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Retinal angiomatous proliferation in age-related macular degeneration. 2001 [Historical Article]

Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Negrao, Silvana; Iida, Tomohiro; Carvalho, Cynthia; Rodriguez-Coleman, Hanna; Slakter, Jason; Freund, K Bailey; Sorenson, John; Orlock, Dennis; Borodoker, Natalie
BACKGROUND: It is known that choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) may erode through the retinal pigment epithelium, infiltrate the neurosensory retina, and communicate with the retinal circulation in what has been referred to as a retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA). This is extremely common in the end stage of disciform disease. In recent years, the reverse also seems to be possible, as angiomatous proliferation originates from the retina and extends posteriorly into the subretinal space, eventually communicating in some cases with choroidal new vessels. This form of neovascular ARMD, termed retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in this article, can be confused with CNV. Purpose: The purpose of this article is 1) to review the clinical and angiographic characteristics of a series of patients with RAP and 2) to propose a theoretical sequence of events that accounts for the neovascularized process. METHODS: In this retrospective clinical and angiographic analysis, 143 eyes with RAP (108 patients) were reviewed and classified based on their vasogenic nature and course. Clinical biomicroscopic examination, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography were used to evaluate patients. RESULTS: The results of this series suggest that angiomatous proliferation within the retina is the first manifestation of the vasogenic process in this form of neovascular ARMD. Dilated retinal vessels and pre-, intra-, and subretinal hemorrhages and exudate evolve, surrounding the angiomatous proliferation as the process extends into the deep retina and subretinal space. One or more dilated compensatory retinal vessels perfuse and drain the neovascularization, sometimes forming a retinal-retinal anastomosis. Fluorescein angiography in these patients usually revealed indistinct staining simulating occult CNV. Indocyanine green angiography was useful to make an accurate diagnosis in most cases. It revealed a focal area of intense hyperfluorescence corresponding to the neovascularization ("hot spot") and other characteristic findings. Based on understanding of the nature and progression of the neovascularized process, patients with RAP were classified into three vasogenic stages. Stage I involved proliferation of intraretinal capillaries originating from the deep retinal complex (intraretinal neovascularization [IRN]). Stage II was determined by growth of the retinal vessels into the subretinal space (subretinal neovascularization [SRN]). Stage III occurred when CNV could clearly be determined clinically or angiographically. A vascularized pigment epithelial detachment and RCA were inconsistent features of this stage. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal angiomatous proliferation appears to be a distinct subgroup of neovascular ARMD. It may present in one of three vasogenic stages: IRN, SRN, or CNV. Whereas ICG angiography is helpful in diagnosing RAP and in documenting the stage of the neovascularized process, it is frequently difficult to determine the precise nature and location of the new vessel formation. It is important for clinicians to recognize the vasogenic potential and the associated manifestations of this peculiar form of neovascular ARMD so that a proper diagnosis can be made, and when possible, an appropriate management administered.
PMID: 22451953
ISSN: 0275-004x
CID: 543332

Indocyanine green angiography findings in Sorsby's pseudoinflammatory maculopathy [Meeting Abstract]

Borodoker, N; Yannuzzi, LA
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 56198

Imaging techniques for posterior uveitis

Ciardella, Antonio P; Prall, F Ryan; Borodoker, N; Cunningham, Emmett T Jr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to describe the more commonly used imaging techniques and their use to identify causes of vision loss, extent of disease, and distinctive patterns associated with various causes of posterior uveitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Distinctive patterns seen with new imaging techniques and applications are being described. Ophthalmic CT, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and others are demonstrating inflammation and pathology in posterior uveitis. As our experience grows with these modalities, they are being used increasingly in the diagnosis and management of patients with posterior uveitis. SUMMARY: This review familiarizes the ophthalmologist with imaging in patients with inflammatory disorders of the retina and choroid. These modalities can help with the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients with uveitis
PMID: 15523198
ISSN: 1040-8738
CID: 74643

Cystoid macular degeneration in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy

Iida, Tomohiro; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Spaide, Richard F; Borodoker, Natalie; Carvalho, Cynthia A; Negrao, Silvana
PURPOSE: To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography findings in the macula of eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and reduced central vision. METHODS: Using OCT, clinical examination, and fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, the authors examined eight eyes of seven patients with CSC, an attached macula, and reduced central vision of 20/200 or worse. All had a history of chronic CSC with resolution of the subretinal fluid in the macular area and poor vision. RESULTS: Patient ages ranged from 55 to 82 years (mean, 66 years). All eight eyes had some parafoveal, patchy RPE atrophy with corresponding transmission hyperfluorescence (window defect) on fluorescein angiography. Five eyes also had a window defect in the foveal area. With OCT, the foveal area revealed variable areas of cystoid change and atrophy in seven of the eight eyes. In four of these eyes, the cystoid changes were not seen on clinical examination or fluorescein angiography. The seven eyes with cystoid changes imaged with OCT had no intraretinal leakage of fluorescein in the foveal region. The authors categorized these eyes as having cystoid macular degeneration (CMD). One other eye had foveal thinning or atrophy without cystoid changes. CONCLUSIONS: Intraretinal cystoid spaces without intraretinal leakage, or CMD, was a common finding in eyes with chronic CSC and reduced central vision after resolution of subretinal fluid. OCT was useful to establish the presence of CMD and foveal atrophy, even when these changes were not clearly evident on clinical examination or fluorescein angiography. Chronic foveal detachment and antecedent intraretinal leakage were proposed to be the mechanisms for the development of the changes. CMD in conjunction with foveal atrophy was an important clinical finding to account for the poor visual outcome in patients with CSC
PMID: 12652224
ISSN: 0275-004x
CID: 103434

Imaging the posterior segment in uveitis

Ciardella, Antonio P; Borodoker, Natalie; Costa, Danielle L; Huang, Sheau J; Cunningham, Emmett T Jr; Slakter, Jason S
This article reviews established and newly developed posterior segment imaging techniques that may be helpful in the diagnosis and management of patients with uveitis. A brief description of various techniques is followed by a discussion of the situations in which these techniques might be useful in assessing the cause of vision loss, and the extent and activity of the inflammatory changes. The last section of the article describes selected uveitis syndromes wherein posterior segment imaging can reveal diagnostically characteristic, and in some instances pathognomonic, findings
PMID: 12434477
ISSN: 0896-1549
CID: 74652

Retinopathy as a result of long-term use of thioridazine [Case Report]

Borodoker, Natalie; Del Priore, Lucian V; De A Carvalho, Cynthia; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A
PMID: 12096981
ISSN: 0003-9950
CID: 103443

Crystalline retinopathy associated with retinal dialysis and chronic retinal detachment [Case Report]

Ciardella, Antonio P; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Borodoker, Natalie; Mendoza, Caroline
PMID: 12055474
ISSN: 0275-004x
CID: 103444

Photodynamic therapy for extrafoveal and juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization [Meeting Abstract]

Huang, SJ; Del Priore, LV; Mendoza, C; Slakter, JS; Spaide, RF; Freund, B; Sorensen, JA; Costa, DLL; Borodoker, N; Yannuzzi, LA
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 103638

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and limited choroidal hemorrhage following cataract surgery [Meeting Abstract]

Borodoker, N; Rodriguez-Coleman, H; Ciardello, AP; Shields, CL; Shields, JA; Donsoff, I; Yannuzzi, LA
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 103704

Motion Ophthalmoscopy Macula (MOM) [Meeting Abstract]

Ciardella, AP; Hathiromani, S; Orlock, D; Borodoker, N; Yannuzzi, LA
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 103705