overall opioid consumption. However, the benefits of ERAS likely will vary based on the specific procedure. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:This review contributes to the assessment of ERAS protocol implementation in the field of adult spine surgery.
PMID: 32986587
ISSN: 2211-4599
CID: 4615812

Static and Dynamic Balance in Adults Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgery: Screening and Prediction of Postsurgical Outcomes

Lubetzky, Anat V; Soroka, Avihai; Harel, Daphna; Errico, Thomas; Bendo, John; Leitner, Joseph; Shabat, Shay; Ashkenazi, Eli; Floman, Yizhar; Moffat, Marilyn; Masharawi, Youssef
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Balance and fall risk before and after lumbar surgery was assessed to determine whether balance at baseline predicts long-term postsurgical outcomes. METHODS:Forty-three patients in the United States and Israel performed the single-leg stance (SLS) test, four square step test (FSST), and 8-foot up-and-go (8FUG) test before and 2 to 4 months after lumbar spine surgery. They completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and pain rating before and 12 months after lumbar surgery. RESULTS:From baseline to follow-up, the SLS time was 3.74 seconds longer (P = 0.01), the FSST time was 1.94 seconds faster (P < 0.001), and the 8FUG time was 1.55 seconds faster (P = 0.02). Before surgery, 26% of the patients were considered high fall risk according to the FSST and 51% according to the 8FUG. Postsurgery, all patients could complete the physical tests, but 26% remained at high fall risk according to the 8FUG and 7.5% according to the FSST. The three physical measures together explained 30% of the variance in postsurgical ODI scores (P = 0.02). Age was not correlated with performance. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Risk of falling is higher than surgeons suspect. Balance tests (ie, SLS, FSST, and 8FUG) are quick and easy to administer. The findings support the importance of screening for balance and fall risk in adults undergoing lumbar spine surgery.
PMID: 31589182
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 4123852

Three-Dimensional Printing in Spine Surgery: A Review of Current Applications

Tong, Yixuan; Kaplan, Daniel James; Spivak, Jeffrey M; Bendo, John A
In recent years, the use of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology has gained traction in orthopedic spine surgery. Although research on this topic is still primarily limited to case reports and small cohort studies, it is evident that there are many avenues for 3DP innovation in the field. This review article aims to discuss the current and emerging 3DP applications in spine surgery, as well as the challenges of 3DP production and limitations in its use. 3DP models have been presented as helpful tools for patient education, medical training, and pre-surgical planning. Intraoperatively, 3DP devices may serve as patient-specific surgical guides and implants that improve surgical outcomes. However, the time, cost, and learning curve associated with constructing a 3DP model are major barriers to widespread use in spine surgery. Considering the costs and benefits of 3DP along with the varying risks associated with different spine procedures, 3DP technology is likely most valuable for complex or atypical spine disorder cases. Further research is warranted to gain a better understanding of how 3DP can and will impact spine surgery.
PMID: 31731009
ISSN: 1878-1632
CID: 4187082

Hospital-acquired conditions occur more frequently in elective spine surgery than for other common elective surgical procedures

Horn, Samantha R; Segreto, Frank A; Alas, Haddy; Bortz, Cole; Jackson-Fowl, Brendan; Brown, Avery E; Pierce, Katherine E; Vasquez-Montes, Dennis; Egers, Max I; Line, Breton G; Oh, Cheongeun; Moon, John; De la Garza Ramos, Rafael; Vira, Shaleen; Diebo, Bassel G; Frangella, Nicholas J; Stekas, Nicholas; Shepard, Nicholas A; Horowitz, Jason A; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Bendo, John A; Lafage, Renaud; Lafage, Virginie; Passias, Peter G
Hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) have been the focus of recent initiatives by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in an effort to improve patient safety and outcomes. Spine surgery can be complex and may carry significant comorbidity burden, including so called "never events." The objective was to determine the rates of common HACs that occur within 30-days post-operatively for elective spine surgeries and compare them to other common surgical procedures. Patients: >18 y/o undergoing elective spine surgery were identified in the American College of Surgeons' NSQIP database from 2005 to 2013. Patients were stratified by whether they experienced >1 HAC, then compared to those undergoing other procedures including bariatric surgery, THA and TKA. Of the 90,551 spine surgery patients, 3021 (3.3%) developed at least one HAC. SSI was the most common (1.4%), followed by UTI (1.3%), and VTE (0.8%). Rates of HACs in spine surgery were significantly higher than other elective procedures including bariatric surgery (2.8%) and THA (2.8%) (both p < 0.001). Spine surgery and TKA patients had similar rates of HACs(3.3% vs 3.4%, p = 0.287), though spine patients experienced higher rates of SSI (1.4%vs0.8%, p < 0.001) and UTI (1.3%vs1.1%, p < 0.001) but lower rates of VTE (0.8%vs1.6%, p < 0.001). Spine surgery patients had lower rates of HACs overall (3.3%vs5.9%) when compared to cardiothoracic surgery patients (p < 0.001). When compared to other surgery types, spine procedures were associated with higher HACs than bariatric surgery patients and knee and hip arthroplasties overall but lower HAC rates than patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery.
PMID: 32331939
ISSN: 1532-2653
CID: 4402502

Preoperative MRI Predictors of Health Related Quality of Life Improvement after Microscopic Lumbar Discectomy

Varlotta, Christopher G; Manning, Jordan H; Ayres, Ethan W; Wang, Erik; Woo, Dainn; Vasquez-Montes, Dennis; Alas, Haddy; Brown, Avery; Egers, Max; Kim, Yong; Bendo, John A; Fischer, Charla R; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Stieber, Jonathan R; Buckland, Aaron J
BACKGROUND:Lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is a common spinal pathology often treated by microscopic lumbar discectomy (MLD), though prior reports have not demonstrated which preoperative MRI factors may contribute to significant clinical improvement after MLD. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To analyze the MRI characteristics in patients with HNP that predict meaningful clinical improvement in Health Related Quality of Life scores (HRQoL) after MLD. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING/METHODS:Retrospective clinical and radiological study of patients undergoing MLD for HNP at a single institution over a two-year period. PATIENT SAMPLE/METHODS:88 patients receiving MLD treatment for HNP. OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Cephalocaudal Canal Migration; Canal & HNP Anterior-Posterior (AP) Lengths and Ratio; Canal & HNP Axial Areas and Ratio; Hemi-Canal & Hemi-HNP Axial Areas and Ratio; Disc appearance (black, grey or mixed), Baseline (BL) and 3-Month (3M) postoperative Health Related Quality of Life Scores. METHODS:Patients > 18 years old who received MLD for HNP with BL and 3M HRQoL scores of PROMIS (Physical Function, Pain Interference, and Pain Intensity), ODI, VAS Back, and VAS Leg scores were included. HNP and spinal canal measurements of cephalocaudal migration, AP length, area, hemi-area, and disc appearance were performed using T2 axial and sagittal MRI. HNP measurements were divided by corresponding canal measurements to calculate AP, Area, and Hemi-Area ratios. Using known minimal clinically important differences (MCID) for each ΔHRQoL score, patients were separated into two groups based on whether they reached MCID (MCID+) or did not reach MCID (MCID-). The MCID for PROMIS Pain Intensity was calculated using a decision tree. A linear regression illustrated correlations between PROMIS vs ODI and VAS Back/Leg scores. Independent t-tests and chi [2] tests were utilized to investigate significant differences in HNP measurements between the MCID+ and MCID- groups. RESULTS:± 43.2, p<.04). MCID+ patients had a greater Hemi-Area Ratio than MCID- patients had in 4 out of 6 HRQoL score comparisons (51.8% ± 14.7 vs 43.9% ± 14.9, p<.05). CONCLUSIONS:Patients who met MCID after MLD had larger HNP areas and larger Hemi-HNP Areas than those who did not meet MCID. These patients were also 2.7x more likely to have a grey MRI signal than a mixed or black MRI signal. When accounting for HNP area relative to canal area, patients who met MCID had greater Hemi-HNP canal occupation than patients who did not meet MCID. The results of this study suggest that preoperative MRI parameters can be useful in predicting patient reported improvement after MLD.
PMID: 31580903
ISSN: 1878-1632
CID: 4116372

The Effect of Vascular Approach Surgeons on Peri-operative Complications in Lateral Transpsoas Lumbar Interbody Fusions

Manning, Jordan; Wang, Erik; Varlotta, Christopher; Woo, Dainn; Ayres, Ethan; Eisen, Leon; Bendo, John; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Spivak, Jeffrey; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Passias, Peter G; Buckland, Aaron J
BACKGROUND CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a popular technique used in spine surgery. It is minimally invasive, provides indirect decompression, and allows for coronal plane deformity correction. Despite these benefits, the approach to lateral lumbar interbody fusion has been linked to complications associated with the lumbosacral plexus and vascular anatomy. As a result, vascular surgeons may be recruited for the exposure portion of the procedure. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to compare exposure related complication and post-operative (postop) neuropraxia rates between exposure (EXP) and spine surgeon only (SSO) groups when performing the approach for lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF). STUDY DESIGN/SETTING/METHODS:Retrospective analysis of patients treated at a single institution PATIENT SAMPLE: Patients undergoing LLIF procedures between 2012-2018 OUTCOME MEASURES: Operative time, estimated blood loss, fluoroscopy, length of stay, intra- and post-operative complications, and physiologic measures including pre- and post-operative motor examinations and unresolved neuropraxia METHODS: Patients who underwent LLIF were separated into EXP and SSO groups based on the presence or absence of vascular/general surgeon during the approach. The entire clinical history of patients with a decrease in pre and postop motor examination were reviewed for the presence of neuropraxia. All other intra- and postop exposure related complications were recorded for comparison. PSM was performed to account for age, Charlston Comorbity Index (CCI) % LLIFs including L4-L5, and number levels fused. Independent T-test and Chi-squared analyses were used to identify significant differences between EXP and SSO groups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS:Two hundred seventy-five patients underwent LLIF procedures, 155 SSO and 120 EXP. Post-operatively, 26 patients (11.1%) experienced a drop in any MRC score, and two patients (0.7%) experience unresolved quadriceps palsies. The mean recovery time for MRC scores was 84.4 days. Other complications included 2 pneumothoraces (0.7%), 1 iliac vein injury (0.4%), 14 cases of ileus (5.1%), 3 pulmonary emboli (1.1%), 2 deep vein thrombosis (0.7%), 3 cases of abdominal wall paresis (1.1%), and one abdominal hematoma (0.4%). After PSM, demographics including age, gender, BMI, CCI, levels fused and operative time were similar between cohorts. Twenty patients had changes in pre- to postop motor scores (SSO 9.4%, EXP 12.4%, p>0.05). Iliopsoas motor scores decreased at the highest rate (EXP 12.4%, 8.2% SSO, p>0.05) followed by quadriceps (EXP 5.2%, SSO 4.7%, p>0.05). One SSO patient's postop course was complicated by a foot drop but returned to baseline within 1-year. One patient in EXP group developed an unresolved quadriceps palsy (EXP 1.0%, SSO 0.0% p>0.05). Intra-op exposure complications included one pneumothorax (EXP 1.0%, SSO 0.0%, p>0.05). There were no differences in PE/DVT, Ileus, or LOS. In the EXP cohort, three patients experienced abdominal wall paresis (EXP 2.9%, SSO 0.00%, p=0.246). CONCLUSIONS:Comparing the LLIF exposures performed by EXP and SSO, we found no significant difference in the rates of complications. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology of the abdominal wall complications. In conclusion, neuropraxia- and approach-related complications are similarly low between exposure and spine surgeons.
PMID: 31669613
ISSN: 1878-1632
CID: 4162602

MRI Radiological Predictors of Requiring Microscopic Lumbar Discectomy After Lumbar Disc Herniation

Varlotta, Christopher G; Ge, David H; Stekas, Nicholas; Frangella, Nicholas J; Manning, Jordan H; Steinmetz, Leah; Vasquez-Montes, Dennis; Errico, Thomas J; Bendo, John A; Kim, Yong H; Stieber, Jonathan R; Varlotta, Gerard; Fischer, Charla R; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Passias, Peter G; Buckland, Aaron J
Study Design/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective cohort study. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To investigate radiological differences in lumbar disc herniations (herniated nucleus pulposus [HNP]) between patients receiving microscopic lumbar discectomy (MLD) and nonoperative patients. Methods/UNASSIGNED:test and chi-square analyses compared differences in the groups, binary logistic regression analysis determined odds ratios (ORs), and decision tree analysis compared the cutoff values for risk factors. Results/UNASSIGNED:< .01). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Patients who underwent MLD treatment had significantly different axial HNP area, frequency of caudal migration, magnitude of cephalad/caudal migration, and disc herniation MRI signal compared to patients with nonoperative treatment.
PMID: 32002351
ISSN: 2192-5682
CID: 4294392

Prevalence of Risk Factors for Hospital-Acquired Venous Thromboembolism in Neurosurgery and Orthopedic Spine Surgery Patients

Fischer, Charla R; Wang, Erik; Steinmetz, Leah; Vasquez-Montes, Dennis; Buckland, Aaron; Bendo, John; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony; Errico, Thomas
Background/UNASSIGNED:Hospital-acquired venous thromboembolisms (HA-VTE) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in spine surgery patients. The purpose of this study was to review HA-VTE rates at our institution and evaluate the prevalence of known risk factors in patients who developed HA-VTE among both neurosurgical and orthopedic spine surgeries. Methods/UNASSIGNED: < .05. Results/UNASSIGNED: < .001). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The overall HA-VTE rate at our institution was 0.94% (0.61% orthopedic, 1.87% neurosurgery). In patients who sustained VTE, neurosurgical patients had higher rates of active cancer and age >60 years, and orthopedic patients had higher EBL and rates of anterior-posterior surgery. This highlights the different patient populations between the 2 departments and the need for individualized thromboprophylaxis regimens. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:4.
PMID: 32128307
ISSN: 2211-4599
CID: 4340672

Same-Day Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion-Our Protocol and Experience: Same-Day Discharge After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Suitable Patients has Similarly Low Readmission Rates as Admitted Patients

Shenoy, Kartik; Adenikinju, Abidemi; Dweck, Ezra; Buckland, Aaron J; Bendo, John A
Background/UNASSIGNED:Outpatient anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is performed frequently, with studies demonstrating similar complication and readmission rates compared to traditional admission. Advantages include cost effectiveness, as well as lower risk of nosocomial infections and medical errors, which lead to quicker recovery and higher patient satisfaction. Protocols are needed to ensure that outpatient ACDF occurs safely. The objective of this study was to develop and implement a protocol with patient selection and discharge criteria for patients undergoing same-day discharge (SDD) ACDF and assess readmission rates. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients undergoing 1 or 2 level primary ACDF between March 2016 and March 2017 who were eligible for SDD according to the institutional protocol (Figure 1, Table 2). Patients with identical surgery and discharge dates were grouped as SDD, and admitted patients were grouped as same-day admission (SDA). Using our electronic health record's analytics, readmissions in the 90-day postoperative period were identified. Results/UNASSIGNED:= .86). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The results of this study support the feasibility of outpatient ACDF and add a patient selection and discharge criteria to the literature. Proper identification of suitable patients using our protocol results in a noninferior readmission rate, allowing surgeons to continue to safely perform these surgeries with a low readmission rate. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:3. Clinical Relevance/UNASSIGNED:SDD is safe in the appropriate patient population.
PMID: 31741837
ISSN: 2211-4599
CID: 4256772