Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome As Presenting Symptom of Primary Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma [Meeting Abstract]
Brandes, Lauren; Mantica, Megan
Poster 350 Persistent Pneumocephalus After Gun Shot Wound to the Head
Patel, Kunj G; Brandes, Lauren E; Kurapati, Srikanth; Boyd, Emily; Dennison, Andrew C
Patterns of Individual Variation in Visual Pathway Structure and Function in the Sighted and Blind
Aguirre, Geoffrey K; Datta, Ritobrato; Benson, Noah C; Prasad, Sashank; Jacobson, Samuel G; Cideciyan, Artur V; Bridge, Holly; Watkins, Kate E; Butt, Omar H; Dain, Aleksandra S; Brandes, Lauren; Gennatas, Efstathios D
Many structural and functional brain alterations accompany blindness, with substantial individual variation in these effects. In normally sighted people, there is correlated individual variation in some visual pathway structures. Here we examined if the changes in brain anatomy produced by blindness alter the patterns of anatomical variation found in the sighted. We derived eight measures of central visual pathway anatomy from a structural image of the brain from 59 sighted and 53 blind people. These measures showed highly significant differences in mean size between the sighted and blind cohorts. When we examined the measurements across individuals within each group we found three clusters of correlated variation, with V1 surface area and pericalcarine volume linked, and independent of the thickness of V1 cortex. These two clusters were in turn relatively independent of the volumes of the optic chiasm and lateral geniculate nucleus. This same pattern of variation in visual pathway anatomy was found in the sighted and the blind. Anatomical changes within these clusters were graded by the timing of onset of blindness, with those subjects with a post-natal onset of blindness having alterations in brain anatomy that were intermediate to those seen in the sighted and congenitally blind. Many of the blind and sighted subjects also contributed functional MRI measures of cross-modal responses within visual cortex, and a diffusion tensor imaging measure of fractional anisotropy within the optic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum. We again found group differences between the blind and sighted in these measures. The previously identified clusters of anatomical variation were also found to be differentially related to these additional measures: across subjects, V1 cortical thickness was related to cross-modal activation, and the volume of the optic chiasm and lateral geniculate was related to fractional anisotropy in the visual pathway. Our findings show that several of the structural and functional effects of blindness may be reduced to a smaller set of dimensions. It also seems that the changes in the brain that accompany blindness are on a continuum with normal variation found in the sighted.
Occipital Areas Distinguish Semantic Content in Congenitally Blind but Not Sighted Individuals [Meeting Abstract]
Prasad, Sashank; Yang, Feitong; Butt, Omar; Brandes, Lauren; Datta, Ritobraro; Thomas, Amy; Aguirre, Geoffrey
The King-Devick test and sports-related concussion: study of a rapid visual screening tool in a collegiate cohort
Galetta, Kristin M; Brandes, Lauren E; Maki, Karl; Dziemianowicz, Mark S; Laudano, Eric; Allen, Megan; Lawler, Kathy; Sennett, Brian; Wiebe, Douglas; Devick, Steve; Messner, Leonard V; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J
OBJECTIVE: Concussion, defined as an impulse blow to the head or body resulting in transient neurologic signs or symptoms, has received increasing attention in sports at all levels. The King-Devick (K-D) test is based on the time to perform rapid number naming and captures eye movements and other correlates of suboptimal brain function. In a study of boxers and mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters, the K-D test was shown to have high degrees of test-retest and inter-rater reliability and to be an accurate method for rapidly identifying boxers and mixed martial arts fighters with concussion. We performed a study of the K-D test as a rapid sideline screening tool in collegiate athletes to determine the effect of concussion on K-D scores compared to a pre-season baseline. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, athletes from the University of Pennsylvania varsity football, sprint football, and women's and men's soccer and basketball teams underwent baseline K-D testing prior to the start of the 2010-11 playing season. Post-season testing was also performed. For athletes who had concussions during the season, K-D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines and changes in score from baseline were determined. RESULTS: Among 219 athletes tested at baseline, post-season K-D scores were lower (better) than the best pre-season scores (35.1 vs. 37.9s, P=0.03, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), reflecting mild learning effects in the absence of concussion. For the 10 athletes who had concussions, K-D testing on the sidelines showed significant worsening from baseline (46.9 vs. 37.0s, P=0.009), with all except one athlete demonstrating worsening from baseline (median 5.9s). CONCLUSION: This study of collegiate athletes provides initial evidence in support of the K-D test as a strong candidate rapid sideline visual screening tool for concussion. Data show worsening of scores following concussion, and ongoing follow-up in this study with additional concussion events and different athlete populations will further examine the effectiveness of the K-D test.