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Impact of white matter hyperintensities on subjective cognitive decline phenotype in a diverse cohort of cognitively normal older adults

Rothstein, Aaron; Zhang, Yian; Briggs, Anthony Q; Bernard, Mark A; Shao, Yongzhao; Favilla, Christopher; Sloane, Kelly; Witsch, Jens; Masurkar, Arjun V
OBJECTIVES:Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a preclinical stage of AD. White matter hyperintensities (WMH), an MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease, associate with AD biomarkers and progression. The impact of WMH on SCD phenotype is unclear. METHODS/DESIGN:A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a diverse cohort with SCD evaluated at the NYU Alzheimer's Disease Research Center between January 2017 and November 2021 (n = 234). The cohort was dichotomized into none-to-mild (n = 202) and moderate-to-severe (n = 32) WMH. Differences in SCD and neurocognitive assessments were evaluated via Wilcoxon or Fisher exact tests, with p-values adjusted for demographics using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:Moderate-to-severe WMH participants reported more difficulty with decision making on the Cognitive Change Index (1.5 SD 0.7 vs. 1.2 SD 0.5, p = 0.0187) and worse short-term memory (2.2 SD 0.4 vs. 1.9 SD 0.3, p = 0.0049) and higher SCD burden (9.5 SD 1.6 vs. 8.7 SD 1.7, p = 0.0411) on the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale. Moderate-to-severe WMH participants scored lower on the Mini-Mental State Examination (28.0 SD 1.6 vs. 28.5 SD 1.9, p = 0.0491), and on delayed paragraph (7.2 SD 2.0 vs. 8.8 SD 2.9, p = 0.0222) and designs recall (4.5 SD 2.3 vs. 6.1 SD 2.5, p = 0.0373) of the Guild Memory Test. CONCLUSIONS:In SCD, WMH impact overall symptom severity, specifically in executive and memory domains, as well as objective performance on global and domain-specific tests in verbal memory and visual working/associative memory.
PMID: 37291739
ISSN: 1099-1166
CID: 5605232

Exploring the combined effects of sleep apnea and APOE-e4 on biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease

Turner, Arlener D.; Locklear, Clarence E.; Oruru, Daisha; Briggs, Anthony Q.; Bubu, Omonigho M.; Seixas, Azizi
Objective: We determined the interactive associations of apolipoprotein e4 (APOE-e4), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease and examined for racial/ethnic differences of this association. Methods: We used data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Dataset (NACC UDS). All participants undergo annual observations, including demographic survey, battery of neuropsychological tests, blood draw (with genotyping), and a clinical evaluation with medical and cognitive/dementia status assessment, while a subset of participants have cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and neuroimaging data. Biomarkers of AD were characterized as the presence of abnormally low amyloid in CSF, via validated Aβ42 cut off protocols, and total segmented hippocampal volume, and volume of white matter hyper intensities (WMH). While clinical markers (to preview cognitive relationships) were characterized via the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). Results: Biomarker and clinical marker data were derived from 1,387 participants at baseline (mean age = 69.73 � 8.32; 58.6% female; 13.7% Black/African American), 18.4% of the sample had sleep apnea, and 37.9% were APOE-e4 carriers. Our results confirmed previous reports that OSA and APOE-e4 were independently associated with AD through abnormal levels of amyloid (F(1,306) = 4.27; p = 0.040; F(1,285) = 60.88; p < 0.000, respectively), WMH volume (F(1,306) = 4.27; p = 0.040; F(1,285) = 60.88; p < 0.000, respectively), and MOCA scores (F(1,306) = 4.27; p = 0.040; F(1,285) = 60.88; p < 0.000, respectively). No significant interaction between OSA and APOE-e4 relative to amyloid emerged, however, race stratified analyses indicated the interaction of OSA and APOE-e4 and was significantly associated with WMH and hippocampal volume in Black/African American, but not white participants. Conclusion: OSA and APOE-e4 are interactively associated with WHM in Black/African Americans. This interaction may partially explicate increased levels of risk in this population.
ISSN: 1663-4365
CID: 5423842

Ethical and Policy Implications of Racial and Ethnic Healthcare Disparities in Sleep Health

Omenka, Ogbonnaya; Briggs, Anthony; Nunes, Joao; Seixas, Azizi; Williams, Nastasha; Jean-Louis, Girardin
Despite efforts in recent years, including in policy and research, to address health disparities in the United States, many of those disparities continue to fester in marginalized racial/ethnic populations. Understanding sleep health disparities is critical in understanding the health and wellness of these groups. Using obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Black populations as a focus, this paper presents the role of race and ethnicity in the clinical understanding of sleep health-related issues by medical practitioners and the implications of the lack of clear policies or best practices to guide medical practitioners"™ attempts to meet sleep-related needs of marginalized racial/ethnic populations. Furthermore, the knowledge gap may be further complicated by the poor understanding and integration of existing evidence with the many, complex, sleep-associated co-morbidities. Policymaking in this area ought to be based on the ethical implications of disparate sleep-related health outcomes by race and ethnicity. So, we conclude by offering recommendations for developing ethically sound policies for addressing sleep problems in marginalized racial and ethnic populations.
ISSN: 2197-3792
CID: 5549082

An optimized machine learning model for identifying socio-economic, demographic and health-related variables associated with low vaccination levels that vary across ZIP codes in California

Avirappattu, George; Pach Iii, Alfred; Locklear, Clarence E; Briggs, Anthony Q
There is an urgent need for an in-depth and systematic assessment of a wide range of predictive factors related to populations most at risk for delaying and refusing COVID-19 vaccination as cases of the disease surge across the United States. Many studies have assessed a limited number of general sociodemographic and health-related factors related to low vaccination rates. Machine learning methods were used to assess the association of 151 social and health-related risk factors derived from the American Community Survey 2019 and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BRFSS with the response variables of vaccination rates and unvaccinated counts in 1,555 ZIP Codes in California. The performance of various analytical models was evaluated according to their ability to regress between predictive variables and vaccination levels. Machine learning modeling identified the Gradient Boosting Regressor (GBR) as the predictive model with a higher percentage of the explained variance than the variance identified through linear and generalized regression models. A set of 20 variables explained 72.90% of the variability of unvaccinated counts among ZIP Codes in California. ZIP Codes were shown to be a more meaningful geo-local unit of analysis than county-level assessments. Modeling vaccination rates was not as effective as modeling unvaccinated counts. The public health utility of this model provides for the analysis of state and local conditions related to COVID-19 vaccination use and future public health problems and pandemics.
PMID: 35706686
ISSN: 2211-3355
CID: 5353682

National origins, social context, timing of migration and the physical and mental health of Caribbeans living in and outside of Canada

Lacey, Krim K; Park, Jungwee; Briggs, Anthony Q; Jackson, James S
PMID: 31241351
ISSN: 1465-3419
CID: 5353662

Sleep Health among Racial/Ethnic groups and Strategies to achieve Sleep Health Equity

Chapter by: Seixas, Azizi A; Briggs, Anthony Q; Blanc, Judite; Moore, Jesse; Chung, Alicia; Williams, Ellita; Rogers, April; Turner, Arlener; Jean-Louis, Girardin
in: Essentials of Sleep Medicine : A Practical Approach to Patients with Sleep by
[S.l.] : Humana Press, 2022
pp. 47-68
ISBN: 978-3-030-93738-6
CID: 5354512

Age-associated differences in sleep duration in the US population: potential effects of disease burden

Jean-Louis, Girardin; Shochat, Tamar; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Briggs, Anthony Q; Williams, Ellita T; Jin, Peng; Bubu, Omonigho Michael; Seixas, Azizi A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We contrasted the relative risks (RR) of short [<7 h] and long [>8 h] sleep experienced by middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (≥65 years) adults, compared with young adults (20-44 years). METHODS:We utilized NHANES data (2005-2016), capturing sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health-related data among US adults. RESULTS:The Relative Risk (RR) of short sleep between young and middle-aged adults did not differ [RR = 1.02, NS]. However, the RR of short sleep was significantly reduced among older participants [RR = 0.81, p < 0.01]. Middle-aged adults had significantly lower RR of long sleep [RR = 0.80, p < 0.01], whereas older adults had significantly greater RR of long sleep [RR = 1.41, p < 0.01]. Compared with young adults, older adults with or without increased disease burden had significantly lower RR of short sleep [RR = 0.81, p < 0.01 and RR = 0.80, p < 0.01], respectively. However, for middle-aged adults, the RR of short sleep did not differ whether they reported a greater disease burden. Relative to young adults, older adults with or without disease burden had higher RRs of long sleep [RR = 1.39, p < 0.01] and [RR = 1.45, p < 0.01], respectively. For middle-aged adults without disease burden, the RR of long sleep was lower than among young adults [RR = 0.72, p < 0.01]. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with young adults, older adults were not at increased risk for short sleep. Rather, they reported longer sleep time regardless of the presence of disease burden. Future studies should investigate longitudinal effects of aging on objective sleep time, with or without common diseases.
PMID: 34619501
ISSN: 1878-5506
CID: 5037152

Social and economic influences on disparities in the health of racial and ethnic group Canadian immigrants

Lacey, Krim K; Briggs, Anthony Q; Park, Jungwee; Jackson, James S
OBJECTIVE:To examine social, economic, and migratory influences on the health of racial and ethnic minority groups in Canada, with a special focus on Caribbean immigrants. METHODS:Combined annual cycles (2011-2016) of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) data totaling over 300,000 adult Canadian residents were aggregated. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prevalence and associated factors of (1) cardiovascular disease diagnosed by a healthcare professional, and (2) self-rated general health among racial and ethnic groups. RESULTS:Caribbeans in general, Black and other non-White Canadians had significantly higher odds (adjusted for age/sex) of reporting any cardiovascular disease compared with White Canadians. Only non-Caribbean Blacks had higher odds of self-rated fair or poor general health compared with White Canadians. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that after controlling for social and demographic factors, immigration status and years since migration, Caribbean non-Blacks and Black Caribbeans were at higher odds of having a doctor-reported cardiovascular health condition compared with White Canadians. Caribbean non-Blacks also had higher odds of fair or poor self-rated health than White Canadians. CONCLUSION:The results of this study highlight the need for additional investigations of other potential influences on physical health statuses, especially among migrants and those of African ancestry who might be more prone to adverse health outcomes.
PMID: 33417191
ISSN: 1920-7476
CID: 5353672

Addressing psychological resilience during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: a rapid review

Blanc, Judite; Briggs, Anthony Q; Seixas, Azizi A; Reid, Marvin; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:The mental health toll on populations exposed to COVID-19 is alarming, and there is a need to address this with urgency. This current review provides insights on how individuals, communities, and specific populations, such as healthcare workers and patients are leveraging pre-COVID-19 and peri-COVID-19 factors to reinforce their psychological resilience during the global public health crisis. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Examination of the extant literature indicated that populations around the world rely often on support from their loved-ones, closed significant others, outdoor and physical activities, and spirituality to cope with the COVID-19-related distress. Increased sense of meaning/purpose since the COVID-19 pandemic was also reported. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:A portion of publications provided intervention models to reinforce resilience among specific populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, it is not convincing that some of these models can be applied universally. Additionally, it is important to note that in this category, translational data was scarce.
PMID: 33230041
ISSN: 1473-6578
CID: 4680452

Getting a foot in the door: A critical anti-race analysis of underemployed second generation Caribbean Black Male Youth

Briggs, Anthony Q.
ISSN: 1746-1979
CID: 5353722