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Impact of COVID-19 Protocols on Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

Sybert, Michael; Oakley, Christian T; Christensen, Thomas; Bosco, Joseph; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Slover, James
BACKGROUND:Surgical site infection (SSI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. Our institution intensified hygiene standards during the COVID-19 pandemic; hospital staff exercised greater hand hygiene, glove use, and mask compliance. We examined the effect of these factors on SSI rates for primary THA (pTHA) and revision THA (rTHA). METHODS:A retrospective review was performed identifying THA from January 2019 to June 2021 at a single institution. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared before (January 2019 to February 2020) and during (May 2020 to June 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic and during the first (May 2020 to November 2020) and second (December 2020 to June 2021) periods of the pandemic. Cohorts were compared using the Chi-squared test and independent samples t-test. RESULTS:A total of 2,682 pTHA (prepandemic: 1,549 [57.8%]; pandemic: 1,133 [42.2%]) and 402 rTHA (prepandemic: 216 [53.7%]; Pandemic: 186 [46.2%]) were included. For primary and revision cases, superficial and deep SSI rates were similar before and during COVID-19. During COVID-19, the incidence of all (-0.43%, P = .029) and deep (-0.36%, P = .049) SSIs decreased between the first and second periods for rTHA. pTHA patients had longer operative times (P < .001) and shorter length of stay (P = .006) during COVID-19. Revision cases had longer operative times (P = .004) and length of stay (P = .046). Both pTHA and rTHA were discharged to skilled nursing facilities less frequently during COVID-19. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:During COVID-19, operative times were longer in both pTHA and rTHA and patients were less likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing facility. Although intensified hygienic standards may lower SSI rates, infection rates did not significantly differ after our hospital implemented personal protective guidelines and a mask mandate.
PMID: 35598760
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5247812

Impact of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Protocols on Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty

Oakley, Christian T; Sybert, Michael; Arraut, Jerry; Bosco, Joseph; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Slover, James D
PMID: 36301569
ISSN: 1557-8674
CID: 5358342

A Surgeon-Volume Comparison of Opioid Prescribing Patterns to Adolescents Following Outpatient Shoulder, Hip, and Knee Arthroscopy

Luthringer, Tyler; Bloom, David A; Manjunath, Amit; Hutzler, Lorraine; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Campbell, Kirk; Bosco, Joseph A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Given the wide variation that exists in the amount and duration of postoperative opioid medication prescribed by orthopedic surgeons, the purpose of the current study was to analyze the opioid prescribing patterns at our institution for adolescent patients undergoing outpatient sports medicine procedures Methods: A total of 468 adolescent patients (between the ages of 13 and 18 years old) who underwent outpatient shoulder, hip, or knee arthroscopy (including ACL reconstruction) between 2016 and 2018 were retrospectively identified, and demographic data were collected. Opioid prescriptions following surgery were converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME) for direct comparison. Prescribing patterns of the 44 surgeons included in our cohort were evaluated with respect to procedures performed and overall surgical volume. High-dose prescriptions were defined as ≥ 300 MME (equivalent to 40 tabs of oxycodone/ acetaminophen [Percocet] 5/325 mg) and low-dose prescriptions were defined as < 300 MME. RESULTS:The mean discharge prescription following outpatient arthroscopy in this patient population was 299.8 ± 271 MME. When each individual case-type was analyzed, there were significant positive correlations between surgeonvolume and MME prescribed following shoulder arthroscopy (r = 0.387, p < 0.001) and knee arthroscopy, (r = 0.350, p < 0.001). Results of logistic regression demonstrated that for every 10 additional cases performed, the odds that a given surgeon would prescribe ≥ 300 MME postoperatively increased by a factor of 1.14 (p < 0.001). There were no significant correlations observed following hip arthroscopy, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, or meniscus repair. Over the course of the observation period, a significant reduction in opioid prescribing was seen among the participating surgeons. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgeons who perform a greater volume of outpatient shoulder and knee arthroscopy on adolescent patients were more likely to prescribe high opioid dosages postoperatively. Awareness of existing variation in narcotic prescribing patterns for patients in this age group is important for quality of care and safety improvement amidst the opioid epidemic.
PMID: 36030448
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5331952

The Inpatient Only Rule, Alternative Payment Models, and the Relative Value Update Committee Reimbursement and Coding Changes: What Do They Mean?

Bosco, Joseph A
BACKGROUND:The unsustainable rising costs of healthcare, a greater portion of which is being borne by the federal government, has resulted in the government's development of programs aimed to control costs without adversely affecting outcomes. METHODS/RESULTS/RESULTS:Alternative Payment Models, the shift from inpatient to outpatient and ambulatory surgery centers' surgical venues, and Relative Value Update Committee coding and reimbursement strategies are all designed to achieve the aforementioned goal. These programs will continue to influence our practice patterns. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:It is clear that we must continue to advocate for access to high quality care reimbursed at a fair price. It is also clear that the successful adult reconstructive surgeon will understand these programs and adjust his/her practice to take full advantage of the opportunities that these programs present.
PMID: 35283232
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5205222

Low-Dose Aspirin is Safe and Effective for Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Patients Undergoing Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Tang, Alex; Zak, Stephen G; Waren, Daniel; Iorio, Richard; Slover, James D; Bosco, Joseph A; Schwarzkopf, Ran
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events are rare, but serious complications of total joint replacement affect patients and health care systems due to the morbidity, mortality, and associated cost of its complications. There is currently no established universal standard of care for prophylaxis against VTE in patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether a protocol of 81-mg aspirin (ASA) bis in die (BID) is safe and/or sufficient in preventing VTE in patients undergoing rTKAs versus 325-mg ASA BID. In 2017, our institution adopted a new protocol for VTE prophylaxis for arthroplasty patients. Patients initially received 325-mg ASA BID for 1 month and then changed to a lower dose of 81-mg BID. A retrospective review from 2011 to 2019 was conducted identifying 1,438 consecutive rTKA patients and 90-day postoperative outcomes including VTE, gastrointestinal, and wound bleeding complications, acute periprosthetic joint infection, and mortality. In the 74 months prior to protocol implementation, 1,003 rTKAs were performed and nine VTE cases were diagnosed (0.90%). After 26 months of the protocol change, 435 rTKAs were performed with one VTE case identified (0.23%). There was no significant difference in rates or odds in postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE; p = 0.27), DVT (p = 0.35), and total VTE rates (p = 0.16) among patients using either protocol. There were also no differences in bleeding complications (p = 0.15) or infection rate (p = 0.36). No mortalities were observed. In the conclusion, 81-mg ASA BID is noninferior to 325-mg ASA BID in maintaining low rates of VTE and may be safe for use in patients undergoing rTKA.
PMID: 32898907
ISSN: 1938-2480
CID: 4588992

Influential Studies in Orthopaedic Platelet-Rich Plasma Research Are Recent and Consist of High Levels of Evidence: A Review of the Top 50 Most Cited Publications

Oeding, Jacob F; Lansdown, Drew A; Leucht, Philipp; Bosco, Joseph A; Konopka, Jaclyn; Lajam, Claudette M
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has garnered widespread and increasing attention in recent years. We aimed to characterize the most influential articles in PRP research while clarifying controversies surrounding its use and clinical efficacy and identifying important areas on which to focus future research efforts. The Science Citation Index Expanded subsection of the Web of Science Core Collection was systematically searched to identify the top 50 cited publications on orthopedic PRP research. Publication and study characteristics were extracted, and Spearman's correlations were calculated to assess the relationship between citation data and level of evidence. The top 50 articles were published between the years 2005 and 2016, with 68% published in the year 2010 or later. Of the 33 studies for which level of evidence was assessed, the majority were of level I or II (18, 54.5%). Seventeen articles (34%) were classified as basic science. All clinical studies were prospective, and most (12 studies, 60%) included a high number of metrics related to the PRP preparation protocol and composition. Knee osteoarthritis was the most common topic among clinical studies in the top 50 cited articles (11 studies, 34%). More recent articles were associated with higher citation rates (ρ = 0.46, p < 0.001). The most influential articles on orthopaedic PRP research are recent and consist of high-level of evidence studies mostly. Randomized controlled trials were the most common study type, while basic science articles were relatively less common. The most influential clinical studies reported a high number of metrics related to their PRP preparation protocol and the final PRP composition. These results suggest a rapidly evolving field with the potential to better explain inconsistent clinical results with improved understanding and documentation of basic science concepts such as PRP composition, preparation, and combination techniques.
PMID: 35272369
ISSN: 1938-2480
CID: 5182332

Payments, Policy, Patients, and Practice Evolution and Impact of Reimbursements in Total Joint Arthroplasty

Mahure, Siddharth A; Singh, Vivek; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Bosco, Joseph A; Lajam, Claudette M
Current trajectories are set to create a large gap between total joint arthroplasty (TJA) supply and demand. Economics dictates that when the demand of consumers (TJA patients) exceeds supply (surgeons performing TJA), a new equilibrium should ideally be established at a higher price point. However, in TJA, the price is set by the government and, therefore, not subject to traditional economic models. Thus, reimbursements for TJA have decreased steadily over time. Fee for service is no longer the dominant reimbursement model for most orthopedic care. Surgeons play a critical role in the evolution and success of Value-Based Care (VBC) models, but this work is not reflected in recent payment changes for TJA. The regulatory environment is notoriously complex and affects our patients, surgeons, and institutions. It is imperative for orthopedic surgeons to continue to advocate for themselves by engaging with leadership, responding to surveys, and balancing outside influences to preserve patient access to TJA. Future payment models for musculoskeletal care must risk-stratify patients, appropriately reimburse for the work of revision TJA, and consider non-modifiable socioeconomic factors. Perioperative orthopedic surgical home (POSH) tools can ensure early appropriate care and proper care coordination for discharge. All of these factors, despite being framed within payment policy, ultimately affect access to orthopedic care for our patients.
PMID: 35234592
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5190272

The 2021 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Fee Schedule's Impact on Adult Reconstruction Surgeon Productivity and Reimbursement

Skeehan, Christopher D; Ortiz, Dionisio; Sicat, Chelsea Sue; Iorio, Richard; Slover, James; Bosco, Joseph A
BACKGROUND:On December 20, 2020, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) finalized its proposed rule: CMS-1734-P. This 2021 Final Rule significantly changed Medicare total joint arthroplasty (TJA) reimbursement. The precise impact on surgeon productivity and reimbursement is unknown. In the present study, we sought to model the potential impact of these changes for multiple unique practice configurations. METHODS:A mathematical model was applied to CMS data to determine the impact of CMS-1734-F on multiple, theoretical TJA practice configurations. Variables tested were the annual percentage of revision vs primary arthroplasty cases performed and the annual percentage of operative vs office-based productivity. The model defined baseline annual surgeon productivity as the 2018 Medical Group Management Association hip and knee arthroplasty surgeon median productivity of 10,568 work relative value units (wRVUs). RESULTS:All modeled simulations demonstrated a year-to-year increase in wRVUs independent of practice configuration. However, simulations that demonstrated less than a 3.35% increase in wRVUs from year-to-year saw a decrease in reimbursement. Those simulations with higher wRVU increases tended to have a higher percentage of revision vs primary arthroplasty cases and/or had annual productivity that was derived to a greater extent from office encounters than surgical cases. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The impact of CMS-1734-F will vary based on 3 factors: (1) the relative contribution of a surgeon's operative TJA practice compared with their office-based practice to their annual wRVUs; (2) the relative percentage of revision TJAs vs the percentage of primary TJAs performed; and (3) the relative percentage of primary TJA compared to non-arthroplasty surgeries as a component of overall operative practice. The decreased reimbursement will be disproportionately felt by arthroplasty surgeons who perform relatively fewer revision TJA procedures and whose office-based productivity makes up a smaller overall percentage of their annual workload.
PMID: 34247872
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4938142

Incomplete Administration of Intravenous Vancomycin Prophylaxis is Common and Associated With Increased Infectious Complications After Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

Feder, Oren I; Yeroushalmi, David; Lin, Charles C; Galetta, Matthew S; Meftah, Moretza; Lajam, Claudette M; Slover, James D; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Bosco, Joseph A; Macaulay, William B
BACKGROUND:Vancomycin is often used as antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Vancomycin requires longer infusion times to avoid associated side effects. We hypothesized that vancomycin infusion is often started too late and that delayed infusion may predispose patients to increased rates of surgical site infections and prosthetic joint infections. METHODS:We reviewed clinical data for all primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients at our institution between 2013 and 2020 who received intravenous vancomycin as primary perioperative gram-positive antibiotic prophylaxis. We calculated duration of infusion before incision or tourniquet inflation, with a cutoff of 30 minutes defining adequate administration. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) appropriate administration and 2) incomplete administration. Surgical factors and quality outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS:We reviewed 1047 primary THA and TKA patients (524 THAs and 523 TKAs). The indication for intravenous vancomycin usage was allergy (61%), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus colonization (17%), both allergy and colonization (14%), and other (8%). 50.4% of patients began infusion >30 minutes preoperatively (group A), and 49.6% began infusion <30 minutes preoperatively (group B). Group B had significantly higher rates of readmissions for infectious causes (3.6 vs 1.3%, P = .017). This included a statistically significant increase in confirmed prosthetic joint infections (2.2% vs 0.6%, P = .023). Regression analysis confirmed <30 minutes of vancomycin infusion as an independent risk factor for PJI when controlling for comorbidities (OR 5.22, P = .012). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Late infusion of vancomycin is common and associated with increased rates of infectious causes for readmission and PJI. Preoperative protocols should be created to ensure appropriate vancomycin administration when indicated.
PMID: 33840539
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4845622

Why Orthopaedic Residents Must Be Exposed to and Taught Value-Based Care: AOA Critical Issues

Murrey, Daniel B; Bosco, Joseph A; Jevsevar, David S; Koenig, Karl
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:The shift to value-based care is changing the practice of medicine. In order to prepare our orthopaedic trainees to survive in a value-based health-care environment, we must expose them to and educate them about value-based programs. This creates both challenges and opportunities for training programs. Academic medical centers (AMCs) will need to carefully consider how to adopt value-based programs and agreements, and assess whether they need alternative facilities, partnerships, or processes in order to be successful. Process improvement principles to adapt physician behavior, the introduction of outcome metrics into the surgical decision-making process, and the development of team-based care can greatly enhance the likelihood of success. AMCs should embrace these challenges to ensure that their residents are well-prepared for the future.
PMID: 33720908
ISSN: 1535-1386
CID: 4817452