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Reliford, A O; Ron-Li, Liaw K; Berry, O O; Burgos, J J
Objectives: There is a significant and urgent need across psychiatry and other academic medicine departments to design, create, and execute effective dialogues on race, while examining unconscious bias and privilege. The overarching goal of facilitated dialogue is to create a safe space for faculty, staff, and trainees of different racial backgrounds to engage in meaningful dialogue that helps all develop an antiracist approach to their work and lives.
Method(s): Based on the literature and the findings of a departmental needs assessment survey that we designed, we developed clear learning objectives, community norms, an 8-month curriculum, facilitator training and supervision, mixed-race dialogue group composition and logistics, and continuous improvement and comprehensive program evaluation. The curriculum covered topics spanning social identity, power and privilege, bias and discrimination, microaggressions, historical and structural racism, current events, cultural formulation and application to practice, allyship, and antiracism stance and action. Each facilitated dialogue session incorporated antiracist readings, videos, podcasts, immersive activities, and interactive group discussion.
Result(s): A total of 114 department faculty, staff, and trainees completed the antiracism education needs assessment survey. Ten clinical leaders were trained to serve as dialogue facilitators. Ninety-seven faculty, staff, and trainees from diverse sociodemographic backgrounds opted to participate, and 179 learner experience surveys were collected from October 2020 to January 2021. At least 94% of respondents felt engaged, safe in the dialogue environment, learned key antiracism concepts, and learned tools on how to take an antiracist stance in their work and lives.
Conclusion(s): Our curriculum, process, and facilitators have successfully addressed our goals of creating a safe space to discuss experiences with race and racism, staying open to the experiences of others, being open to new ways of viewing race, and furthermore use this new perspective to adopt an antiracist stance in their lives. Our workshop format is designed to help participants understand our process and to think through creating their own dialogues. It involves a mix of instructive and highly interactive activities, performed through breakouts and debriefings. AC, DEI, REST
ISSN: 1527-5418
CID: 5024272

Editorial: Race-Based Traumatic Stress and Vicarious Racism Within the Parent-Child Dyad: Opportunities for Intervention [Editorial]

Berry, Obianuju O
With every disaster, there are fault lines that deepen our understanding of what has happened and what needs to come. The events over the past 18 months including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as well as the murder of George Floyd and the associated protests throughout the United States brought those fault lines into stark relief by highlighting the history of systemic racism that has fostered marginalization and discrimination against Black Americans. These clouds of systemic racism and discrimination-encompassing 250 years of slavery, 100 years of Jim Crow, police brutality, redlining, and the resulting high rates of poverty and poorer health outcomes-have created systems in which Black Americans face unequal and unequitable stressful situations. The medical community is now beginning to take notice of this race-based traumatic stress, a term coined by Carter in 2007,1 to describe how social determinants of health impacted by racial discrimination can "get under the skin" through the accumulative effects of ongoing exposure to toxic stress.2.
PMID: 34311037
ISSN: 1527-5418
CID: 5005832

Perinatal depression prevention through the mother-infant dyad: The role of maternal childhood maltreatment

Berry, Obianuju O; Babineau, Vanessa; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Scorza, Pamela; Werner, Elizabeth A; Monk, Catherine
BACKGROUND:Prevention studies for perinatal depression rarely focus on the mother-infant dyad or consider the impact of maternal childhood maltreatment (CM). METHODS:A secondary analysis of two combined randomized controlled trials of Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (PREPP) examined the moderating role of CM on the efficacy of preventing perinatal depression and effects on infant behavior at six weeks. RESULTS:32% of 109 pregnant women endorsed CM (CM+). At six weeks postpartum, women who received PREPP compared to enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU) had significant reductions in depression and anxiety based on the observer-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA) (mean difference of M=-3.84 (SD= 0.14, p<0.01) and M=- 4.31 (SD= 0.32, p <0.001) respectively). When CM was added to the models, there no longer was a significant PREPP versus ETAU treatment effect on HRSD and HRSA outcomes in CM+ women though effects remained for CM- women. However, CM+ women who received PREPP vs ETAU reported a mean increase in infant daytime sleep of 189.8 min (SE= 50.48, p = 0.001). LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Self-report measures of infant behavior were used. CONCLUSIONS:CM+ women versus CM- had limited response to an intervention to prevent perinatal depression yet still reported an increase in infant daytime sleep. This study adds to the growing literature that prevention studies may need to incorporate approaches tailored to fit women with childhood trauma histories while also considering infant functioning as both may be treatment targets relevant to maternal mood.
PMID: 34004400
ISSN: 1573-2517
CID: 4889462

Social Determinants of Health: the Impact of Racism on Early Childhood Mental Health

Berry, Obianuju O; Londoño Tobón, Amalia; Njoroge, Wanjikũ F M
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Despite increased literature on the impact of racism in the past decades, relatively few studies have focused on the effects of racism on younger children. This article reviews research from the past 5 years focusing on the impact of racism on infant and early childhood mental health and socioemotional development. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Longitudinal studies provide evidence that very young children are highly influenced by exposure to multiple and interconnecting levels of racism and discrimination. These forms of exposure (structural and personally mediated, which can be further divided into direct and indirect exposure) are particularly nefarious to young children's socioemotional development and have implications for adolescent and adult mental health with lasting sequelae. Furthermore, the effects of racism on parenting practices and maternal/caregiver mental health appear to indicate mechanisms through which racism affects young children. Although more studies are needed in this area, recent literature indicates that racism is a social determinant of health that adversely impacts infant and early childhood socioemotional, and behavioral development. Future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms through which racism impacts early childhood development and health, and interventions to prevent and mitigate the effects of racism.
PMID: 33712922
ISSN: 1535-1645
CID: 4823442

Preventing maternal mental health disorders in the context of poverty: pilot efficacy of a dyadic intervention

Scorza, Pamela; Monk, Catherine; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Berry, Obianuju O; Werner, Elizabeth
BACKGROUND:The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that clinicians provide or refer pregnant and postpartum women who are at an increased risk of perinatal depression to counseling interventions. However, this prevention goal requires effective interventions that reach women at risk of, but before, the development of a depressive disorder. OBJECTIVE:We describe a pilot efficacy trial of a novel dyadic intervention to prevent common maternal mental health disorders, that is, Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting, in a sample of women at risk of maternal mental health disorders based on poverty status. We hypothesized that Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting compared with enhanced treatment as usual would reduce symptoms of maternal mental health disorders after birth. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:A total of 60 pregnant women who were recruited from obstetrical practices at Columbia University Irving Medical Center were randomized to the Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (n=30) or enhanced treatment as usual (n=30) intervention. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire were used to compare maternal mood at 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 16 weeks after delivery. RESULTS:At 6 weeks after delivery, women randomized to Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting had lower mean Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scores (P=.018), lower mean Hamilton Depression scores (P<.001), and lower mean Hamilton Anxiety scores (P=.041); however, the incidence of postpartum mental disorders did not differ by treatment group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting, which is an intervention integrated within obstetrical care, improves subclinical symptomology for at-risk dyads at a crucial time in the early postpartum period; however, our study did not detect reductions in the incidence of postpartum mental disorders.
PMID: 33345933
ISSN: 2589-9333
CID: 4724692

The Rise of Venture Capital Investing in Mental Health

Shah, Ravi N; Berry, Obianuju O
PMID: 32936238
ISSN: 2168-6238
CID: 4637122

Intimate partner violence and psychological interventions in low-income and middle-income countries [Comment]

Berry, Obianuju O; Monk, Catherine
PMID: 31981528
ISSN: 2215-0374
CID: 4474612

Evaluating an Advisor Program for Psychiatry Residents

Berry, Obianuju O; Sciutto, Mary; Cabaniss, Deborah; Arbuckle, Melissa
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:A formal residency advisory program was instituted in 2010 to assist psychiatry residents in achieving academic and personal goals and to help identify additional mentors. In this project the authors sought to evaluate and improve resident and faculty satisfaction with the residency advisory program. METHODS:At the end of the 2013-2014 academic period, residents completed an anonymous survey to determine baseline satisfaction with the residency advisory program. A series of interventions were then implemented including the addition of a resident liaison to the program, formal recognition of faculty advisors, and email reminders regarding regular residency advisory meetings. Eight months later a follow-up survey was distributed to assess the impact of the interventions on resident and faculty satisfaction with the residency advisory program and mentoring within the residency program. RESULTS:There were notable improvements in overall satisfaction with a 58% increase (p<0.05) in residents meeting with their advisors. After the intervention, residents were more likely to seek their resident advisor for help in facilitating relationships with potential career mentors (28% vs 72%, OR=6.64, 95% CI =1.83-24.08). Although 87% of all residents reported having mentors outside of the formal residency advisory program, approximately half of those who are in their first year post medical school (PGY1s) reported having no mentors outside of the residency advisory program (notably all women). CONCLUSIONS:Resident advisory programs benefit from continuous evaluation and quality improvement with enhanced structure, including a senior resident position, leading to improved satisfaction. Residency advisory programs may be particularly useful in helping to facilitate relationships with other mentors, which may be particularly important for women early in their training.
PMID: 28197983
ISSN: 1545-7230
CID: 4474602

A 30-Year Study of 3 Generations at High Risk and Low Risk for Depression

Weissman, Myrna M; Berry, Obianuju O; Warner, Virginia; Gameroff, Marc J; Skipper, Jamie; Talati, Ardesheer; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wickramaratne, Priya
IMPORTANCE:The increased risk of major depression in the offspring of depressed parents is well known. Whether the risk is transmitted beyond 2 generations is less well known. To our knowledge, no published study with direct interviews of family members and the generations in the age of risk for depression has evaluated beyond 2 generations. This information is important for detecting individuals at highest risk who may benefit from early intervention. OBJECTIVE:To examine the familial aggregation of psychiatric disorder and functioning in grandchildren by their biological parents' and grandparents' depression status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Longitudinal retrospective cohort family study of 251 grandchildren (generation 3 [mean age, 18 years]) interviewed a mean of 2.0 times and their biological parents (generation 2) interviewed a mean of 4.6 times and grandparents (generation 1) interviewed up to 30 years. The study dates were January 1982 (wave 1) to June 2015 (wave 6). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Cumulative rates of psychiatric disorders and functioning collected for all generations by clinically trained interviewers and best-estimate diagnosis made blind to diagnoses in members of previous generations. RESULTS:There were 91 families (G1) in the original sample, of whom 77 were eligible for inclusion (had a grandchild older than 5 years), and 80.5% (62 of 77) participated in the study. When first examining only 2 generations, the biological children (generation 3) of depressed compared with nondepressed parents (generation 2) had 2-fold increased risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) (hazard ratio [HR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.08-3.79; P = .03), any disruptive disorder (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.05-2.75; P = .03), substance dependence (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.24-7.08; P = .01), any suicidal ideation or gesture (HR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.28-4.66; P = .007), and poor functioning (F = 38.25, P < .001). When 3 generations were examined stratified by parental and grandparental depression status, association of a parent's MDD on the grandchild's MDD but not other disorders varied with the grandparent's depression status: grandchildren with both a depressed parent and grandparent (n = 38) were at highest risk for MDD. Among grandchildren without a depressed grandparent, those with (n = 14) vs without (n = 74) a depressed parent had overall poorer functioning (F = 6.31, P = .01) but not higher rates of any of the disorders. Potential confounding variables did not have a meaningful effect on the association between grandchild outcomes and parental or grandparental depression. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In this study, biological offspring with 2 previous generations affected with major depression were at highest risk for major depression, suggesting the potential value of determining family history of depression in children and adolescents beyond 2 generations. Early intervention in offspring of 2 generations affected with moderate to severely impairing MDD seems warranted. The specificity of the transmission of depression across 3 generations may make this group a homogeneous sample for biological marker studies.
PMID: 27532344
ISSN: 2168-6238
CID: 4474592

Key Role of Social Supports in a Cardiac Transplant Treatment Team [Case Report]

Berry, Obianuju O; Kymissis, Carisa
Only a limited literature focuses on solid organ transplant outcomes using an integrated care approach connecting the transplant team with psychiatry, other medical specialties, and importantly, the patient's social supports. We present the case of a man with heart failure whom we treated for symptoms of anxiety and depression both precardiac and postcardiac transplant. The patient was managed by a multidisciplinary team for his complex medical, psychiatric, family, and social issues. Most notably, the role and involvement of his primary caregiver at home changed during the crucial period between his pretransplant evaluation and clinical care during the year following his cardiac transplant. Unfortunately our patient succumbed to a poor outcome both socially and medically, dying 1 year posttransplant. Our experience with this patient led us to explore the cardiac transplant presurgical and postsurgical assessment and management process, focusing on the key role of social support in the patient care team.
PMID: 27138083
ISSN: 1538-1145
CID: 4474582