3D printed renal cancer models derived from MRI data: application in pre-surgical planning
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patient-specific 3D printed renal tumor models change pre-operative planning decisions made by urological surgeons in preparation for complex renal mass surgical procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From our ongoing IRB approved study on renal neoplasms, ten renal mass cases were retrospectively selected based on Nephrometry Score greater than 5 (range 6-10). A 3D post-contrast fat-suppressed gradient-echo T1-weighted sequence was used to generate 3D printed models. The cases were evaluated by three experienced urologic oncology surgeons in a randomized fashion using (1) imaging data on PACS alone and (2) 3D printed model in addition to the imaging data. A questionnaire regarding surgical approach and planning was administered. The presumed pre-operative approaches with and without the model were compared. Any change between the presumed approaches and the actual surgical intervention was recorded. RESULTS: There was a change in planned approach with the 3D printed model for all ten cases with the largest impact seen regarding decisions on transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach and clamping, with changes seen in 30%-50% of cases. Mean parenchymal volume loss for the operated kidney was 21.4%. Volume losses >20% were associated with increased ischemia times and surgeons tended to report a different approach with the use of the 3D model compared to that with imaging alone in these cases. The 3D printed models helped increase confidence regarding the chosen operative procedure in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operative physical 3D models created from MRI data may influence surgical planning for complex kidney cancer.
Systematic review of the impact of a plant-based diet on prostate cancer incidence and outcomes
BACKGROUND:Plant-based diets are increasingly popular and have many well-established benefits for health and environmental sustainability. Our objective was to perform a systematic review of plant-based diets and prostate cancer. METHODS:We performed a systematic database and citation search in February 2022. Studies were included if they reported primary data on plant-based dietary patterns (i.e., vegan, vegetarian, plant-based) and incidence among at-risk men for prostate cancer, or oncologic, general health/nutrition, or quality of life outcomes among patients with prostate cancer or caregivers. RESULTS:A total of 32 publications were eligible for the qualitative synthesis, representing 5 interventional and 11 observational studies. Interventional studies primarily focused on lifestyle modification including plant-based diets for men on active surveillance for localized prostate cancer or with biochemical recurrence after treatment, showing improvements in short-term oncologic outcomes alongside improvements in general health and nutrition. ObservationalÂ studies primarily focused on prostate cancer risk, showing either protective or null associations for plant-based dietary patterns. Studies of the vegan diet consistently showed favorable associations with risk and/or outcomes. Gaps in the current literature include impact for long-term disease-specific outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Interventional studies showed generally favorable results of lifestyle modifications incorporating a plant-based diet with prostate cancer outcomes as well as improvements in nutrition and general health. Observational studies demonstrated either a lower risk of prostate cancer or no significant difference. These results are encouraging in light of the many benefits of plant-based diets for overall health, as well as environmental sustainability and animal welfare.
Plant-Based Milk Alternatives and Risk Factors for Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease
OBJECTIVE:Patients with kidney stones are counseled to eat a diet low in animal protein, sodium, and oxalate and rich in fruits and vegetables, with a modest amount of calcium, usually from dairy products. Restriction of sodium, potassium, and oxalate may also be recommended in patients with chronic kidney disease. Recently, plant-based diets have gained popularity owing to health, environmental, and animal welfare considerations. Our objective was to compare concentrations of ingredients important for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease in popular brands of milk alternatives. DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Sodium, calcium, and potassium contents were obtained from nutrition labels. The oxalate content was measured by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS:The calcium content is highest in macadamia followed by soy, almond, rice, and dairy milk; it is lowest in cashew, hazelnut, and coconut milk. Almond milk has the highest oxalate concentration, followed by cashew, hazelnut, and soy. Coconut and flax milk have undetectable oxalate levels; coconut milk also has comparatively low sodium, calcium, and potassium, while flax milk has the most sodium. Overall, oat milk has the most similar parameters to dairy milk (moderate calcium, potassium and sodium with low oxalate). Rice, macadamia, and soy milk also have similar parameters to dairy milk. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:As consumption of plant-based dairy substitutes increases, it is important for healthcare providers and patients with renal conditions to be aware of their nutritional composition. Oat, macadamia, rice, and soy milk compare favorably in terms of kidney stone risk factors with dairy milk, whereas almond and cashew milk have more potential stone risk factors. Coconut milk may be a favorable dairy substitute for patients with chronic kidney disease based on low potassium, sodium, and oxalate. Further study is warranted to determine the effect of plant-based milk alternatives on urine chemistry.
Virtual Residency Interviews Reduce Cost and Carbon Emissions [Editorial]
Climate Change Impact of Virtual Urology Meetings [Letter]
Telemedicine Usage Among Urologists During COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Study
BACKGROUND:Prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, urology was one of the specialties with the lowest rates of telemedicine and videoconferencing use. Common barriers to the implementation of telemedicine included a lack of technological literacy, concerns with reimbursement, and resistance to changes in the workplace. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic declared in March 2020, the delivery of urological services globally has quickly shifted to telemedicine to account for the mass clinical, procedural, and operative cancellations, inadequate personal protective equipment, and shortage of personnel. OBJECTIVE:To investigate current telemedicine usage by urologists, urologist perceptions on the necessity of in-person clinic appointments, the usability of telemedicine, and the current barriers to its implementation. METHODS:We performed a global, cross-sectional web-based survey to investigate the use of telemedicine before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Urologists' perceived usability of telemedicine was assessed using a modified Delphi approach to create questions based on a modified version of the validated Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ). For the purposes of this study, telemedicine was defined as video calls only. RESULTS:A total of 620 urologists from 58 different countries and 6 continents participated in the survey. Prior to COVID-19, 15.8% of urologists surveyed were using telemedicine in their clinical practices; during the pandemic, that proportion increased to 46.1%. Of the urologists without telemedicine experience, interest in usage of telemedicine increased from 43.7 to 80.8% during COVID-19. Among urologists that used telemedicine during the pandemic, 80.9% were interested in continuing to use it in their practice. The three most commonly used platforms were Zoom, Doxy.me, and Epic and the top three barriers to implementing telemedicine were patient lack of technological comprehension, patient lack of access to required technology, and reimbursement concerns. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to quantify the use, usability, and pervading interest in telemedicine amongst urologists during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the face of this pandemic, urologists' usage of telemedicine nearly tripled, demonstrating their ability to adopt and adapt telemedicine into their practices, but barriers involving the technology itself are still preventing many from utilizing it despite increasing interest.
Outcomes and peri-operative complications of robotic pyelolithotomy
Standard of care for large or complex renal stones is percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Robotic pyelolithotomy, however, may be a feasible alternative, but limited data exist on its outcomes and complications. Our study objective was to describe the outcomes and peri-operative complications of robotic pyelolithotomy for complex renal calculi. We performed a retrospective analysis of robotic pyelolithotomy at our tertiary academic institution from 2015 to 2018. Demographics, stone clearance rates, complications, estimated blood loss, operative time, and length of stay were reported. 15 patients were included with a median age of 59Â years (SD 15.3, 27-80) and BMI 25Â kg/m2 (SD 4.6, 20.9-35.7). Median follow-up was 4Â months. Median stone size was 3Â cm (SD 1.2Â cm, 2-5Â cm). Concomitant pyeloplasty was performed in 2 patients, complete stone clearance in 11 (73%) cases and 4 out of 5 (80%) with a solitary stone. Median operative time was 191.5Â min (SD 64.8Â min, 110-303Â min), with no open conversion. Median EBL was 70Â ml (SD 65Â ml, 20-250Â ml) and median length of stay was 1Â day (SD 1Â day, 1-5Â days). Median change in creatinine and eGFR were -â€‰0.02Â mg/dl and +â€‰3Â ml/min/1.73Â m2. There were no cases of sepsis or post-operative fever and only one case of transfusion. Robotic pyelolithotomy appears safe and effective. Ultimately, less bleeding, lower septicemia, renal parenchymal preservation, and favorable stone-free rates in a single procedure make this as an attractive option in the management of select patients with large renal stone disease.
Fake News: Spread of Misinformation about Urological Conditions on Social Media
Although there is a large amount of user-generated content about urological health issues on social media, much of this content has not been vetted for information accuracy. In this article, we review the literature on the quality and balance of information on urological health conditions on social networks. Across a wide range of benign and malignant urological conditions, studies show a substantial amount of commercial, biased and/or inaccurate information present on popular social networking sites. The healthcare community should take proactive steps to improve the quality of medical information on social networks. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this review, we examined the spread of misinformation about urological health conditions on social media. We found that a significant amount of the circulating information is commercial, biased or misinformative.
Endoscopic Diagnosis and Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: NYU Case of the Month, June 2019
Effect of hydroxycitrate (HCA) on urinary risk factors for calcium-based kidney stones [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Potassium citrate is a mainstay of treatment to prevent calcium stones. However, it can increase urine pH and calcium phosphate (CaP) supersaturation (SS). HCA, extracted from garcinia cambogia, is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth in vitro and may not yield HCO3. It is "generally regarded as safe" and available over the counter. We studied how HCA supplementation affects urine chemistry.
Method(s): We enrolled 2 groups: calcium stone formers (SF) and non-stone forming (NSF) controls. Thiazides and potassium citrate were held for 2 weeks prior to study. Participants recorded a self-selected diet for 2 days and performed 24-hour urine collection on day 2. HCA 300 mg 3 times daily was taken orally for 7 days, and 24-hour urine collected on day 7 while the patient replicated the initial, self-selected diet.
Result(s): 13 people, aged 26-76 years, participated. There were 6 SF and 7 NSF, combined into 1 group of 13. Patients replicated their diets well, as urine Na, volume, and creatinine were similar (data not shown). Results presented in Table. HCA increased urine K and citrate (P < 0.001 and 0.013 respectively). Mean urine pH was unchanged (6.25 to 6.47, P=0.14), while urinary NH4 fell (P = 0.017). 24h excretion of Ca and Ox did not change. SS of CaOx and CaP did not change. Serum values did not change: baseline HCO3 and K were 23.5 +/- 2.5 and 4.0 +/- 0.2 meq/L and 23.7 +/- 1.8 and 4.4 +/- 0.6 meq/L after HCA.
Conclusion(s): Urine K excretion rose by 29 meq/day compared with an expected increase based on the label of 14 meq, suggesting the label was not accurate. Increased citrate and lower NH4 suggest some K is in the form of alkali salts or that some HCA is metabolized to bicarbonate. There was no change in CaP or CaOx SS. The lack of effect on SS may not reflect the potential ability of HCA to inhibit calcium crystallization, as it inhibits Ca crystal growth in vitro in supersaturated media