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Preoperative Risk Factors for Adverse Events in Adults Undergoing Bowel Resection for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: 15-Year Assessment of ACS-NSQIP

Fernandez, Cristina; Gajic, Zoran; Esen, Eren; Remzi, Feza; Hudesman, David; Adhikari, Samrachana; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Segev, Dorry L; Chodosh, Joshua; Dodson, John; Shaukat, Aasma; Faye, Adam S
IntroductionOlder adults with IBD are at higher risk for postoperative complications as compared to their younger counterparts, however factors contributing to this are unknown. We assessed risk factors associated with adverse IBD-related surgical outcomes, evaluated trends in emergency surgery, and explored differential risks by age.MethodsUsing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, we identified adults ≥18 years of age who underwent an IBD-related intestinal resection from 2005-2019. Our primary outcome included a 30-day composite of mortality, readmission, reoperation, and/or major postoperative complication.ResultsOverall, 49,746 intestinal resections were performed with 9,390 (18.8%) occurring among older adults with IBD. Nearly 37% of older adults experienced an adverse outcome as compared to 28.1% among younger adults with IBD (p<0.01). Among all adults with IBD, the presence of preoperative sepsis (aOR, 2.08; 95%CI 1.94-2.24), malnutrition (aOR, 1.22; 95%CI 1.14-1.31), dependent functional status (aOR, 6.92; 95%CI 4.36-11.57), and requiring emergency surgery (aOR, 1.50; 95%CI 1.38-1.64) increased the odds of an adverse postoperative outcome, with similar results observed when stratifying by age. Further, 8.8% of surgeries among older adults were emergent, with no change observed over time (p=0.16).DiscussionPreoperative factors contributing to the risk of an adverse surgical outcome are similar between younger and older individuals with IBD, and include elements such as malnutrition and functional status. Incorporating these measures into surgical decision-making can reduce surgical delays in older individuals at low-risk and help target interventions in those at high risk, transforming care for thousands of older adults with IBD.
PMID: 37410929
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5539322

Histologic Predictors of Clinical Outcomes and Healthcare Utilization in Patients With Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

Chang, Shannon; Hong, Simon; Hudesman, David; Remzi, Feza; Sun, Katherine; Cao, Wenqing; Tarik Kani, H; Axelrad, Jordan; Sarkar, Suparna A
BACKGROUND:The prognostic significance of histology in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate if histologic variables are predictive of IPAA clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with IPAA undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy at a tertiary care institution. Pouch body biopsies were reviewed by gastrointestinal pathologists, who were blinded to clinical outcomes, for histologic features of acute or chronic inflammation. Charts were reviewed for clinical outcomes including development of acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis, biologic or small molecule initiation, hospitalizations, and surgery. Predictors of outcomes were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic and Cox regression. RESULTS:A total of 167 patients undergoing surveillance pouchoscopy were included. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (odds ratio [OR], 1.67), ulceration and erosion (OR, 2.44), chronic inflammation (OR, 1.97), and crypt distortion (OR, 1.89) were associated with future biologic or small molecule initiation for chronic pouchitis. Loss of goblet cells was associated with development of chronic pouchitis (OR, 4.65). Pyloric gland metaplasia was associated with hospitalizations (OR, 5.24). No histologic variables were predictive of development of acute pouchitis or surgery. In an exploratory subgroup analysis of new IPAA (<1 year), loss of goblet cells was associated with acute pouchitis (OR, 14.86) and chronic pouchitis (OR, 12.56). Pyloric gland metaplasia was again associated with hospitalizations (OR, 13.99). CONCLUSIONS:Histologic findings may be predictive of IPAA outcomes. Pathologists should incorporate key histologic variables into pouchoscopy pathology reports. Clinicians may need to more closely monitor IPAA patients with significant histologic findings.
PMID: 36702534
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5419702

Minimally invasive colectomies can be performed with similar outcomes to open counterparts for colorectal cancer emergencies: a propensity score matching analysis utilizing ACS-NSQIP

Chang, J; Assouline, E; Calugaru, K; Gajic, Z Z; DoÄŸru, V; Ray, J J; Erkan, A; Esen, E; Grieco, M; Remzi, F
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The safety and feasibility of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the setting of colorectal cancer emergencies have been debated. We sought to compare postoperative outcomes of MIS with open techniques in the setting of colorectal cancer emergencies from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. METHODS:We included patients undergoing colectomy for colorectal cancer emergency between 2012 and 2019 "2012-2019" from the ACS-NSQIP dataset. We compared short-term morbidity, mortality, short-term oncological outcomes, and secondary outcomes for MIS vs open colectomies using propensity score matching. We then evaluated the trends of MIS versus open colectomies using linear regression analysis. RESULTS:We examined a total of 5544 patients (open n = 4070; MIS n = 1474) and included 1352 patients for our postoperative outcome analyses after propensity score matching 1:1 (open n = 676; MIS n = 676). Within the matched cohort, mortality was significantly higher in the open group (open 6.95% vs MIS 3.99%, OR 1.8, p = 0.023). Anastomotic leak rates were comparable between the  two groups (open 4.46% vs MIS 4.02%, OR 1.12, p = 0.787). Pulmonary complications were significantly higher after open surgery (open 10.06% vs MIS 4.73%, OR 2.25, p < 0.001). Rates of ileus were significantly higher amongst open patients (open 29.08% vs MIS 19.94%, p < 0.001). Patients stayed on average 1 day longer in the hospital after open surgery (p < 0.001). Rates of MIS for early tumors (N0 and T1/T2, n = 289) did not significantly change over 7 years (p = 0.597, rate = - 0.065%/year); however, utilization of MIS for late tumors (N1 or T3/T4, n = 4359) increased by 2.06% per year (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that MIS was associated with superior postoperative outcomes compared to open surgery without compromising oncological outcomes in patients undergoing emergency colectomy for colon cancer. Within the matched cohort, MIS was associated with lower rates of mortality, pulmonary complications, ileus, and shorter postoperative length of stay.
PMID: 37642739
ISSN: 1128-045x
CID: 5618432

Structured versus non-structured reporting of pelvic MRI for ileal pouch evaluation: clarity and effectiveness

Ginocchio, Luke A; Dane, Bari; Smereka, Paul N; Megibow, Alec J; Remzi, Feza H; Esen, Eren; Huang, Chenchan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Given that ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery is a technically challenging and high-morbidity procedure, there are numerous pertinent imaging findings that need to be clearly and efficiently communicated to the IBD surgeons for essential patient management and surgical planning. Structured reporting has been increasingly used over the past decade throughout various radiology subspecialties to improve reporting clarity and completeness. We compare structured versus non-structured reporting of pelvic MRI for ileal pouch to evaluate for clarity and effectiveness. METHODS:164 consecutive pelvic MRI's for ileal pouch evaluation, excluding subsequent exams for the same patient, acquired between 1/1/2019 and 7/31/2021 at one institution were included, before and after implementation (11/15/2020) of a structured reporting template, which was created with institutional IBD surgeons. Reports were assessed for the presence of 18 key features required for complete ileal pouch assessment: anastomosis (IPAA, tip of J, pouch body), cuff (length, cuffitis), pouch body (size, pouchitis, stricture), pouch inlet/pre-pouch ileum (stricture, inflammation, sharp angulation), pouch outlet (stricture), peripouch mesentery (position, mesentery twist), pelvic abscess, peri-anal fistula, pelvic lymph nodes, and skeletal abnormalities. Subgroup analysis was performed based on reader experience and divided into three categories: experienced (n = 2), other intra-institutional (n = 20), or affiliate site (n = 6). RESULTS:57 (35%) structured and 107 (65%) non-structured pelvic MRI reports were reviewed. Structured reports contained 16.6 [SD:4.0] key features whereas non-structured reports contained 6.3 [SD:2.5] key features (p < .001). The largest improvement following template implementation was for reporting sharp angulation of the pouch inlet (91.2% vs. 0.9%, p < .001), tip of J suture line and pouch body anastomosis (both improved to 91.2% from 3.7%). Structured versus non-structured reports contained mean 17.7 versus 9.1 key features for experienced readers, 17.0 versus 5.9 for other intra-institutional readers, and 8.7 versus 5.3 for affiliate site readers. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Structured reporting of pelvic MRI guides a systematic search pattern and comprehensive evaluation of ileal pouches, and therefore facilitates surgical planning and clinical management. This standardized reporting template can serve as baseline at other institutions for adaptation based on specific radiology and surgery preferences, fostering a collaborative environment between radiology and surgery, and ultimately improving patient care.
PMID: 36871233
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5428752

Current Status and Surgical Technique for Restorative Proctocolectomy with Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis

Aktaş, Melik Kağan; Gülmez, Mehmet; Sahar, Ahmet Anıl; Saraçoğlu, Can; Esen, Eren; Aytaç, Erman; Remzi, Feza H
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP/IPAA) is the procedure of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), some patients with colonic Crohn’s disease (CD), and those with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP); albeit, owing to its complexity, it should be performed by experienced professionals. RP/IPAA is the recommended surgical treatment for UC when the standard medical therapy is ineffective. This procedure has been demonstrated to provide patients with a good quality of life, such as in FAP patients with extensive disease in the rectum. The CD has been associated with higher rates of perianal involvement and disease recurrence, but some patients with CD limited to the large intestine and minimal perianal or ileal disease may also be considered for this operation. First, all patients undergo a detailed preoperative evaluation that includes a review of previous imaging, pathology, and colonoscopy findings, a perianal examination, an evaluation of the anorectal functions, mechanical bowel preparation, and prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis and infectious complications. A staged approach is the most commonly preferred technique for RP/IPAA, which can be performed in 2 or 3 stages. The IPAA can be performed by laparoscopic, robotic, or open approach. The type of approach is determined based on the patient’s condition, medication used, elective or emergency setting, and the surgeon’s expertise level. A successful IPAA requires tension-free pouch anastomosis. The most common IPAA pouch types are the J or S pouches; alternatively, an H pouch may be created, which is mainly used in redo pouches. In experienced centers, > 95% of the patients become stoma-free in 10 years. IPAA is a complex procedure, and the complications after pouch surgery are pouchitis, pelvic sepsis, pouch failure, or anastomotic stricture. The majority of long-term complications can be prevented in such cases with a comprehensive preoperative evaluation and through the use of appropriate surgical techniques and postoperative care conducted at experienced centers. The techniques for performing RP/IPAA with their long-term outcomes have been reviewed in this article.
PMID: 37350728
ISSN: 2146-3131
CID: 5536792

Early Initiation of Antitumor Necrosis Factor Therapy Reduces Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn's Disease Following Ileocecal Resection

Axelrad, Jordan E; Li, Terry; Bachour, Salam P; Nakamura, Takahiro I; Shah, Ravi; Sachs, Michael C; Chang, Shannon; Hudesman, David P; Holubar, Stefan D; Lightner, Amy L; Barnes, Edward L; Cohen, Benjamin L; Rieder, Florian; Esen, Eren; Remzi, Feza; Regueiro, Miguel; Click, Benjamin
BACKGROUND:Postoperative recurrence (POR) of Crohn's disease (CD) is common after surgical resection. We aimed to compare biologic type and timing for preventing POR in adult CD patients after ileocecal resection (ICR). METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study of CD patients who underwent an ICR at 2 medical centers. Recurrence was defined by endoscopy (≥ i2b Rutgeerts score) or radiography (active inflammation in neoterminal ileum) and stratified by type and timing of postoperative prophylactic biologic within 12 weeks following an ICR (none, tumor necrosis factor antagonists [anti-TNF], vedolizumab, and ustekinumab). RESULTS:We identified 1037 patients with CD who underwent an ICR. Of 278 (26%) who received postoperative prophylaxis, 80% were placed on an anti-TNF agent (n = 223) followed by ustekinumab (n = 28, 10%) and vedolizumab (n = 27, 10%). Prophylaxis was initiated in 35% within 4 weeks following an ICR and in 65% within 4 to 12 weeks. After adjusting for factors associated with POR, compared with no biologic prophylaxis, the initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93). Prophylaxis after 4 weeks following an ICR or with vedolizumab or ustekinumab was not associated with a reduction in POR compared with those who did not receive prophylaxis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Early initiation of an anti-TNF agent within 4 weeks following an ICR was associated with a reduction in POR. Vedolizumab or ustekinumab, at any time following surgery, was not associated with a reduction in POR, although sample size was limited.
PMID: 35905032
ISSN: 1536-4844
CID: 5276992

Could Meeting the Standards of the National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer in the National Cancer Database Improve Patient Outcomes?

Brady, Justin T; Bingmer, Katherine; Bliggenstorfer, Jonathan; Xu, Zhaomin; Fleming, Fergal J; Remzi, Feza H; Monson, John R T; Wexner, Steven D; Dietz, David W
AIM/OBJECTIVE:The National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer (NAPRC) was developed to improve rectal cancer patient outcomes in the United States. The NAPRC consists of a set of process and outcome measures that hospitals must meet in order to be accredited. We aimed to assess the potential of the NAPRC by determining whether achievement of the process measures correlates with improved survival. METHODS:The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was used to identify patients undergoing curative proctectomy for non-metastatic rectal cancer from 2010-2014. NAPRC process measures identified in the NCDB included clinical staging completion, treatment starting <60 days from diagnosis, CEA level measured prior to treatment, tumour regression grading, and margin assessment. RESULTS:There were 48,669 patients identified with a mean age of 62±12.9 years and 61.3% of patients were male. The process measure completed most often was assessment of proximal and distal margins (98.4%) and the measure completed least often was the serum carcinoembryonic antigen level prior to treatment (63.8%). All six process measures were completed in 23.6% of patients. After controlling for age, gender, comorbidities, annual facility resection volume, race and pathological stage, completion of all process measures was associated with a statistically significant mortality decrease (Cox HR 0.88, CI 0.81-0.94, p<0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Participating institutions provided complete data sets for all six process measures in less than one quarter of patients. Compliance with all process measures was associated with a significant mortality reduction. Improved adoption of NAPRC process measures could therefore result in improved survival rates for rectal cancer in the U.S..
PMID: 36727838
ISSN: 1463-1318
CID: 5420212

Preoperative cross-sectional imaging findings in patients with surgically complex ileocolic Crohn's disease

Dane, Bari; Remzi, Feza H; Grieco, Michael; Ginocchio, Luke; Erkan, Arman; Esen, Eren; Dogru, Volkan; Huang, Chenchan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative cross-sectional imaging findings using the SAR-AGA definitions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients who underwent ileocolic resection (ICR) with and without surgically complex ileocolic CD (CIC-CD). METHODS:69 CD patients [38 men; mean (± SD) age: 40.6 (16.2) years] who underwent ICR were retrospectively classified by surgical complexity by a colorectal surgeon using operative findings. CIC-CD was defined as ileal CD, not confined to the distal ileum. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated the preoperative imaging for the presence and type of penetrating disease, stricture, or probable stricture using the SAR-AGA consensus definitions. The diagnostic performance of preoperative imaging findings was compared for patients with and without CIC-CD. Estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time (OT), conversion to open surgery, diversion, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were compared. RESULTS:60.9% had CIC-CD and 79.7% underwent primary ICR. Penetrating disease was more common in patients with than without CIC-CD (76.2% vs. 40.7%, p = 0.0048) and similar among primary versus redo ICR (p = 0.12). Patients with CIC-CD had more complex fistulas (59.5% vs. 11.1%; p < 0.0001) and fewer simple fistulas (2.4% vs. 18.5%; p = 0.03) than those without. Mesenteric findings (abscess, inflammatory mass) were more frequent in patients with (35.7%) than without (0%) (p = 0.0002) CIC-CD. Stricture and probable stricture were similar (p = 0.59). CIC-CD patients had greater EBL (178 cc vs. 57 cc, p = 0.006), conversion rates (30% vs. 0%, p = 0.0026), and diversion (80% vs. 52%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Complex fistula, mesenteric abscess, or inflammatory mass defined by the SAR-AGA guidelines suggests CIC-CD. ICR for CIC-CD had greater EBL, conversion to open surgery, and diversion.
PMID: 36329208
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5358782

Risk factors for incomplete telehealth appointments among patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Stone, Katherine L; Kulekofsky, Emma; Hudesman, David; Kozloff, Samuel; Remzi, Feza; Axelrad, Jordan E; Katz, Seymour; Hong, Simon J; Holmer, Ariela; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Segev, Dorry L; Dodson, John; Shaukat, Aasma; Faye, Adam S
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:The COVID-19 pandemic led to the urgent implementation of telehealth visits in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care; however, data assessing feasibility remain limited. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:We looked to determine the completion rate of telehealth appointments for adults with IBD, as well as to evaluate demographic, clinical, and social predictors of incomplete appointments. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients with IBD who had at least one scheduled telehealth visit at the NYU IBD Center between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021, with only the first scheduled telehealth appointment considered. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Medical records were parsed for relevant covariables, and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association between demographic factors and an incomplete telehealth appointment. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = 0.22). After adjustment, patients with CD had higher odds of an incomplete appointment as compared to patients with UC [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.69], as did females (adjOR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04-1.54), and patients who had a non-first-degree relative listed as an emergency contact (adjOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16-2.44). While age ⩾60 years was not associated with appointment completion status, we did find that age >80 years was an independent predictor of missed telehealth appointments (adjOR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.12-7.63) when compared to individuals aged 60-70 years. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:telehealth, particularly those aged 60-80 years, may therefore provide an additional venue to complement in-person care.
PMID: 37124374
ISSN: 1756-283x
CID: 5544752

Increasing rates of venous thromboembolism among hospitalised patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide analysis

Faye, Adam S; Lee, Kate E; Dodson, John; Chodosh, Joshua; Hudesman, David; Remzi, Feza; Wright, Jason D; Friedman, Alexander M; Shaukat, Aasma; Wen, Timothy
BACKGROUND:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data on national trends remain limited. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To assess national trends in VTE-associated hospitalisations among patients with IBD as well as risk factors for, and mortality associated with, these events METHODS: Using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000-2018, temporal trends in VTE were assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Joinpoint Regression Program with estimates presented as the average annual percent change (AAPC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Between 2000 and 2018, there were 4,859,728 hospitalisations among patients with IBD, with 128,236 (2.6%) having a VTE, and 6352 associated deaths. The rate of VTE among hospitalised patients with IBD increased from 192 to 295 cases per 10,000 hospitalisations (AAPC 2.4%, 95%CI 1.4%, 3.4%, p < 0.001), and remained significant when stratified by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease as well as by deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. On multivariable analysis, increasing age, male sex, UC (aOR: 1.30, 95%CI 1.26, 1.33), identifying as non-Hispanic Black, and chronic corticosteroid use (aOR: 1.22, 95%CI 1.16, 1.29) were associated with an increased risk of a VTE-associated hospitalisation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rates of VTE-associated hospitalisations are increasing among patients with IBD. Continued efforts need to be placed on education and risk reduction.
PMID: 35879231
ISSN: 1365-2036
CID: 5276292