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Co-use of MDMA with psilocybin/LSD may buffer against challenging experiences and enhance positive experiences

Zeifman, Richard J; Kettner, Hannes; Pagni, Broc A; Mallard, Austin; Roberts, Daniel E; Erritzoe, David; Ross, Stephen; Carhart-Harris, Robin L
Psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) experiences can range from very positive to highly challenging (e.g., fear, grief, and paranoia). These challenging experiences contribute to hesitancy toward psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy among health care providers and patients. Co-use of 3,4-Methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) with psilocybin/LSD anecdotally reduces challenging experiences and enhances positive experiences associated with psilocybin/LSD. However, limited research has investigated the acute effects of co-use of MDMA and psilocybin/LSD. In a prospective convenience sample (N = 698) of individuals with plans to use psilocybin/LSD, we examined whether co-use of MDMA with psilocybin/LSD (n = 27) is associated with differences in challenging or positive experiences. Challenging experiences were measured using the Challenging Experiences Questionnaire and positive experiences were measured using the Mystical Experience Questionnaire and single-item measures of self-compassion, compassion, love, and gratitude. Potentially confounding variables were identified and included as covariates. Relative to psilocybin/LSD alone, co-use of psilocybin/LSD with a self-reported low (but not medium-high) dose of MDMA was associated with significantly less intense total challenging experiences, grief, and fear, as well as increased self-compassion, love and gratitude. Co-use of psilocybin/LSD and MDMA was not associated with differences in mystical-type experiences or compassion. Findings suggest co-use of MDMA with psilocybin/LSD may buffer against some aspects of challenging experiences and enhance certain positive experiences. Limitations include use of a convenience sample, small sample size, and non-experimental design. Additional studies (including controlled dose-response studies) that examine the effects and safety of co-administering MDMA with psilocybin/LSD (in healthy controls and clinical samples) are warranted and may assist the development of personalized treatments.
PMID: 37608057
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 5561742

Effects of pre-operative isolation on postoperative pulmonary complications after elective surgery: an international prospective cohort study

COVIDSurg Collaborative; GlobalSurg Collaborative
We aimed to determine the impact of pre-operative isolation on postoperative pulmonary complications after elective surgery during the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We performed an international prospective cohort study including patients undergoing elective surgery in October 2020. Isolation was defined as the period before surgery during which patients did not leave their house or receive visitors from outside their household. The primary outcome was postoperative pulmonary complications, adjusted in multivariable models for measured confounders. Pre-defined sub-group analyses were performed for the primary outcome. A total of 96,454 patients from 114 countries were included and overall, 26,948 (27.9%) patients isolated before surgery. Postoperative pulmonary complications were recorded in 1947 (2.0%) patients of which 227 (11.7%) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who isolated pre-operatively were older, had more respiratory comorbidities and were more commonly from areas of high SARS-CoV-2 incidence and high-income countries. Although the overall rates of postoperative pulmonary complications were similar in those that isolated and those that did not (2.1% vs 2.0%, respectively), isolation was associated with higher rates of postoperative pulmonary complications after adjustment (adjusted OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.36, p = 0.005). Sensitivity analyses revealed no further differences when patients were categorised by: pre-operative testing; use of COVID-19-free pathways; or community SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. The rate of postoperative pulmonary complications increased with periods of isolation longer than 3 days, with an OR (95%CI) at 4-7 days or ≥ 8 days of 1.25 (1.04-1.48), p = 0.015 and 1.31 (1.11-1.55), p = 0.001, respectively. Isolation before elective surgery might be associated with a small but clinically important increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Longer periods of isolation showed no reduction in the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. These findings have significant implications for global provision of elective surgical care.
PMID: 34371522
ISSN: 1365-2044
CID: 5561732

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study

COVIDSurg Collaborative, GlobalSurg Collaborative
BACKGROUND:Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling. METHODS:The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty. RESULTS:NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population.
PMID: 33761533
ISSN: 1365-2168
CID: 5561812

Timing of surgery following SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international prospective cohort study

COVIDSurg Collaborative; GlobalSurg Collaborative
Peri-operative SARS-CoV-2 infection increases postoperative mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal duration of planned delay before surgery in patients who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection. This international, multicentre, prospective cohort study included patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery during October 2020. Surgical patients with pre-operative SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with those without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted 30-day mortality rates stratified by time from diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to surgery. Among 140,231 patients (116 countries), 3127 patients (2.2%) had a pre-operative SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Adjusted 30-day mortality in patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection was 1.5% (95%CI 1.4-1.5). In patients with a pre-operative SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, mortality was increased in patients having surgery within 0-2 weeks, 3-4 weeks and 5-6 weeks of the diagnosis (odds ratio (95%CI) 4.1 (3.3-4.8), 3.9 (2.6-5.1) and 3.6 (2.0-5.2), respectively). Surgery performed ≥ 7 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was associated with a similar mortality risk to baseline (odds ratio (95%CI) 1.5 (0.9-2.1)). After a ≥ 7 week delay in undertaking surgery following SARS-CoV-2 infection, patients with ongoing symptoms had a higher mortality than patients whose symptoms had resolved or who had been asymptomatic (6.0% (95%CI 3.2-8.7) vs. 2.4% (95%CI 1.4-3.4) vs. 1.3% (95%CI 0.6-2.0), respectively). Where possible, surgery should be delayed for at least 7 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with ongoing symptoms ≥ 7 weeks from diagnosis may benefit from further delay.
PMID: 33690889
ISSN: 1365-2044
CID: 5561802

Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

Aaraj, Mahmoud A; Abate, Emmanuele; Abbott, Sarah J; Abbott, Tom Ef; Abdalaziz, Hossam; Abdalla, Mutwakil Om; Abdelaal, Ahmed S; Abdelkarim, Mostafa; Abdou, Hossam; Aboelkassem-Ibrahim, Ahmad; Abou Chaar, Mohamad K; Abuown, Ala; Acebes-Garcia, Fernando; Acharya, Metesh; Adamina, Michel; Addae-Boateng, Emmanuel; Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O; Aftab, Raiyyan; Agarwal, Arnav; Aguilar, José; Aherne, Thomas M; Ahmed, Yousra; Aitken, Emma; Al Maadany, Faraj S; Al-Azzawi, Marwa; Al-Embideen, Somya; Al-Masri, Mahmoud; Al-Najjar, Hani; Al-Sukaini, Ahmad; Alakaloko, Felix; Alam, Ruhina; Alameer, Ehab; Alanbuki, Ammar; Alderson, Derek; Ali Karar, Ali A; Ali, Inthekab Ali Mohamed; Ali, Osman M; Aliyeva, Zumrud; Aljanadi, Firas; Alkadeeki, Ghadah Z; Almasri, Murad; Almeida, Ana C; Alonso-Ortuño, Paula; Alrahawy, Mahmoud M; Alser, Osaid; Altintoprak, Fatih; Alvarez, Maria R; Ambler, Graeme K; Amira, Gamal; Amjad, Rabbia; Anania, Gabriele; Andabaka, Tatjana; Andreani, Stefano M; Angelou, Dimitrios; Annamalai, Seethalakshmi; Annessi, Valerio; Anthoney, James; Antonanzas, Leyre Lopez; Anwar, Sibtain; Anwer, Mariyah; Aoun, Salah G; Aragon-Chamizo, Juan; Archer, James E; Ardito, Antonella; Arigoni, Michele; Armao, Teodora; Arminio, Armando; Armstrong, Lara; Arnaud, Alexis; Arnaud, Alexis P; Asaad, Peter; Ashcroft, James; Ashmore, Christopher; Ashoush, Fouad M; Asqalan, Ahmad; Asti, Emanuele; Ataíde Gomes, Gustavo Mendonça; Aubry, Emmanuelle; Augestad, Knut Magne; Avellana, Rocio B; Ayeni, Funbi A; Ayorinde, John Oo; Aytac, Erman; Ayuso-Herrera, Esther; Babu, Bheemanakone H; Baeza, Melody; Baig, Mirza Mas; Bailon-Cuadrado, Martin; Bajomo, Oreoluwa M; Baker, Markus P; Baker, Olivia J; Bakmaz, Bernarda; Bakri, Nur Amalina Che; Baldi, Caterina; Baldini, Edoardo; Baldo, Stefano; Baldwin, Alexander J; Ballabio, Michele; Baloyiannis, Ioannis; Baltazar, Gerard; Ban, Vin Shen; Bandiera, Alessandro; Bankhead-Kendall, Brittany K; Barlow, Emma; Barmasse, Roberto; Barmpagianni, Christina; Baron, Ryan D; Baronio, Gianluca; Barra, Fabio; Barranquero, Alberto G; Barry, Conor P; Bartsch, Anne-Marie; Basgaran, Amedra; Basha, Amr; Bashkirova, Varvara; Bass, Gary A; Bastazza, Marco; Bath, Michael F; Batjer, H Hunt; Baumber, Rachel; Bauset, Juan Carlos Catalá; Beamish, Andrew J; Belcher, Elizabeth; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Beltrán de Heredia, Juan; Belvedere, Angela; Bence, Matthew N; Benson, Ruth A; Benítez-Linero, Inmaculada; Bergeat, Damien; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Juan Carlos; Bernasconi, Matteo; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhama, Anuradha R; Bhangu, Aneel; Bhavaraju, Avi V; Bhutiani, Neal; Bianco, Federica; Biffl, Walter L; Bisagni, Pietro; Blake, Iain; Blanco-Colino, Ruth; Blas Laina, Juan Luis; Blazer Iii, Dan G; Blazquez-Martin, Alma; Blundell, Chris M; Boal, Matthew; Boddy, Alexander P; Bonavina, Giulia; Bonavina, Luigi; Bond-Smith, Giles; Booth, Karen; Borges, Filipe; Borghi, Felice; Borgstein, Alexander Bj; Borja De Lacy, F; Bosanquet, David C; Bosch, Karen D; Bouchagier, Konstantinos; Bouhuwaish, Ahmad Em; Bourke, Grainne; Boyle, Emily; Bozkurt, Mehmet A; Brachini, Gioia; Brain, Jessie; Brar, Amanpreet; Brathwaite, Collin Em; Breckles, Lisa; Breen, Kerry A; Bretagnol, Frédéric; Brixton, Genevieve; Brown, Allison K; Brown, Benjamin C; Brown, Oliver D; Bruzzaniti, Placido; Buarque, Igor Lima; Bueno-Cañones, Alejandro D; Bueser, Teofila; Bulugma, Mustafa R; Burke, Joshua R; Burnside, Nathan; Byrne, Matthew Hv; Bàmbina, Fabrizio; Caballero, Albert; Cagigal-Ortega, Elima P; Calcerrada-Alises, Enrique; Callahan, Miriam; Callcut, Rachael A; Camarero, Enrique; Campagnaro, Tommaso; Campanelli, Michela; Candiani, Massimo; Cannoletta, Maria; Canova, Michaela E; Cantalejo-Diaz, Miguel; Cao, Han; Capelli, Patrizio; Capitan-Morales, Luis-Cristobal; Capizzi, Vita; Carcano, Giulio; Carissimi, Francesca; Carlini, Massimo; Carlos, William J; Carlucci, Michele; Carmichael, Heather; Carrasco, Milagros; Carrillo, Mariana; Caruana, Edward J; Carvello, Michele; Casati, Massimiliano; Castoro, Carlo; Catalan, Vanesa; Cato, Liam D; Catton, Andrew B; Cavaleiro, Salomé; Cellerino, Paola; Centinaio, Giovanna; Ceretti, Andrea Pisani; Cernei, Cristina; Cerro, Cristina; Cervellera, Maurizio; Chakrabortee, Sohini; Chamberlain, Stephanie; Chan, Jeffrey; Chang, Grace; Chase, Thomas Jg; Chaudhry, Dauod; Chebaro, Alexandre; Chen, David; Chetty, Govind; Chia, Zoe; Chiappini, Ambra; Chiara, Francesco Di; Chiarugi, Massimo; Chidambaram, Swathikan; Chiozza, Matteo; Cholewa, Hanna; Chong, Clara; Choolani-Bhojwani, Ekta; Chowdhury, Abeed H; Chrastek, David; Christoforidis, Dimitri; Chui, Karen; Chung, Choyin; Chung, Eric A; Cicerchia, Pierfranco M; Cirillo, Bruno; Citterio, Davide; Clermidi, Pauline; Clough, Ethan Cs; Coccolini, Federico; Coleman, Natasha L; Colletti, Gaia; Collins, Chris G; Collins, Michelle L; Colonna, Emily T; Comini, Lara V; Compagnoni, Bruno; Concepción-Martín, Vanesa; Confalonieri, Marco; Connelly, Tara M; Connolly, Hannah; Conso, Christel; Conti, Luigi; Cooper, Zara; Corbellini, Carlo; Cordera, Fernando; Corral, Javier; Costa, Marta; Costa, Paulo Matos; Costanzi, Andrea; Cotsoglou, Christian; Coughlin, Patrick A; Cox, Daniel; Cozza, Valerio; Cruzado, Laura Fernández-Gomez; Cuming, Tamzin; Cunha, Miguel F; Curtis, Miles; Cuschieri, Joseph; D'Agruma, Michele; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Da Roit, Anna; Daliya, Prita; Dare, Oliver; Darko, Ebenezer; Dass, Debashis; Davidson, Brian R; Davidson, Giana H; Davies, Emma J; Davies, Richard J; Davis, Niall F; Dawson, Brett E; Day, Andrew; De Andrés-Asenjo, Beatriz; de Gheldere, Charles A; De Marchi, Joshua A; De Miguel-Ardevines, Maria-Carmen; De Nardi, Paola; De Salas, Maria Marqueta; De Simone, Veronica; De Souza, Anthony C; De Toma, Giorgio; De Virgilio, Armando; de Vries, Jean-Paul Pm; Dean, Benjamin Jf; Dean, Harry; Dehal, Ahmed; Dehart, Dustin; Del Giudice, Roberto; Delgado, Maria Garcia-Conde; Delgado-Oliver, Eduardo; Denning, Max; Desai, Anant; Desender, Liesbeth; Dester, Sara; DI Bartolomeo, Alessandro; DI Candido, Francesca; Di Franco, Gregorio; Di Giuseppe, Matteo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Diaz, Jose J; Diaz-Peña, Patricia; Dickson, Kathryn E; Diez-Alonso, Manuel M; Dixon, Jan R; Doe, Matthew J; Dolores Del Toro, M; Dousset, Bertrand; Doussot, Alexandre; Drake, Frederick T; Drake, Thomas D; Duchateau, Nicolas; Duff, Sarah; Duffy, John P; Dunne, Declan Fj; Dunne, Naomi Jm; Dunning, Joel; Duque-Mallen, Victoria; Durst, Alexander Ze; Durán-Muñoz-Cruzado, Virginia M; Dziakova, Jana; Díaz Pérez, David; Díaz-García, Alberto; Eardley, Nicola J; Edwards, John G; Egan, Bridget; Egan, Richard; El Kassas, Mohamed; El Youzouri, Hanan; El-Ali, Abess; Elfallal, Ahmed H; Elfeki, Hossam; Elfiky, Mahmoud Ma; Elhadi, Muhammed; Eljareh, Mohammed; Elkadi, Hannah H; Elkady, Ramy; Elkhafeefi, Fatimah; Elliott, Jessie A; Elmore, Ugo; Elmoslemany, Tarek; Emile, Sameh H; Emmerson, Oliver; Emslie, Katy M; Endorf, Frederick W; Enemosah, Ibrahim; Engel, Jamie L; English, Camilla; English, William; Enjuto, Diego T; Erridge, Simon; Escartin, Jorge; Estaire-Gomez, Mercedes; Etchill, Eric W; Evans, Jessica; Evans, Jonathan P; Evans, Luke; Exley, Rebecca; Fabbri, Nicoló; Fahey, Brian A; Falco, Giuseppe; Familiari, Pietro; Fancellu, Alessandro; Faria, Carlos S; Farik, Shebani; Farrell, Tony; Fehervari, Matyas; Fell, Adam; Feo, Carlo V; Ferguson, Henry Jm; Fernandez, Andres Garcia; Fernandez, Beatriz Dieguez; Fernandez-Camuñas, Angel; Fernández, Antonio J; Fernández-Martínez, María; Fernández-Marín, Reyes; Fernández-Pacheco, Borja Camacho; Ferrara, Francesco; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Ferrero, Simone; Findlay, Laura; Fiore, Marco; Fiori, Enrico; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Flatman, Michael; Flindall, Ian; Flor, Blas; Fonsi, Giovanni B; Font, Roser Farré; Fontana, Tommaso; Ford, David; Ford, Samuel; Forlani, Stefano; Fowler, Amy L; Francone, Elisa; Frattaruolo, Colomba; Fretwell, Kenneth R; Frio, Federico; Fructuoso, Lorena Sanchon; Fusai, Giuseppe K; Gagliano, Annalisa; Gagliardi, Filippo; Gahunia, Sukhpreet; Gaino, Francesca; Gala, Tanzeela; Galfrascoli, Elisa; Galimberti, Luca; Galindo Jara, Pablo; Gallagher, Phoebe; Galleano, Raffaele; Gallo, Gaetano; Galván-Pérez, Armando; Gammeri, Emanuele; Ganau, Mario; Garcia Galocha, Jose L; Garcia, Miguel Hernandez; Garcia-Ureña, Miguel Angel; Garcés-García, Raúl; Gardner, Anne; Garulli, Gianluca; Gascon-Ferrer, Isabel; Gattolin, Andrea; Gaujoux, Sebastien; Gentilli, Sergio; Georgiades, Fanourios; Ghanbari, Amir; Ghosh, Dhruv; Giacometti, Marco; Giblin, Anna-Victoria; Gilbert, Catherine; Gill, Charn K; Giménez, Clara; Giorgakis, Emmanouil; Gipponi, Manuel; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Giuffrida, Maria Carmela; Glasbey, James C; Glen, Paul; Goatly, Giles; Gobatti, Davide; Godbole, Chintamani; Gohil, Kajal; Gomez-Rosado, Juan-Carlos; Gonullu, Emre; Gonzalez-De Miguel, Melania; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Gordini, Luca; Gracia, Isabel; Gracia-Roche, Carlos; Granieri, Stefano; Green, Susanna; Gregg, Anne; Griffiths, Ewen A; Grivon, Manuela; Grove, Thomas; Guaglio, Marcello; Guaitoli, Eleonora; Guariglia, Claudio A; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Guha, Soumya; Gujjuri, Rohan R; Gustavino, Claudio; Gutiérrez Samaniego, María; Gómez Díaz, Carlos J; Gómez, Marcos; Gómez, María Fanjul; Habeeb, Amir; Hagger, Robert; Hainsworth, Alison J; Hakmi, Hazim; Halkias, Constantine; Hall, Bria J; Hall, Claire; Hall, James Rw; Hammond, John S; Hampton, Matthew; Handa, Siddhartha; Hansen, Laura; Haq, Iram; Haqqani, Maha H; Harky, Amer; Harries, Rhiannon; Harrison, Ewen M; Harrison, Joseph; Hasan, Raashad; Hawari, Mohammad; Hawkin, Paul; Hazelton, Joshua P; Hebblethwaite, Bethany; Henriques, Susana; Heritage, Emily; Hernandez-Juara, Pilar; Hernández Bartolomé, Miguel Ángel; Herrero-Lopez, Maria; Hervieux, Erik; Heyd, Bruno; Higgs, Simon; Hill, Arnold Dk; Hing, Caroline B; Hirji, Sameer A; Hitchman, Louise; Ho, Beatrice; Ho, Michael Ws; Hogan, Aisling; Holbrook, Charlotte M; Holme, Thomas J; Hopkins, James C; Hopkinson, David N; Hossain, Fahad S; Hossain, Tanvir; Houston, Rory; Hudson, Victoria E; Hughes, Jane L; Hurt, Libor; Hutchinson, Peter; Hutchinson, Peter J; Hwang, E Shelley; Hölzle, Frank; Iacob, Giulio; Iannone, Immacolata; Ibrahim, Mohamed Ah; Ibrahim, Sherif; Iovino, Domenico; Irvine, Esmee; Isik, Arda; Isolani, Simone M; Jafarova, Sevda; Jamil, Tahir; Jayaraju, Ullas; Jeganathan, Reuben; Jenkinson, Michael D; Jenner, Edward; Jenny, Hillary E; Jeyaretna, Deva S; Jiao, Long R; Jimenez-Higuera, Elisa; Jimeno, Jaime; Johnstone, Jack R; Jones, Andrew P; Jones, Gareth P; Jones, Mark; Jones, Robert P; Jonker, Pascal Kc; Joyce, Doireann P; Judkins, Nicholas; Jönsson, Maria L; Kaafarani, Haytham Ma; Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Kalidindi, Venugopala; Kalkat, Maninder; Kalkwarf, Kyle J; Kamal, Mona; Kamarajah, Sivesh K; Kamphues, Carsten; Kang, Chong; Kara, Yasin; Karam, Edward; Karim, Ahmed; Kashora, Florence; Kaushal, Manish V; Kavanagh, Dara O; Kearney, David; Keatley, James M; Keller, Deborah S; Khajuria, Apoorva; Khalefa, Mohamed A; Khan, Azam; Khan, Jim S; Khan, Umul; Khatri, Chetan; Kinnaman, Gabriel; Kinross, James; Kirmani, Bilal H; Kisiel, Aaron P; Kler, Aaron; Klimopoulos, Serafeim; KocataÅŸ, Ali; Kolias, Angelos; Konsten, Joop; Kontovounisios, Christos; Kourdouli, Amar; Kouris, Spyros Marinos; Kouritas, Vasileios; Kowal, Mikolaj R; Krishnan, Emily; Kristinsson, Sverrir; Kruijff, Schelto; Kudsk-Iversen, Søren; Kufeji, Dorothy; Kugler, Nadav; Kulkarni, Gauri; Kulkarni, Rugved; Kurihara, Hayato; Königsrainer, Alfred; La Torre, Filippo; Labib, Peter L; Laface, Letizia; Lakkis, Zaher; Lami, Mariam; Landaluce-Olavarria, Aitor; Lapolla, Pierfrancesco; Larkin, John O; Lauscher, Johannes C; Lawani, Ismail; Lawday, Samuel; Le Roy, Bertrand; Leclercq, Wouter Kg; Lecolle, Katia; Lederhuber, Hans; Ledesma, Frances Sj; Leite-Moreira, André M; Leo, Cosimo Alex; Leung, Elaine Yl; Leventoglu, Sezai; Lewis, Sophia E; Li, Elizabeth; Li, Zoe; Liew, Ignatius; Lima, Maria João; Lin, Daniel J; Lisi, Giorgio; Liu, Helen H; Liyanage, Aloka S D; Lizzi, Vincenzo; Lo, Terence; Lombardi, Celestino P; Lomiento, Daniele; Longhi, Marco; Lostis, Emilie; Lostoridis, Eftychios; Loubani, Mahmoud; Lowery, Aoife J; Lowy-Benoliel, Alejandro; Lozano, Saida Martel; Lucianetti, Alessandro; Luke, Louis; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Luney, Catriona R; Luraghi, Marco; Lye, George; Lázaro, André; Löffler, Markus W; Mabrouk, Islam; Macchi, Alberto; MacDonald, Luisa; Machairas, Nikolaos; Madonini, Marco; Magowan, Drew; Maia, Mariana Magalhães; Maisonneuve, Emeline; Majkowska, Agata; Majkowski, Lawrence; Mak, Jason; Malabarba, Stefano; Malerba, Michele; Mannan, Syed; Manson, Joanna; Mansuri, Ahmer; Mantoglu, Baris; Manu, Nichola; Maqsood, Afnan; Marano, Alessandra; Marchbank, Adrian; Marcos-Santos, Pablo; Mari, Giulio Maria; Mariani, Nicolò M; Marino Cosentino, Luigi Mp; Marino, Marco V; Marra, Angelo A; Marrano, Enrico; Marsh, Christopher L; Martin, Benjamin; Martin, Emmeline; Martin, Guy; Martin, Janet; Martin, Robert Cg; Martin-Albo, Lorena; Martinelli, Fabio; Martinez-German, Antonio; Martinez-Pinedo, Carlos; Martins, Ricardo; Martín-Román, Lorena; Martínez-dePaz, Fernando; Martínez-Pérez, Carolina; Marwan, Hisham; Marzi, Federica; Mashbari, Hassan N; Mateo-Sierra, Olga; Mathieu, Pierre; Matute-Najarro, Maria-Soledad; Maw, Andrew; Mazingi, Dennis; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; McCanny, Andrew; McCluney, Simon J; McIntyre, Robert C; Mckay, Siobhan C; McKenzie, Katherine; McKevitt, Kevin L; McLarty, Nicola; McPherson, Iain; Meagher, Ashley D; Medina, Esther; Mediratta, Saniya; Medone, Marzia; Mehdi, Mohammad Q; Mehigan, Brian J; Mehra, Gautam; Mele, Simone; Melero-Cortés, Lidia; Mendoza-Moreno, Fernando; Meneghini, Simona; Mercante, Giuseppe; Merdrignac, Aude; Merola, Stephen; Metallidis, Symeon; Michel, Martin; Migliore, Marco; Mihanovic, Jakov; Miller, Douglas; Mills, Sarah J; Minaya-Bravo, Ana; Mingoli, Andrea; Minto, Gary; Mirabella, Antonello; Misra, Nikhil; Mithany, Reda H M; Mitrasinovic, Stefan; Miu, Victor; Moawad, Nader; Mochet, Sylvie; Modabber, Ali; Mohammad, Adam; Mohan, Helen M; Mohan, Midhun; Moir, John Ag; Moliner-Sánchez, Carmen; Mongelli, Francesco; Monson, John Rt; Monteiro, Joana M; Monteleone, Michela; Montella, Maria T; Montesinos, Cristina Soto; Montuori, Mauro; Moore, Rachel; Mora-Guzmán, Ismael; Morales, Dieter; Morales, Xavier; Morelli, Luca; Morelli, Lucia; Morgan, Richard; Morgom, Marwa M; Morris, Chris; Mortini, Pietro; Morton, Dion G; Mosca, Angelo; Moszkowicz, David; Motter, Dema; Moug, Susan; Moura, Francisco S; Muguerza, Jose M; Mukherjee, Samrat; Murphy, Suzanne H; Najdy, Manhal; Nakas, Apostolos; Namazov, Ilgar; Naredla, Pradyumna; Nasef, Emmhamed; Nassa, Heeam; Nath, Rahul; Naumann, David N; Navarro-Sánchez, Antonio; Nazarian, Scarlet; Neary, Paul C; Neely, David Ta; Negri, Giampiero; Nehra, Deepika; Neil-Dwyer, Jason; Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Neri, Jacopo; Newton, Katy; Ng-Kamstra, Joshua S; Ngu, Albert Wt; Nguyen, Truong A; Nikaj, Herald; Niquen, Milagros; Nita, George E; Nizami, Kulsoom; Nobile, Sara; Nogueiro, Jorge; Ntirenganya, Faustin; Nugent Iii, William C; Nugent, Michael; Nunes, Quentin M; Nygaard, Rachel M; Núñez, Jordi; O'Meara, Lindsay B; O'Neill, John R; Ocaña, Juan; Odeh, Abdulrahman; Okafor, Barbara U; Okechukwu, Valentine; Oliva-Mompean, Fernando; Oliveira, Ana; Ollat, Didier; Olson, Steven A; Omar, Omar M; Onos, Lavinia; Oo, Aung Y; Ormazabal, Pablo Collera; Osagie-Clouard, Liza; Osman, Khabab; Osorio, Alexander L; Ottolina, Jessica; Ourieff, Jared; Outani, Oumaima; Oyewole, Bankole; Ozben, Volkan; Pacheco-Sanchez, David; Pachl, Max J; Padilla-Valverde, David; Pai, Madhava; Paiella, Salvatore; Paisley, Samuel; Palini, Gianmarco; Palmeri, Matteo; Panahi, Pedram; Parente, Alessandro; Parlanti, Daniele; Parmar, Chetan; Parry, James T; Pascual, Angela; Pata, Francesco; Patel, Mahul; Patel, Panna K; Pathak, Abhijit; Patil, Sangram; Pattyn, Piet; Peckham-Cooper, Adam; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Pellino, Gianluca; Peluso, Chiara; Pereira, André; Pereira-Neves, António; Perez-Diaz, M D; Perivoliotis, Konstantinos; Perkins, Clare; Peros, Georgios; Perotto, Ornella; Perra, Teresa; Petrone, Patrizio; Pevidal, Ana Nogues; Pezzuto, Anna P; Phenix, George; Philp, Matthew M; Picazo, Sara; Picon-Rodriguez, Rafael; Piloni, Martina; Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Pinkney, Thomas D; Pinotti, Enrico; Pisanu, Adolfo; Pizzini, Paolo; Pockney, Peter; Podda, Mauro; Podolsky, Dina; Poggioli, Gilberto; Pollok, Joerg M; Pompili, Cecilia; Pontari, Michael; Porcu, Alberto; Potter, Ryan; Povey, Meical G; Poza, Alfredo Alonso; Price, Claire; Pruvot, François-René; Pujol-Muncunill, Roger; Puppo, Andrea; Pérez-González, Marta; Pérez-Saborido, Baltasar; Pérez-Sánchez, Luis E; Quante, Markus; Quintana-Villamandos, Begoña; Qureshi, Ali; Radenkovic, Dejan; Rajgor, Amarkumar D; Rakvin, Ivan; Ramallo-Solís, Irene; Ramcharan, Sean; Ramos, Diego; Ramos-Bonilla, Antonio; Ramos-De la Medina, Antonio; Ramzi, Joussi; Rao, Jagan N; Raptis, Dimitri A; Rathinam, Sridhar; Rausa, Emanuele; Ravaioli, Matteo; Ravindran, Sharanya; Raymond, Thomas; Razik, Aisha; Redfern, Jennifer; Reguera-Rosal, Julio; Rela, Mariam; Rey-Biel, Juan; Rey-Valcarcel, Cristina; Ribolla, Marta; Rice, Henry E; Richards, Tomos; Richmond, Michael; Ridgway, Paul F; Righini, Erminio; Rio-Gomez, Javier; Rivas, Ana Munoz; Riyat, Harjoat; Rizvi, Sana; Roberts, Keith; Roberts, Matthew; Robertson, Ronald; Robertson, Stuart; Robin-Valle, Alvaro; Rochon, Melissa; Rodriguez-Sanjuan, Juan C; Rogers, Luke J; Rojo, Mikel; Rollett, Rebecca A; Rolli, Luigi; Romano, Silvio; Romera, Jose L; Rooney, Siobhan M; Rosato, Francesco; Roslani, April C; Ross, Elizabeth; Ross, Howard; Rossborough, Catherine; Rottoli, Matteo; Roxo, Vanessa I; Rubio, Eduardo E; Ruiz, Carolina Castro; Ruiz, Manuel Losada; Ruiz-Grande, Fernando; Ruiz-Marin, Miguel; Ruiz-Martin, Irene; Ruiz-Soriano, María; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Ryan, Éanna J; Ryska, Ondrej; Saad, Abdel Rahman; Saeed, Samerah A; Saez, Carlos; Sagnotta, Andrea; Sahnan, Kapil; Sahni, Arun; Salama, Hiba A; Salamah, Abdulrauf A; Salem, Hosni Khairy; Salim, Ali; Sallam, Ibrahim; Salvia, Roberto; Samadov, Elgun; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Sampaio-Alves, Mafalda; Sampietro, Gianluca M; San Miguel Mendez, Carlos; Sanchez Del Pueblo, Cristina; Sanchez-Fuentes, Maria-Nieves; Sanchez-Pelaez, Daniel; Sanchez-Perez, Coral; Sanchez-Rubio, Maria; Sancho-Muriel, Jorge; Sanders, Julie; Santero-Ramirez, Maria-Pilar; Santora, Thomas; Santoro, Antonio; Santos, Irene; Santos-Sousa, Hugo; Sapienza, Paolo; Sarma, Diwakar R; Sartarelli, Lodovico; Sarveswaran, Janahan; Sasia, Diego; Saudemont, Alain; Saudi-Moro, Sef; Saxena, Dolly; Saxena, Shobhit; Sayasneh, Ahmad; Scalabre, Aurelien; Schache, Andrew; Schaffer, Kathryn B; Schiavina, Riccardo; Schilling, Clare; Schineis, Christian; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A; Schreckenbach, Teresa; Scorza, Antonella; Scott, Lucy; Scurrah, Rachel J; Seegert, Sara; Seguin-Givelet, Agathe; Senent-Boza, Ana; Serevina, Olivia L; Serralheiro, Pedro A; Serrano González, Javier; Sewards, Joseph M; Seymour, Keith; Shabana, Amanda; Shackcloth, Michael J; Shah, Jigar; Shah, Karishma; Shah, Preena; Shah, Sujay; Shakir, Taner; Shalaby, Mostafa; Shane Lester, Madan Jha; Shankar, Sushma; Sharma, Neil; Shaw, Abigail V; Shaw, Richard; Sheel, Andrea Rg; Shehata, Sameh; Shenfine, Amy; Sheridan, Kelda; Sherief, Ahmed; Sherief, Mohamed; Sherif, Mohamed; Shinkwin, Michael; Shu, Sebastian; Siaw-Acheampong, Kwabena; Sica, Giuseppe S; Siddique, Muhammad Harris; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Simoes, Joana Ff; Singh, Abhinav; Singh, Aminder A; Singh, Rabindra P; Singh, Shailendra; Sinha, Deepti; Sinha, Sanjay; Siragusa, Leandro; Sivaprakasam, Rajesh; Sivayoganathan, Sriharan; Skelly, Brendan L; Smart, Neil J; Smillie, Robert; Smith, Andrew; Smith, Christopher; Smith, Claire; Smith, Henry G; Sochorova, Dana; Soggiu, Fiammetta; Sohail, Amir H; Sohrabi, Catrin; Solari, Francesca; Solli, Piergiorgio; Soreide, Kjetil; Spalding, Duncan R; Spinelli, Antonino; Spoletini, Domenico; Spriano, Giuseppe; Springford, Laurie R; Sravanam, Sanskrithi; Ssentongo, Anna E; Ssentongo, Paddy; Stanger, Sophie; Stavroulias, Dionisios; Steel, Ben; Steinkamp, Pieter J; Stella, Marco; Stevens, Kent A; Stewart, Grant D; Stewart, Robbie; Stringer, Sally; Stylianides, Nicholas A; Sulen, Nina; Sullivan, Tom Bb; Sundar, Sudha; Sundhu, Matthew; Suri, Avni; Syed, Arooj; Szatmary, Peter; Sánchez-Arteaga, Alejandro; Tabiri, Stephen; Tadross, Daniel; Taglietti, Lucio; Taher, Ahmed Sa; Tamimy, Muhammad S; Tang, Alethea M; Tansey, Rosamond; Tartaglia, Dario; Tawheed, Ahmed; Tayeh, Salim; Tebala, Giovanni D; Tejero-Pintor, Francisco J; Teles, Tobias; Testa, Valentina; Tewari, Nilanjana; Thaha, Mohamed A; Thoenissen, Philipp; Thomas, Amy J; Thomas, Kane; Thomin, Anne; Thrush, Jessica; Tierney, Sean; Tiwari, Abhinav; Toh, Simon; Toledo, Enrique; Tonini, Valeria; Torkington, Jared; Torquati, Alfonso; Torres, Antonio J; Torzilli, Guido; Totty, Joshua; Tourountzi, Paraskevi; Tousidonis, Manuel; Townend, Philip; Townsend, Catherine; Townshend, David N; Tripathi, Shiva S; Trompeter, Alex; Trompetto, Mario; Trotta, Francesco; Trout, Isobel M; Truant, Stéphanie; Trujillo-Díaz, Jeancarlos; Tsoulfas, George; Tsoulfas, Georgios; Tucker, Sarah C; Turco, Celia; Turrado-Rodriguez, Victor; Turri, Giulia; Tustin, Harry; Tyler, Jayne; Tzedakis, Stylianos; Tzovaras, George; Ubhi, Harmony K; Uittenbogaart, Martine; Ullah, Ramzan; Urban, Shane; Urbani, Alessia; Usai, Antonella; Vaccarella, Gianpaolo; Valdes-Hernandez, Javier; Valsecchi, Luca; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; van der Plas, Willemijn Y; van Heinsbergen, Maarten; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle H; Vashisht, Rajiv; Vega, Viviana A; Velmahos, George C; Velopulos, Catherine G; Venkatesan, Gowtham S; Venn, Mary; Venn, Mary L; Vera-Mansilla, Cristina; Vergari, Roberto; Vescio, Giuseppina; Vidya, Raghavan; Vieira, Paula; Vijay, Vardhini; Vimalachandran, Dale; Violante, Tommaso; Viswanath, Yirupaiahgari Ks; Vivas, Alfredo A; Volpe, Anita; Vovola, Fernanda; Vulliamy, Paul; Vázquez-Fernández, Andrea; Wade, Ryckie G; Wadley, Martin S; Wall, Joshua Js; Wall, Rosemary; Wallwork, Kate; Walsh, Stewart; Walters, Andrew M; Ward, Alex; Warren, Oliver J; Warwick, David; Waseem, Saima; Weaver, Helen; Weerasinghe, Chamindri K; Wells, Fiona; Wen, Jiaxin; West, Raha; Whitehall, Emma; Wild, Laura; Wilkin, Richard Jw; Wilkins, Alex; Williams, Gethin; Williams, Katherine J; Williams, Matthew; Winnand, Philipp; Winter, Stuart C; Wong, Ken; Worku, Dawit; Wormald, Justin Cr; Wright, Franklin L; Wright, Naomi; Xyda, Souzana E; Yalamanchili, Seema; Yershov, Danylo; Yildiz, Alp; Young, Alastair L; Young, Richard; Youssef, Mina Mg; Yousuf, Farhat B; Yurttas, Can; Zadegan, Frederic; Zafar, Noman; Zakaria, Rasheed; Zambon, Martina; Zanini, Nicola; Zappa, Marco A; Zarate, Alba; Zerbib, Philippe; Zizzo, Maurizio; Zmora, Oded; Zonta, Sandro
BACKGROUND:The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS:This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. FINDINGS:This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28-2·40], p<0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65-3·22], p<0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3-5 versus grades 1-2 (2·35 [1·57-3·53], p<0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01-2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06-2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1·01-2·31], p=0·047). INTERPRETATION:Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. FUNDING:National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research.
PMID: 32479829
ISSN: 1474-547x
CID: 4851402

Population Coverage of Trauma Systems: What Do Helicopters Add?

Smedley, W Andrew; Stone, K Lorraine; Killian, John; Brown, Allison; Farley, Paige; Griffin, Russell L; Cox, Daniel B; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Jansen, Jan O
Trauma is a time-critical condition. Helicopters are thought to enhance the accessibility to trauma centers, but this benefit is poorly quantified. The aim of this study was to conduct a geographical analysis of the added benefit provided by helicopters, over ground transport. This study uses geospatial analysis. Helicopter bases and Level I and II designated trauma centers were geocoded. 60-minute drive-time and elliptical flight-time isochrones were mapped with ArcGISâ„¢ (Esri, Redlands, CA). Calculations included allowance for mission ground time (MGT). We compared the proportion of the population that could be taken to Level I and II trauma centers, within 60 minutes, by road and by air. Using a 30-minute MGT model, helicopters permit 279,317 additional residents (5.8%) access to a Level I trauma center within 60 minutes. Using the 20-minute MGT model, 1,089,177 more residents (22.8%) would have access to Level I trauma center care. The benefits were marginally greater for access to Level I and II trauma center care. Helicopters enhance access to specialist trauma center care, but the benefit is small and dependent on MGT. Consideration should be given to the siting of helicopters, particularly in relation to trauma patients, MGT, and the timely response of EMS when determining the triage for helicopter transport.
PMID: 31638527
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5030512

Raf acts downstream of the EGF receptor to determine dorsoventral polarity during Drosophila oogenesis

Brand, A H; Perrimon, N
In Drosophila, as in mammalian cells, the Raf serine/threonine kinase appears to act as a common transducer of signals from several different receptor tyrosine kinases. We describe a new role for Raf in Drosophila development, showing that Raf acts in the somatic follicle cells to specify the dorsoventral polarity of the egg. Targeted expression of activated Raf (Rafgof) within follicle cells is sufficient to dorsalize both the eggshell and the embryo, whereas reduced Raf activity ventralizes the eggshell. We show that Raf functions downstream of the EGF receptor to instruct the dorsal follicle cell fate. In this assay, human and Drosophila Rafgof are functionally similar, in that either can induce ventral follicle cells to assume a dorsal fate.
PMID: 7926754
ISSN: 0890-9369
CID: 5561762

Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes

Brand, A H; Perrimon, N
We have designed a system for targeted gene expression that allows the selective activation of any cloned gene in a wide variety of tissue- and cell-specific patterns. The gene encoding the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 is inserted randomly into the Drosophila genome to drive GAL4 expression from one of a diverse array of genomic enhancers. It is then possible to introduce a gene containing GAL4 binding sites within its promoter, to activate it in those cells where GAL4 is expressed, and to observe the effect of this directed misexpression on development. We have used GAL4-directed transcription to expand the domain of embryonic expression of the homeobox protein even-skipped. We show that even-skipped represses wingless and transforms cells that would normally secrete naked cuticle into denticle secreting cells. The GAL4 system can thus be used to study regulatory interactions during embryonic development. In adults, targeted expression can be used to generate dominant phenotypes for use in genetic screens. We have directed expression of an activated form of the Dras2 protein, resulting in dominant eye and wing defects that can be used in screens to identify other members of the Dras2 signal transduction pathway.
PMID: 8223268
ISSN: 0950-1991
CID: 5561772

Characterization of a "silencer" in yeast: a DNA sequence with properties opposite to those of a transcriptional enhancer

Brand, A H; Breeden, L; Abraham, J; Sternglanz, R; Nasmyth, K
The mating type of yeast is determined by the allele, either a or alpha, at the MAT locus. Two other loci, HML and HMR, contain complete copies of the alpha and a genes, respectively, which are not expressed. The four SIR gene products are required in trans for repression of the silent loci, as are cis-acting sites on either side of HML and HMR, about 1000 bp from the mating-type promoters. We demonstrate that one of these cis-acting sequences, HMRE, is able to switch off at least two nonmating-type promoters. In common with enhancers, it is able to function in either orientation, relatively independently of its position with respect to the regulated promoter, and can act on promoters 2600 bp away. However since HMRE represses, rather than enhances, transcription we have called it a "silencer" sequence.
PMID: 3888409
ISSN: 0092-8674
CID: 5561752