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Hypogastric Artery Flow Interruption is Associated with Increased Mortality After Open Aortic Repair

Zhang, Jason; Chang, Heepeel; Rockman, Caron; Patel, Virendra I; Veeraswamy, Ravi; Berland, Todd; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Maldonado, Thomas; Cayne, Neal; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Garg, Karan
BACKGROUND:Potential complications of pelvic flow disruption during aortic aneurysm repair include buttock ischemia and mesenteric ischemia. Unilateral or bilateral hypogastric artery flow interruption, either from atherosclerosis or intentionally to facilitate aneurysm repair, is considered problematic in endovascular repair; however, it has not been well studied in open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (OAR). We sought to examine the effect of interruption of flow to one or both hypogastric arteries on outcomes after OAR. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing elective open AAA repair between 2003 and 2020. (redundant) Patients with appropriate data on their hypogastric arteries postoperatively were stratified into two groups-patent bilaterally (normal pelvic perfusion, NPP) and unilateral or bilateral occlusion or ligation (compromised pelvic perfusion, CPP). Primary endpoints were 30-day major morbidity (myocardial infarction, respiratory complications, renal injury, and lower extremity or intestinal ischemia) and mortality. RESULTS:During the study period, 9.492 patients underwent elective open AAA repair-860 (9.1%) with compromised pelvic perfusion and 8,632 (90.9%) with patent bilateral hypogastric arteries. The groups had similar cardiac risk factors, including a history of coronary artery disease, prior coronary intervention, and the use of P2Y12 inhibitors and statins. A majority of patients in the CPP cohort had concurrent iliac aneurysms (63.3% vs. 24.8%; P < 0.001). The perioperative mortality was significantly higher in patients with compromised pelvic perfusion (5.5% vs. 3.1%; P < 0.001). Bilateral flow interruption had a trend toward higher perioperative mortality compared to unilateral interruption (7.1% vs. 4.7%; P < 0.147). The CPP group also had increased rates of myocardial injury (6.7% vs. 4.7%; P = 0.012), renal complications (18.9% vs. 15.9%; P = 0.024), leg and bowel ischemia (3.5% vs. 2.1%; P = 0.008; and 5.7% vs. 3.4%; P < 0.001, respectively). On multivariable analysis, CPP was associated with increased perioperative mortality (OR 1.47, CI 1.14-1.88, P = 0.003). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, there was no difference in survival at 2 years postdischarge between the NPP and CPP cohorts (86.1% vs. 87.5%, log-rank P = 0.275). CONCLUSIONS:Compromised pelvic perfusion is associated with increased perioperative complications and higher mortality in patients undergoing OAR. The sequelae of losing pelvic perfusion, in addition to the presence of more complex atherosclerotic and aneurysmal disease resulting in more difficult dissection, likely contribute to these findings. Thus, patients considered for OAR who have occluded hypogastric arteries or aneurysmal involvement of the hypogastric artery preoperatively may be candidates for more conservative management beyond traditional size criteria.
PMID: 35654287
ISSN: 1615-5947
CID: 5236152

The Presence of a Pathologic Perforator May be Predictive of Central Venous Pathology and Multilevel Disease in Severe Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Li, Chong; Nwachukwu, Chukwuma; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Kabnick, Lowell S; Maldonado, Thomas S; Rockman, Caron B; Berland, Todd L; Sadek, Mikel
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The treatment of a refluxing perforator is indicated in the setting of severe chronic venous insufficiency, but there are limited data on the presence of multilevel disease in these patients. This study sought to evaluate whether the presence of a pathologic perforator is predictive of the presence of central venous pathology. METHODS:This study was a retrospective review of the institutional vascular quality initiative (VQI) database. Consecutive patient-limbs were identified who underwent intervention of refluxing perforators. The patients who underwent imaging, including MRI or CT (Group A) were compared to those who did not undergo imaging (Group B). The treated limbs in Group A were also compared to the contralateral limbs as an internal control. Anatomical findings on imaging were analyzed by two independent investigators. The primary outcome was the presence and degree of central venous stenosis as measured by an orthogonal diameter reduction of > 50% by axial imaging. Secondary outcomes included demographic and clinical differences between the two groups, frequency of central venous intervention, and duration of ulcer healing. Standard statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS:Ninety-three patient-limbs underwent treatment of a pathologic perforator, with 30 in Group A and 63 in Group B. The following demographic and clinical variables were higher in Group A compared to Group B: Male gender, BMI, deep venous thrombosis history, recent or active anticoagulation use, perforator diameter, Clinical Etiology Anatomy Pathophysiology class 4, 5 or 6, and Venous Clinical Severity Score. Radiographic analysis of Group A revealed concordance of a treated pathological perforator with an ipsilateral central venous stenosis in 53.3% of patients, and a higher frequency of common iliac vein stenosis (50% vs 21.4%, P = 0.024) and external iliac vein stenosis (20% vs 0%, P = 0.012) compared to the contralateral limbs. When separated by left or right limb, the left limbs exhibited a greater degree of common iliac vein stenosis as compared to the contralateral limbs (50.7±20.9% vs 16.3±16.5%, P < 0.001) as well as a greater frequency of >50% common iliac vein stenosis (46.7% vs 13.3%, P = 0.046). The right limbs exhibited a greater frequency of > 50% external iliac vein stenosis as compared to contralateral limbs (33.3% vs 0%, P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that patients with severe chronic venous insufficiency who undergo treatment for a pathologic perforator may have additional ipsilateral central venous pathology, supporting the presence of multilevel disease. Additional axial imaging might unmask central venous pathology and provide another option for treatment.
PMID: 34252577
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 4938302

Percutaneous arteriovenous fistula creation with the 4F WavelinQ EndoAVF System

Berland, Todd; Clement, Jason; Inston Nick Inston, Nicholas; Kreienberg, Paul; Ouriel, Kenneth
BACKGROUND:Percutaneous devices for creation of native arteriovenous fistulae offer an alternative to traditional open surgical techniques. The 4F WavelinQ EndoAVF System was developed as a lower profile alternative to facilitate access through smaller vessels and minimize access site complications; The current report is the original first experience of this device, assessing outcome in 120 patients followed for 6 months. METHODS:The use of the 4F WavelinQ system in three studies, EASE (32 patients), EASE-2 (24 patients), and the EU postmarket clinical follow-up study (64 patients) was aggregated and analyzed. Patients were followed with duplex ultrasound at discharge and follow-up visits at 1, 3, and 6 months. Primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency rates were evaluated as Kaplan-Meier estimates and standard errors. Time to maturity and time to successful cannulation were defined as the mean ± standard deviation days from the procedure in patients enrolled on dialysis. RESULTS:Procedural success was achieved in 116 patients (96.7%). Primary, assisted-primary, and secondary 6-month patency rates were 71.9% ± 4.5%, 80.7% ± 4.1%, and 87.8% ± 3.3%, respectively. Time to maturity averaged 41 ± 17 days. Time to successful cannulation averaged 68 ± 51 days. Device-related serious adverse events were reported in 3 of 120 patients (2.5%) and procedure-related serious adverse events occurred in 7 of 120 patients (5.8%). Arterial or venous access complications were not reported in any of the patients. Access circuit reinterventions were performed in 23 patients (19.2%), split between those performed for EndoAVF maturation (13/120 [10.8%]) and maintenance (11/120 [9.2%]). CONCLUSIONS:Percutaneous creation of native dialysis fistulae with the 4F WavelinQ EndoAVF System is safe and effective, with favorable durability and a low rate of serious complications and reinterventions through 6-month follow-up. Use of the 4F device allows for percutaneous fistula creation between the radial artery and radial vein or the ulnar artery and ulnar vein. These findings suggest that the 4F device is a useful percutaneous alternative to open surgical AVF or endovascular AVF with larger bore devices.
PMID: 34601046
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5138242

A Single-Center Experience of Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein Endothermal Ablation Demonstrates Safety and Efficacy

Charitable, John; Speranza, Giancarlo; Rockman, Caron; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Kabnick, Lowell; Garg, Karan; Maldonado, Thomas; Berland, Todd; Cayne, Neal; Barfield, Michael; Sadek, Mikel
OBJECTIVE:Endothermal ablation is well established for the treatment of the great and small saphenous veins. Data are lacking for treatment of the Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein (AASV). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AASV treatment using endothermal ablation. METHODS:This was a retrospective review of 314 limbs at a single academic institution from 2016-2018 using the institutional Vascular Quality Initiative database. All limbs had documented AASV reflux. Baseline characteristics were evaluated including age, sex, ethnicity, CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) classification, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and vein diameter. Outcomes relating to procedure safety and efficacy included treatment modality and length, successful ablation on post-operative imaging, post-procedural clinical outcomes, incidence of endothermal heat induced thrombosis (EHIT), and any post-procedural complication. RESULTS:A total of 314 consecutive limbs were identified from 2016-2018. Pre-procedure VCSS scores were available for 312 limbs and averaged 6.13 ± 3.33. History of varicose veins were reported in all limbs with 49.4% (n=155) having previously undergone a procedure. The most common presenting symptom was mild edema in 52.5% (n=165). Vein diameter and assessment of reflux were obtained by venous duplex ultrasound (DUS). The largest AASV diameter was available for 304 limbs, averaging 7.93 ± 2.69 mm. Treatment modalities included radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in 59.2% (n=186), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in 37.9% (n=119), and isolated microphlebectomy in 2.9% (n=9). 38.5% (N=121) of limbs underwent concomitant microphlebectomy at the time of EVLA. Total treatment length was obtained in 297 limbs, averaging 23.0 cm ± 12.0. Post-operatively, 94.6% (n=297) of limbs were prescribed compression stockings. Post-operative DUS was performed in 312 limbs, revealing successful ablation in 96.5% (n=303) with 2 limbs (0.6%) developing an EHIT, both treated with therapeutic enoxaparin for one week. Repeat DUS revealed thrombus resolution in one limb, while the other patient was lost to follow-up. VCSS scores post-procedure were available for 145 limbs and averaged 4.45 ± 2.31. This was a statistically significant decrease from pre-procedure VCSS scores (p<0.01). Average duration of follow-up was 2.2 years, with two limbs lost to follow-up. Of the 9 limbs (3.5%) whose initial procedure failed, 5 (56%) were treated using RFA and 4 (44%) were treated using EVLA. There were no other post-operative complications. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our experience over a three-year period for treating the AASV shows it to be safe and effective in a broad range of disease severity with an improvement in VCSS and a low incidence of EHIT. Additionally, RFA and EVLA exhibit similar treatment efficacy. Long-term follow-up data are needed.
PMID: 35218957
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5172682

Assessment of Quality of Life Changes in Lower Extremity Lymphedema Patients Using an Advanced Pneumatic Compression Device at Home

Maldonado, Thomas S; Rokosh, Rae S; Padberg, Frank; Rotella, Vittorio; Miller, Hyman; Nassiri, Naiem; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Berland, Todd; Sadek, Mikel; Barfield, Michael E
OBJECTIVE:Lymphedema is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare resource usage. Conventional therapy efficacy is limited with poor surgical salvage options. Preliminary studies demonstrated advanced pneumatic compression devices (APCD) improve clinical outcomes, however limited evidence regarding their role in healthcare cost mitigation or health-related quality of life (QOL) is available. METHODS:) between February 2016 and March 2019. Patients were assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 52 weeks from enrollment by limb circumference, QOL assessments (Short Form-36 [SF-36] and Lymphedema Quality of Life [LYMQOL]), device compliance, cellulitic episodes and lymphedema-related health care use since the previous visit. Primary endpoints of interest were QOL at baseline compared to 12 weeks as well as unscheduled lymphedema-related clinic visits and hospital admissions at 52 weeks. Secondary endpoints included change in limb girth and QOL at 52 weeks compared to baseline. RESULTS:178 patients with LE lymphedema were prospectively enrolled; this interim report represents the first 74 subjects to complete 52 weeks of APCD treatment. The cohort was predominately male (94.6%), elderly (mean 67 years), obese (median BMI 32), and most commonly enrolled for treatment of phlebolymphedema (71.6%) with largely bilateral LE involvement (91.9%). There was no significant difference in QOL at 12 weeks. However, at 52 weeks, LYMQOL was significantly improved from baseline (6.3 vs. 7.4, p<0.0001) and SF-36 demonstrated significant improvement from baseline in the Physical Component (38.6 vs. 40.8; p=0.035) with an effect towards overall improvement as well in the Mental Component (49.9 vs. 51.3; p=0.549). Limb circumference was significantly reduced at 12 weeks from baseline (28.5cm vs. 27.7cm; p=0.0005) in the most affected LE, and this reduction remained stable for the study duration. APCD treatment was associated with a significant reduction in cellulitic incidence (24.3% vs. 8.1%, p=0.005), lymphedema-related clinic visits (2.2 vs. 0.7; p=0.02), urgent care visits (1.2 vs. 0.3; p=0.004), and hospital admissions (0.5 vs. 0.1; p=0.047) per patient. CONCLUSIONS:The FLX APCD results in initial significant limb girth reduction as early as 12 weeks and a steady sustained improvement in health-related QOL up to one year. The latter is likely reflective of a decrease in cellulitis episodes and fewer associated lymphedema-related clinic, urgent care visits and hospital admissions.
PMID: 33137494
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 4664032

Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Access for Lower Extremity Arterial Disease is Safe and Effective in the Outpatient Setting

Pezold, Michael; Blumberg, Sheila; Sadek, Mikel; Maldonado, Thomas; Cayne, Neal; Jacobowitz, Glenn; James, Herbert; Berland, Todd
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Antegrade superficial femoral artery (SFA) access for peripheral artery disease reduces the time, radiation and contrast required with contralateral common femoral access (CFA). Yet, this technique remains underutilized in the treatment of SFA, popliteal and tibial disease, and there remains limited data on the safety and effectiveness of antegrade SFA access in the outpatient setting. METHODS:A retrospective review of lower extremity peripheral arterial interventions in our office-based endovascular suite was conducted from 2013 to 2018. Interventions necessitating CFA access such as iliac, common femoral or deep femoral artery revascularization were excluded (n = 206). In addition, interventions potentially requiring large sheaths not amenable to SFA access (e.g. popliteal aneurysm) were excluded. Relevant demographic and treatment variables including postoperative complications were abstracted. RESULTS:We identified 718 patients, who underwent revascularization of the SFA, popliteal and tibial arteries. Antegrade SFA access was chosen in 448 patients (62.4%) with the remaining 270 patients having retrograde CFA access. Antegrade SFA access was achieved primarily with a 4 French sheath, while a majority of retrograde CFA interventions utilized a 6 French sheath for access (87.7% vs. 69.5%, p <0.001). Significantly less fluoroscopy (9.5 min vs 16.4 min, p <0.001) and contrast (25.4 mL vs. 38.5 mL, p <0.001) were used during SFA access compared with retrograde access. Technical success was achieved in 93.2% with antegrade SFA versus 94.8% retrograde CFA access (p 0.42). The overall rate of complications was low for both cohorts (2.7% vs. 3.7%, p 0.78) and there were no statistical differences in access-site complications (1.1% vs. 1.5%, p 0.94), hematoma (0.7% vs. 1.1%, p 0.84) and pseudoaneurysm (0.4% vs. 0%, p 0.98) between techniques. CONCLUSIONS:Percutaneous antegrade SFA access can be performed safely in the outpatient setting, and remains an effective alternative to retrograde CFA access with significantly less utilization of fluoroscopy and contrast.
PMID: 33271278
ISSN: 1615-5947
CID: 4694362

Iliofemoral Venous Stenting May Contribute to Improving Femoropopliteal Deep Vein Reflux [Meeting Abstract]

Pergamo, M; Kabnick, L; Jacobowitz, G; Rockman, C; Maldonado, T; Berland, T; Blumberg, S; Sadek, M
Background: Severe presentations of chronic venous insufficiency may result from reflux or obstruction at the deep venous, perforator or superficial venous levels. Iliofemoral venous stenting may be used to address central venous obstruction, but its effect on deep venous reflux remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of iliac vein stenting on femoropopliteal deep vein reflux with the hypothesis that sonographic evidence of deep vein reflux would remain absent or improve following iliac vein stenting.
Method(s): This study was a retrospective review of patients undergoing iliofemoral venous stenting from 2013-2020. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on the preprocedural presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of femoropopliteal reflux. Baseline patient variables were collected including age, gender, CEAP, presence of concomitant superficial or perforator reflux, DVT history, and additional venous intervention(s). The primary outcome evaluated was the persistent absence or the resolution of deep vein reflux on the latest venous duplex ultrasound follow-up. Other outcomes included follow-up CEAP classification as well as need for secondary deep venous interventions.
Result(s): There were 275 consecutive patients who underwent iliofemoral venous stenting. Of those, 58 presented with deep vein reflux (Group A), and the remaining did not (Group B). When comparing Group A and Group B, patients in Group A had a higher likelihood of prior DVT (P =.0001) as well as higher frequency of venous ablation (Table). The remaining demographics did not differ significantly between the two groups. In Group A, deep vein reflux resolved in follow-up in 17/51 patients (P =.0001). In Group B, deep vein reflux developed on follow-up in 6/217 patients. CEAP appeared to improve from preintervention (C0, 1.1%; C1, 0.4%; C2, 1.8%; C3, 41.4%; C4, 24.9%; C5, 5.9%; and C6, 24.5%) to latest follow-up (C0, 4.9%; C1, 1.9%; C2, 5.7%; C3, 34.2%; C4, 22.8%; C5, 17.1%; and C6, 13.3%).
Conclusion(s): For patients who undergo iliofemoral vein stenting, deep vein reflux may improve if present initially, and is unlikely to develop if not present prior to intervention. A cohort of patients maintained persistent deep vein reflux, and these warrant further evaluation. Prospective studies are required to corroborate the safety, efficacy and durability of iliofemoral venous stenting in patients with deep vein reflux. [Formula presented]
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5184222

Closed Incision Negative Pressure Wound Therapy May Decrease Wound Complications in Major Lower Extremity Amputations

Chang, Heepeel; Maldonado, Thomas S; Rockman, Caron B; Cayne, Neal S; Berland, Todd L; Barfield, Michael E; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Sadek, Mikel
OBJECTIVE:Wound complications after major lower extremity amputations are a cause of significant morbidity in vascular surgery patients. Recent publications have demonstrated the efficacy of the closed incision negative pressure dressing at preventing surgical site infections (SSIs); however, there are limited data on its use in major lower extremity amputations. This study sought to assess if closed incision negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) would reduce the risk of complications as compared to a standard dressing in patients with peripheral vascular disease undergoing major lower extremity amputation. METHODS:system (Acelity L.P. Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA) was applied intraoperatively at the discretion of the operating surgeon and removed 5 to 7 days postoperatively. The standard group received a non-adherent dressing with an overlying compression dressing. Amputation incisions were assessed and wound complications were recorded. Student's t-test and two-sample proportion z-test were used for statistical analysis. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:For comorbidities, there was a higher incidence of tobacco use in the NPWT as compared to the standard group (44% vs. 13%; P = .011), as well as trends towards increased prior amputations, anemia, hyperlipidemia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder in the NPWT group. For risk factors, there were more dirty wounds in the NPWT as compared to the standard group (52% vs. 26%; P = .046). For outcomes, there were fewer wound complications in the NPWT as compared to the standard group (13% vs. 39%; P = .037). The types of wound-related complications in the NPWT group included one wound dehiscence with a deep SSI, one superficial SSI and one incision line necrosis. In the standard group, there were 4 wound dehiscences with deep SSI, 3 superficial SSIs, 4 incision line necroses and 1 stump hematoma. The rates of perioperative mortality and amputation revision did not differ significantly between the NPWT and the standard group (3% vs. 4% and 4.3% vs. 10%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Closed incision negative pressure wound therapy may decrease the incidence of wound complications in vascular patients undergoing major lower extremity amputation. This held true even amongst a population that was potentially at higher risk. This therapy may be considered for use in lower extremity major amputations.
PMID: 32707380
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 4539842

Increased Risk of Major Limb Events in Poor Clopidogrel Responders: Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery and Cardiovascular Events (PACE) Study Subgroup Analysis [Meeting Abstract]

Tawil, M; Berger, J; Lamparello, P; Jacobowitz, G; Cayne, N; Sadek, M; Berland, T; Lugo, J; Rockman, C; Maldonado, T
Objective: Whereas clopidogrel is effective at decreasing cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease, a substantial number of events continue to occur. This study investigated the variability in response to clopidogrel and its relationship with clinical outcomes.
Method(s): There were 300 patients enrolled in the Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery and Cardiovascular Events (PACE) study before lower extremity revascularization, of whom 119 were receiving clopidogrel. Platelet aggregation was measured in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 2M immediately before revascularization. Patients were observed longitudinally for a median follow-up of 18 months. The primary end point was major adverse limb events (MALEs), defined by major amputation or reoperation of the affected limb. Patients were stratified into groups according to the percentage ADP-induced aggregation at 300 seconds (<50% aggregation, normal responder; >=50% aggregation, poor responder).
Result(s): Overall, the median age was 70 years (62-76 years), and 39.5% were female. Thirty-six (30.3%) patients had a MALE event (15 major amputation and 25 major reoperation); 60 patients underwent open or hybrid operations, and 50 patients underwent endovascular procedures. The remaining nine patients had no interventions. Of the group of 119 patients, 97 patients were taking aspirin. Overall, median aggregation to ADP 2M was 22.5% (Q1-Q3, 10%-50%), and 27 patients (26%) were clopidogrel nonresponders. Baseline aggregation was higher in patients who went on to develop a MALE than in those without a MALE (43% vs 20%; P =.018). Patients with aggregation > median (22.5%) were more likely to experience a MALE than were patients with aggregation < median (69% vs 31%; hazard ratio [HR], 2.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-5.98; P =.013). After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and aspirin, aggregation > median was associated with MALEs (adjusted HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.18-6.01; P =.018). When stratified by established cutoffs for responsiveness to clopidogrel (50% aggregation), 27 (26%) patients were poor responders. Poor responders were more likely to experience MALEs than normal responders (59% vs 41%; HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.11-4.89; P =.026). After multivariable adjustment, poor responder status trended toward an increased risk of MALE compared with a normal responder (adjusted HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.00-4.78; P =.051).
Conclusion(s): Among patients undergoing lower extremity revascularization, poor response to clopidogrel is associated with increased risk for major adverse limb events. Preoperative screening to ensure therapeutic clopidogrel response should be considered in these patients.
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5184272

Arterial thromboembolism associated with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer levels [Case Report]

Garg, Karan; Barfield, Michael E; Pezold, Michael L; Sadek, Mikel; Cayne, Neal S; Lugo, Joanelle; Maldonado, Thomas S; Berland, Todd L; Rockman, Caron B; Jacobowitz, Glenn R
The novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in January 2020 and has since evolved into a pandemic affecting >200 countries. The severity of presentation is variable and carries a mortality between 1% and 3%. We continue to learn about the virus and the resulting acute respiratory illness and hypercoagulability; however, much remains unknown. In our early experience in a high-volume center, we report a series of four cases of acute peripheral artery ischemia in patients with COVID-19 in the setting of elevated D-dimer levels.
PMID: 32704579
ISSN: 2468-4287
CID: 4539752