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Direct effects of transcranial electric stimulation on brain circuits in rats and humans

Voroslakos, Mihaly; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Brinyiczki, Kitti; Zombori, Tamas; Oliva, Azahara; Fernandez-Ruiz, Antonio; Kozak, Gabor; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamas; Ivanyi, Bela; Buzsaki, Gyorgy; Berenyi, Antal
Transcranial electric stimulation is a non-invasive tool that can influence brain activity; however, the parameters necessary to affect local circuits in vivo remain to be explored. Here, we report that in rodents and human cadaver brains, ~75% of scalp-applied currents are attenuated by soft tissue and skull. Using intracellular and extracellular recordings in rats, we find that at least 1 mV/mm voltage gradient is necessary to affect neuronal spiking and subthreshold currents. We designed an 'intersectional short pulse' stimulation method to inject sufficiently high current intensities into the brain, while keeping the charge density and sensation on the scalp surface relatively low. We verify the regional specificity of this novel method in rodents; in humans, we demonstrate how it affects the amplitude of simultaneously recorded EEG alpha waves. Our combined results establish that neuronal circuits are instantaneously affected by intensity currents that are higher than those used in conventional protocols.
PMID: 29396478
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 2995512

Sustained efficacy of closed loop electrical stimulation for long-term treatment of absence epilepsy in rats

Kozak, Gabor; Berenyi, Antal
Closed-loop brain stimulation is a promising alternative to treat drug-resistant epilepsies. In contrast to optogenetic interventions, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) does not require cellular modification of neurons to be effective, and it is less invasive compared to deep brain stimulation. Furthermore, on-demand TES of targeted brain regions allows the potential for normal function of these networks during interictal periods, a possibility that is eliminated by resective surgical treatment approaches. To further explore the translation of closed-loop TES for treatment of epilepsy, we show here for the first time that unsupervised closed-loop TES in rats can consistently interrupt seizures for 6 weeks and has the potential to control seizure activity up to 4 months (longest periods examined). On-demand TES significantly reduced the time spent in seizure and the individual seizure duration, although significantly higher seizure rate was observed during the treatment. The 6 week long stimulation had no residual adverse effects on the electrophysiologic characteristics of the brain after the termination of the treatment and did not induce glial remodelling in the brain. Our findings demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive, potentially lifelong TES treatment of epilepsy either alone or as a complement to drug treatments.
PMID: 28740261
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 2995522

Closed-loop control of epilepsy by transcranial electrical stimulation

Berenyi, Antal; Belluscio, Mariano; Mao, Dun; Buzsaki, Gyorgy
Many neurological and psychiatric diseases are associated with clinically detectable, altered brain dynamics. The aberrant brain activity, in principle, can be restored through electrical stimulation. In epilepsies, abnormal patterns emerge intermittently, and therefore, a closed-loop feedback brain control that leaves other aspects of brain functions unaffected is desirable. Here, we demonstrate that seizure-triggered, feedback transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) can dramatically reduce spike-and-wave episodes in a rodent model of generalized epilepsy. Closed-loop TES can be an effective clinical tool to reduce pathological brain patterns in drug-resistant patients.
PMID: 22879515
ISSN: 0036-8075
CID: 177772

Role of Hippocampal CA2 Region in Triggering Sharp-Wave Ripples

Oliva, Azahara; Fernandez-Ruiz, Antonio; Buzsaki, Gyorgy; Berenyi, Antal
Sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs) in the hippocampus are implied in memory consolidation, as shown by observational and interventional experiments. However, the mechanism of their generation remains unclear. Using two-dimensional silicon probe arrays, we investigated the propagation of SPW-Rs across the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions. Synchronous activation of CA2 ensembles preceded SPW-R-related population activity in CA3 and CA1 regions. Deep CA2 neurons gradually increased their activity prior to ripples and were suppressed during the population bursts of CA3-CA1 neurons (ramping cells). Activity of superficial CA2 cells preceded the activity surge in CA3-CA1 (phasic cells). The trigger role of the CA2 region in SPW-R was more pronounced during waking than sleeping. These results point to the CA2 region as an initiation zone for SPW-Rs.
PMID: 27593179
ISSN: 1097-4199
CID: 2317682

Large-scale, high-density (up to 512 channels) recording of local circuits in behaving animals

Berenyi, Antal; Somogyvari, Zoltan; Nagy, Anett J; Roux, Lisa; Long, John D; Fujisawa, Shigeyoshi; Stark, Eran; Leonardo, Anthony; Harris, Timothy D; Buzsaki, Gyorgy
Monitoring representative fractions of neurons from multiple brain circuits in behaving animals is necessary for understanding neuronal computation. Here we describe a system that allows high channel count recordings from a small volume of neuronal tissue using a lightweight signal multiplexing head-stage that permits free behavior of small rodents. The system integrates multi-shank, high-density recording silicon probes, ultra-flexible interconnects and a miniaturized microdrive. These improvements allowed for simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and unit activity from hundreds of sites without confining free movements of the animal. The advantages of large-scale recordings are illustrated by determining the electro-anatomical boundaries of layers and regions in the hippocampus and neocortex and constructing a circuit diagram of functional connections among neurons in real anatomical space. These methods will allow the investigation of circuit operations and behavior-dependent inter-regional interactions for testing hypotheses of neural networks and brain function.
PMID: 24353300
ISSN: 0022-3077
CID: 722532

A Proposed Brain-, Spine-, and Mental- Health Screening Methodology (NEUROSCREEN) for Healthcare Systems: Position of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics

Nami, Mohammad; Thatcher, Robert; Kashou, Nasser; Lopes, Dahabada; Lobo, Maria; Bolanos, Joe F; Morris, Kevin; Sadri, Melody; Bustos, Teshia; Sanchez, Gilberto E; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Fiallos, John; Dye, Justin; Guo, Xiaofan; Peatfield, Nicholas; Asiryan, Milena; Mayuku-Dore, Alero; Krakauskaite, Solventa; Soler, Ernesto Palmero; Cramer, Steven C; Besio, Walter G; Berenyi, Antal; Tripathi, Manjari; Hagedorn, David; Ingemanson, Morgan; Gombosev, Marinela; Liker, Mark; Salimpour, Yousef; Mortazavi, Martin; Braverman, Eric; Prichep, Leslie S; Chopra, Deepak; Eliashiv, Dawn S; Hariri, Robert; Tiwari, Ambooj; Green, Ken; Cormier, Jason; Hussain, Namath; Tarhan, Nevzat; Sipple, Daniel; Roy, Michael; Yu, John S; Filler, Aaron; Chen, Mike; Wheeler, Chris; Ashford, J Wesson; Blum, Kenneth; Zelinsky, Deborah; Yamamoto, Vicky; Kateb, Babak
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated neurological, mental health disorders, and neurocognitive issues. However, there is a lack of inexpensive and efficient brain evaluation and screening systems. As a result, a considerable fraction of patients with neurocognitive or psychobehavioral predicaments either do not get timely diagnosed or fail to receive personalized treatment plans. This is especially true in the elderly populations, wherein only 16% of seniors say they receive regular cognitive evaluations. Therefore, there is a great need for development of an optimized clinical brain screening workflow methodology like what is already in existence for prostate and breast exams. Such a methodology should be designed to facilitate objective early detection and cost-effective treatment of such disorders. In this paper we have reviewed the existing clinical protocols, recent technological advances and suggested reliable clinical workflows for brain screening. Such protocols range from questionnaires and smartphone apps to multi-modality brain mapping and advanced imaging where applicable. To that end, the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) proposes the Brain, Spine and Mental Health Screening (NEUROSCREEN) as a multi-faceted approach. Beside other assessment tools, NEUROSCREEN employs smartphone guided cognitive assessments and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as well as potential genetic testing for cognitive decline risk as inexpensive and effective screening tools to facilitate objective diagnosis, monitor disease progression, and guide personalized treatment interventions. Operationalizing NEUROSCREEN is expected to result in reduced healthcare costs and improving quality of life at national and later, global scales.
PMID: 35034899
ISSN: 1875-8908
CID: 5131282

Closed-loop stimulation of the medial septum terminates epileptic seizures

Takeuchi, Yuichi; Harangozó, Márk; Pedraza, Lizeth; Földi, Tamás; Kozák, Gábor; Li, Qun; Berényi, Antal
Temporal lobe epilepsy with distributed hippocampal seizure foci is often intractable and its secondary generalization might lead to sudden death. Early termination through spatially extensive hippocampal intervention is not feasible directly, because of the large size and irregular shape of the hippocampus. In contrast, the medial septum is a promising target to govern hippocampal oscillations through its divergent connections to both hippocampi. Combining this 'proxy intervention' concept and precisely timed stimulation, we report here that closed-loop medial septum electrical stimulation can quickly terminate intrahippocampal seizures and suppress secondary generalization in a rat kindling model. Precise stimulus timing governed by internal seizure rhythms was essential. Cell type-specific stimulation revealed that the precisely timed activation of medial septum GABAergic neurons underlaid the effects. Our concept of time-targeted proxy stimulation for intervening pathological oscillations can be extrapolated to other neurological and psychiatric disorders, and has potential for clinical translation.
PMID: 33501929
ISSN: 1460-2156
CID: 4845152

Reduced MC4R signaling alters nociceptive thresholds associated with red hair

Robinson, Kathleen C; Kemény, Lajos V; Fell, Gillian L; Hermann, Andrea L; Allouche, Jennifer; Ding, Weihua; Yekkirala, Ajay; Hsiao, Jennifer J; Su, Mack Y; Theodosakis, Nicholas; Kozak, Gabor; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Shen, Shiqian; Berenyi, Antal; Mao, Jianren; Woolf, Clifford J; Fisher, David E
Humans and mice with natural red hair have elevated basal pain thresholds and an increased sensitivity to opioid analgesics. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for higher nociceptive thresholds in red-haired mice resulting from a loss of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) function and found that the increased thresholds are melanocyte dependent but melanin independent. MC1R loss of function decreases melanocytic proopiomelanocortin transcription and systemic melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) levels in the plasma of red-haired (Mc1re/e ) mice. Decreased peripheral α-MSH derepresses the central opioid tone mediated by the opioid receptor OPRM1, resulting in increased nociceptive thresholds. We identified MC4R as the MSH-responsive receptor that opposes OPRM1 signaling and the periaqueductal gray area in the brainstem as a central area of opioid/melanocortin antagonism. This work highlights the physiologic role of melanocytic MC1R and circulating melanocortins in the regulation of nociception and provides a mechanistic framework for altered opioid signaling and pain sensitivity in red-haired individuals.
PMID: 33811065
ISSN: 2375-2548
CID: 4838692

Oscillotherapeutics - Time-targeted interventions in epilepsy and beyond

Takeuchi, Yuichi; Berényi, Antal
Oscillatory brain activities support many physiological functions from motor control to cognition. Disruptions of the normal oscillatory brain activities are commonly observed in neurological and psychiatric disorders including epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, anxiety/trauma-related disorders, major depressive disorders, and drug addiction. Therefore, these disorders can be considered as common oscillation defects despite having distinct behavioral manifestations and genetic causes. Recent technical advances of neuronal activity recording and analysis have allowed us to study the pathological oscillations of each disorder as a possible biomarker of symptoms. Furthermore, recent advances in brain stimulation technologies enable time- and space-targeted interventions of the pathological oscillations of both neurological disorders and psychiatric disorders as possible targets for regulating their symptoms.
PMID: 31954733
ISSN: 1872-8111
CID: 4272532

Spike-and-Wave Discharges Are Not Pathological Sleep Spindles, Network-Level Aspects of Age-Dependent Absence Seizure Development in Rats

Kozák, Gábor; Földi, Tamás; Berényi, Antal
Spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) of absence epilepsy are considered as pathologic alterations of sleep spindles; however, their network-level relationship has never been convincingly revealed. In order to observe the development and generalization of the thalamocortical SWDs and the concomitant alterations of sleep related oscillations, we performed local field potential (LFP) and single unit recordings in rats for three months during their maturation. We found that while SWDs and spindles look similar in young, they become different with maturation and shift to appear in different brain states. Thus, despite being generated by the same network, they are likely two distinct manifestations of the thalamocortical activity. We show that while spindles are already mainly global oscillations, SWDs appear mainly only focally in young. They become capable to generalize later with maturation, when the out-of-focus brain regions develop a decreased inhibitory/excitatory balance. These results suggest that a hyperexcitable focus is not sufficient alone to drive generalized absence seizures. Importantly, we also found the gradual age dependent disappearance of sleep spindles coinciding with the simultaneous gradual emergence of spike and waves, which both could be reversed by the proper dosing of ethosuximide (ETX). Based on these observations we conclude that the absence seizure development might be a multi-step process, which might involve the functional impairment of cortical interneurons and network-level changes that negatively affect sleep quality.
PMID: 31862790
ISSN: 2373-2822
CID: 4272092