Malignant and Benign Tracheobronchial Neoplasms: Comprehensive Review with Radiologic, Bronchoscopic, and Pathologic Correlation
Tracheobronchial neoplasms are much less common than lung parenchymal neoplasms but can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They include a broad differential of both malignant and benign entities, extending far beyond more commonly known pathologic conditions such as squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoid tumor. Airway lesions may be incidental findings at imaging or manifest with symptoms related to airway narrowing or mucosal irritation, invasion of adjacent structures, or distant metastatic disease. While there is considerable overlap in clinical manifestation, imaging features, and bronchoscopic appearances, an awareness of potential distinguishing factors may help narrow the differential diagnosis. The authors review the epidemiology, imaging characteristics, typical anatomic distributions, bronchoscopic appearances, and histopathologic findings of a wide range of neoplastic entities involving the tracheobronchial tree. Malignant neoplasms discussed include squamous cell carcinoma, malignant salivary gland tumors (adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma), carcinoid tumor, sarcomas, primary tracheobronchial lymphoma, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Benign neoplasms discussed include hamartoma, chondroma, lipoma, papilloma, amyloidoma, leiomyoma, neurogenic lesions, and benign salivary gland tumors (pleomorphic adenoma and mucous gland adenoma). Familiarity with the range of potential entities and any distinguishing features should prove valuable to thoracic radiologists, pulmonologists, and cardiothoracic surgeons when encountering the myriad of tracheobronchial neoplasms in clinical practice. Attention is paid to any features that may help render a more specific diagnosis before pathologic confirmation. ©RSNA, 2023 Quiz questions for this article are available in the supplemental material.
Pleural fluid microbiota as a biomarker for malignancy and prognosis
Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) complicate malignancies and portend worse outcomes. MPE is comprised of various components, including immune cells, cancer cells, and cell-free DNA/RNA. There have been investigations into using these components to diagnose and prognosticate MPE. We hypothesize that the microbiome of MPE is unique and may be associated with diagnosis and prognosis. We compared the microbiota of MPE against microbiota of pleural effusions from non-malignant and paramalignant states. We collected a total of 165 pleural fluid samples from 165 subjects; Benign (n = 16), Paramalignant (n = 21), MPE-Lung (n = 57), MPE-Other (n = 22), and Mesothelioma (n = 49). We performed high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing on pleural fluid samples and controls. We showed that there are compositional differences among pleural effusions related to non-malignant, paramalignant, and malignant disease. Furthermore, we showed differential enrichment of bacterial taxa within MPE depending on the site of primary malignancy. Pleural fluid of MPE-Lung and Mesothelioma were associated with enrichment with oral and gut bacteria that are commonly thought to be commensals, including Rickettsiella, Ruminococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillales. Mortality in MPE-Lung is associated with enrichment in Methylobacterium, Blattabacterium, and Deinococcus. These observations lay the groundwork for future studies that explore host-microbiome interactions and their influence on carcinogenesis.
Microbial Signatures in Malignant Pleural Effusions [Meeting Abstract]
Lower airway dysbiosis affects lung cancer progression
In lung cancer, enrichment of the lower airway microbiota with oral commensals commonly occurs and ex vivo models support that some of these bacteria can trigger host transcriptomic signatures associated with carcinogenesis. Here, we show that this lower airway dysbiotic signature was more prevalent in group IIIB-IV TNM stage lung cancer and is associated with poor prognosis, as shown by decreased survival among subjects with early stage disease (I-IIIA) and worse tumor progression as measured by RECIST scores among subjects with IIIB-IV stage disease. In addition, this lower airway microbiota signature was associated with upregulation of IL-17, PI3K, MAPK and ERK pathways in airway transcriptome, and we identified Veillonella parvula as the most abundant taxon driving this association. In a KP lung cancer model, lower airway dysbiosis with V. parvula led to decreased survival, increased tumor burden, IL-17 inflammatory phenotype and activation of checkpoint inhibitor markers.
Dynamic Management of Lung Cancer Care During Surging COVID-19
Management of patients with lung cancer continues to be challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to the increased risk of complications in this subset of patients. During the COVID-19 surge in New York City, New York University Langone Health adopted triage strategies to help with care for lung cancer patients, with good surgical outcomes and no transmission of COVID-19 to patients or healthcare workers. Here, we will review current recommendations regarding screening and management of lung cancer patients during both a non-surge phase and surge phase of COVID-19.
Improving electromagnetic navigation: One nodule at a time [Editorial]
Lung Cancer Survival and Prognosis Is Affected by Lower Airway Oral Commensal Enrichment [Meeting Abstract]
Tumor-draining lymph nodes demonstrate a suppressive immunophenotype in patients with non-small cell lung cancer assessed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: A pilot study
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLN) are key sites of early immunoediting in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and play an important role in generating anti-tumor immunity. Immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment has prognostic implications and may predict therapeutic response. T cell composition of draining lymph nodes may reflect an immunophenotype with similar prognostic potential which could be measured during standard-of-care bronchoscopic assessment. In this study, we compared the immunophenotype from different sites within individuals to primary tumor characteristics in patients with NSCLC to see whether there were tumor-regional differences in immunophenotype which could be evaluated from transbronchial needle aspirates. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Twenty patients were enrolled in this study and had tissue (lymph node aspirates and/or peripheral blood) obtained during standard of care bronchoscopy with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for diagnosis or staging of known or suspected NSCLC. Aspirates and blood underwent flow-assisted cell sorting and a subset of sorted effector T cells underwent RNA quantitation to determine feasibility of this approach. Immunophenotypic patterns from twelve patients with paired data from tumor-draining and non-tumor draining lymph nodes (NDLN) were compared relative to one another and based on PD-L1 immunohistochemistry and primary tumor histology. RESULTS:â€¯T cell depletion compared to patients with PD-L1 expression <50% (-35.98% vs -1.89%, pâ€¯=â€¯0.0357; negative values represent absolute difference between paired TDLN and NDLN). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with NSCLC, TDLN have a suppressive immunophenotype correlating with tumor PD-L1 status and can be assessed during routine EBUS-TBNA.
Evaluation of the airway microbiome in non-tuberculous mycobacteria
Background: Aspiration is associated with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease and airway dysbiosis is associated with increased inflammation. We examined whether NTM disease was associated with a distinct airway microbiota and immune profile.Methods: 297 oral wash and induced sputum samples were collected from 106 participants with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities compatible with NTM. Lower airway samples were obtained in 20 participants undergoing bronchoscopy. 16S rRNA gene and a nested mycobacteriome sequencing approaches characterised microbiota composition. Inflammatory profiles of lower airway samples were also examined.Results: The prevalence of NTM+ cultures was 58%. Few changes were noted in microbiota characteristic or composition in oral wash and sputum samples among groups. Among NTM+ samples, 27% of the lower airway samples were enriched with Mycobacterium A mycobacteriome approach identified Mycobacterium in a greater percentage of samples, including some non-pathogenic strains. In NTM+ lower airway samples, taxa identified as oral commensals were associated with increased inflammatory biomarkers.Conclusions: The 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach is not sensitive in identifying NTM among airway samples which are culture positive. However, associations between lower airway inflammation and microbiota signatures suggest a potential role for these microbes in the inflammatory process in NTM disease.
Tumor-Regional Immunosuppression Correlates with Pathologic Stage and Primary Tumor Characteristics in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer [Meeting Abstract]