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Chromothripsis as a pathogenic driver of multiple myeloma

Maura, Francesco; Boyle, Eileen M; Rustad, Even H; Ashby, Cody; Kaminetzky, David; Bruno, Benedetto; Braunstein, Marc; Bauer, Michael; Blaney, Patrick; Wang, Yubao; Ghamlouch, Hussein; Williams, Louis; Stoeckle, James; Davies, Faith E; Walker, Brian A; Maclachlan, Kylee; Diamond, Ben; Landgren, Ola; Morgan, Gareth J
Analysis of the genetic basis for multiple myeloma (MM) has informed many of our current concepts of the biology that underlies disease initiation and progression. Studying these events in further detail is predicted to deliver important insights into its pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment. Information from whole genome sequencing of structural variation is revealing the role of these events as drivers of MM. In particular, we discuss how the insights we have gained from studying chromothripsis suggest that it can be used to provide information on disease initiation and that, as a consequence, it can be used for the clinical classification of myeloma precursor diseases allowing for early intervention and prognostic determination. For newly diagnosed MM, the integration of information on the presence of chromothripsis has the potential to significantly enhance current risk prediction strategies and to better characterize patients with high-risk disease biology. In this article we summarize the genetic basis for MM and the role played by chromothripsis as a critical pathogenic factor active at early disease phases.
PMID: 33958284
ISSN: 1096-3634
CID: 4866742

Inflammation and infection in plasma cell disorders: how pathogens shape the fate of patients

Caro, Jessica; Braunstein, Marc; Williams, Louis; Bruno, Benedetto; Kaminetzky, David; Siegel, Ariel; Razzo, Beatrice; Alfandari, Serge; Morgan, Gareth J; Davies, Faith E; Boyle, Eileen M
The role of infection and chronic inflammation in plasma cell disorders (PCD) has been well-described. Despite not being a diagnostic criterion, infection is a common complication of most PCD and represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. As immune-based therapeutic agents are being increasingly used in multiple myeloma, it is important to recognize their impact on the epidemiology of infections and to identify preventive measures to improve outcomes. This review outlines the multiple factors attributed to the high infectious risk in PCD (e.g. the underlying disease status, patient age and comorbidities, and myeloma-directed treatment), with the aim of highlighting future prophylactic and preventive strategies that could be implemented in the clinic. Beyond this, infection and pathogens as an entity are believed to also influence disease biology from initiation to response to treatment and progression through a complex interplay involving pathogen exposure, chronic inflammation, and immune response. This review will outline both the direct and indirect role played by oncogenic pathogens in PCD, highlight the requirement for large-scale studies to decipher the precise implication of the microbiome and direct pathogens in the natural history of myeloma and its precursor disease states, and understand how, in turn, pathogens shape plasma cell biology.
PMCID:8809233
PMID: 35110727
ISSN: 1476-5551
CID: 5153682

Cost efficiency and effectiveness of biosimilar filgrastim in autologous transplant [Letter]

Giaccone, Luisa; Brunello, Lucia; Londono, Jaime Suarez; Scaldaferri, Matilde; Cerrano, Marco; Redoglia, Valter; Omedè, Paola; Lia, Giuseppe; Massaia, Massimo; Ferrero, Dario; Cavallo, Federica; Bringhen, Sara; Leone, Sarah; Cattel, Francesco; Francisci, Tiziana; Tassi, Valter; Evangelista, Andrea; Boccadoro, Mario; Bruno, Benedetto
PMID: 34848834
ISSN: 1476-5365
CID: 5065672

Improving prognostic assignment in older adults with multiple myeloma using acquired genetic features, clonal hemopoiesis and telomere length

Boyle, Eileen M; Williams, Louis; Blaney, Patrick; Ashby, Cody; Bauer, Michael; Walker, Brian A; Ghamlouch, Hussein; Choi, Jinyoung; Perrial, Emeline; Wang, Yubao; Caro, Jessica; Stoeckle, James H; Arbini, Arnaldo; Kaminetzky, David; Braunstein, Marc; Bruno, Benedetto; Razzo, Beatrice; Diamond, Benjamin; Maclachlan, Kylee; Maura, Francesco; Landgren, Ola; Litke, Rachel; Fegan, Christopher D; Keats, Johnathan; Auclair, Daniel; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J
PMID: 34148053
ISSN: 1476-5551
CID: 4918002

Insights into high-risk multiple myeloma from an analysis of the role of PHF19 in cancer

Ghamlouch, Hussein; Boyle, Eileen M; Blaney, Patrick; Wang, Yubao; Choi, Jinyoung; Williams, Louis; Bauer, Michael; Auclair, Daniel; Bruno, Benedetto; Walker, Brian A; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J
Despite  improvements in outcome, 15-25% of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients have treatment resistant high-risk (HR) disease with a poor survival. The lack of a genetic basis for HR has focused attention on the role played by epigenetic changes. Aberrant expression and somatic mutations affecting genes involved in the regulation of tri-methylation of the lysine (K) 27 on histone 3 H3 (H3K27me3) are common in cancer. H3K27me3 is catalyzed by EZH2, the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). The deregulation of H3K27me3 has been shown to be involved in oncogenic transformation and tumor progression in a variety of hematological malignancies including MM. Recently we have shown that aberrant overexpression of the PRC2 subunit PHD Finger Protein 19 (PHF19) is the most significant overall contributor to HR status further focusing attention on the role played by epigenetic change in MM. By modulating both the PRC2/EZH2 catalytic activity and recruitment, PHF19 regulates the expression of key genes involved in cell growth and differentiation. Here we review the expression, regulation and function of PHF19 both in normal and the pathological contexts of solid cancers and MM. We present evidence that strongly implicates PHF19 in the regulation of genes important in cell cycle and the genetic stability of MM cells making it highly relevant to HR MM behavior. A detailed understanding of the normal and pathological functions of PHF19 will allow us to design therapeutic strategies able to target aggressive subsets of MM.
PMID: 34857028
ISSN: 1756-9966
CID: 5065852

Multiomic Mapping of Copy Number and Structural Variation on Chromosome 1 (Chr1) Highlights Multiple Recurrent Disease Drivers [Meeting Abstract]

Blaney, P; Boyle, E M; Wang, Y; Ghamlouch, H; Choi, J; Williams, L; James, S; Siegel, A; Razzo, B; Braunstein, M; Kaminetzky, D; Arbini, A A; Bruno, B; Corre, J; Montes, L; Auclair, D; Davies, F E; Tsirigos, A; Rustad, E H; Maura, F; Landgren, O; Bauer, M A; Walker, B; Morgan, G
Introduction Copy number abnormalities (CNA) and structural variants (SV) are crucial to driving cancer progression and in multiple myeloma (MM). Chr1 CNA are seen in up to 40% of cases and associate with poor prognosis. Variants include deletions, gains, translocations and complex SV events such as chromothripsis (CT), chromoplexy (CP) and templated insertions (TI) which result in aberrant transcriptional patterns. Abnormal expression of genes on chr1 lead to the adverse clinical outcome and studies focussed on 1p12, 1p32.3 and 1q12-21 identified potential causal genes including TENT5C, CDKN2C, CKS1B, PDZK1, BCL9, ANP32E, ILF2, ADAR, MDM2 and MCL1 but none fully explain the clinical behavior. To address this deficiency and to relate chromatin structure to gene deregulation we present a multiomic bioinformatic analysis of SV, CNA, mutation and expression changes in relation to the chromatin structure of chr1. Methods We analysed data derived from 1,154 CoMMpass trial patients. We analyzed 972 NDMM patients with whole exome for mutations, and 752 whole genomes for copy number, translocations, complex rearrangements such as CP, CT and TI as previously described. Using GISTIC 2.0, we identified hotspots of CNA. This information was then analyzed in conjunction to the RNA-seq data derived from 643 patients to determine the aberrant transcriptional landscape of chr1. Using HiC data derived from U266 MM cell line, we associated these changes with TAD structures, A/B compartments, and histone marks along chr1, to gene expression changes, and recurrent SV. Using the cell line dependency map for CRISPR knockdown of the gene set on chr1 derived from 20 MM cell lines we related cell viability to chr1 copy number status. Results * We identified 7 hotspots of deletion, 9 of gain, 3 of CT and 2 of templated-insertion across chr1. We mapped these regions to epigenetic plots and show that gained regions are hypomethylated compared to the rest of chr1 (Wilcoxon, p=0.0002). Overall 69% of gain(1q) and 45% of the non-gained hotspots were in A compartments (chi 2=11, p=0.0009) and had an overall higher compartment score (p=0.01). * The recurrent regions of loss on 1p confirm the clinical relevance of this region. The critical importance of TENT5C, CDKN2C and RPL5 is identified by the impact of deletion, mutation and the rearrangement of superenhancers. Further this convergence of multiple oncogeneic mechanisms to a single locus points to a number of novel candidate drivers including FUB1 and NTRK1. * We provide important new information on 1q21.1-1q25.2 encompassing 145-180Mb a transcriptionally dense region containing 6 GISTIC 2.0 hotspots of gain (G2-G7). The hotspots occur within TAD structures that correlate upregulation of known drivers listed above and also identified novel potential upregulated drivers including POU2F1, a transcription factor, CREG1, an adenovirus E1A protein that both activates and represses gene expression promoting proliferation and inhibiting differentiation (G6) and BTG2 a G1/S transition regulator (G8). These data for copy number gain provides strong evidence for the prognostic relevance of of multiple drivers within deregulated TADs rather than single candidate genes. It also highlights the importance of the chromatin structure of Chr1 in the generation of these events. * Using dependency map CRISPR data we identified 320 essential genes for at least one cell line (>1). A common set of 31 genes were identified including 3 proteasome subunits (PSMA5, PSMB2, PSMB4), three regulators of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity (RPL5, RPL11, CDC20), splicing (SF3B4, SF3A3, SFPQ, RNPC3, SRNPE, PRPF38A, PRPF38B) and DTL. A common dependency for 1q+ or 1p- was not identified but a number of dependencies were identified in more than one cell line including UQCRH, SLCA1, CLSPN in 1p- cell lines and IPO9, PPIAL4G, and MRPS2 in 1q+. Conclusion We present an elegant anatomic map of chr1 at the genetic and epigenetic levels providing an unprecedented level of resolution for the relationships of structural variants to epigenetic, expression and mutation status. The analysis highlights the importance of active chromatin in gene deregulation by SV and CNA where the importance of multiple gene deregulation within TAD structures is critical to MM pathogenesis. The implications are that we could improve prognostic assignment and identify new targets for therapy by further characterizing these relationships. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Braunstein: Jansen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Adaptive: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; AstraZeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Epizyme: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Karyopharm: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Davies: Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Oncopeptides: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Constellation: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene/BMS: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.
Copyright
EMBASE:2016082367
ISSN: 0006-4971
CID: 5098702

Unifying the Definition of High-Risk in Multiple Myeloma [Meeting Abstract]

Siegel, A; Boyle, E M; Blaney, P; Wang, Y; Ghamlouch, H; Choi, J; Caro, J; Williams, L; Razzo, B; Arbini, A A; Braunstein, M; Kaminetzky, D; Auclair, D; Pawlyn, C; Cairns, D; Jackson, G; Walker, B; Bruno, B; Morgan, G J; Davies, F E
Introduction: There is considerable heterogeneity in the clinical outcome of newly diagnosed multiple-myeloma (NDMM) with some patients having a good prognosis while others fail to respond or relapse quickly after therapy progressing rapidly to death. Using risk scores based on clinical, biochemical and genetic features it is possible to predict some of this variation giving an ability to segment the disease into risk strata. Clinical studies have suggested that patients with standard-risk disease have benefited more from the recent advances in therapy compared to those with high-risk disease. The development of clinical trials specifically recruiting patients with high-risk disease features offers the potential to improve the outcome of a subgroup of patients with a very poor clinical outcome. To perform such studies is it important to have a unifying definition of high-risk including standard parameters, group size and outcome of individual risk strata so that clinical trial rigor can be achieved (e.g., common entry criteria, statistical power). In order to understand the size and feasibility of such studies we analyzed the Myeloma Genome Project (MGP) dataset to assess multiple risk factors and scores to determine and compare how they perform as risk stratifiers with each other.
Method(s): The MGP dataset is a large set of molecular and clinical data from 1273 patient with NDMM. Data were available on clinical variables (Albumin (Alb), B2-microglobulin (B2M), LDH, age), cytogenetic variables [t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), 17p-, TP53 mutations, 1q+ and 1p-] and gene expression analysis (GEP70). A literature search was used to identify risk models used in clinical studies. Survival analysis was performed in R. The median follow-up at the time of analysis was 54.5 (53.2-56.5) months.
Result(s): The median patient age was 66 years, with 641 (50.4%) patients over age 65. The sex ratio (M:F) was 1:0.66. African American, White, and Asian constituted 17%, 76%, and 2%, of cases respectively. 26.7% received a stem cell transplant. We determined the size of the strata and actual risk (measure by the hazard ratios, HR) compared to standard risk cases for both PFS and OS of the various clinical models available, data are summarized in Figure 1. When looking at individual risk scores, the HR for progression for t(4;14), TP53 inactivation (deletion and mutations), gain(1q), and del(1p) were 1.4, 1.1, 1.3, and 1.1 respectively. When considering overall survival these HR were 1.4, 1.7, 1.5, and 1.4 respectively. We went on to analyze the impact of these events in combination and show that combined, there is increased specificity, especially for OS (HR 2.3-5.1) but they identify small subsets making up <10% of patients. We then analyzed the purely clinical scores (ISS) and combined clinical/genetic scores. We show again, that the more specific risk scores (double hit, Boyd IV, GEP70) identify between 7-13% of cases with HR (2-3.1) for OS. When we looked specifically at the younger patients (=< 65), similar trends were seen with GEP70 by RNA-seq offering one of the most interesting means of identifying HR cases.
Conclusion(s): In this large NDMM dataset, we demonstrate the clear variation in risk groups that occur dependent upon the approach used resulting in heterogeneous levels of risk, strata size, and performance. With the exception of GEP70, none of the single features are sensitive or specific enough to identify all cases. Risk models based on a combination of markers improve the ability to detect true high-risk disease but there remains variability. At a molecular level the inclusion of TP53 inactivation, and 1q+ improve the performance of the ISS. This analysis provides insights into standardizing the definition of high-risk and the generation of consensus definitions for clinical trial entry. Figure 1 [Formula presented] Disclosures: Braunstein: Jansen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Adaptive: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; AstraZeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Epizyme: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Karyopharm: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Pawlyn: Celgene / BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Honoraria; Sanofi: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Cairns: Amgen: Research Funding; Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Celgene / BMS: Other: travel support, Research Funding. Jackson: GSK: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; celgene BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; J and J: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; oncopeptides: Consultancy; Sanofi: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Morgan: BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Jansen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Karyopharm: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Oncopeptides: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; GSK: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Davies: Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Oncopeptides: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Constellation: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene/BMS: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.
Copyright
EMBASE:2016062846
ISSN: 0006-4971
CID: 5099092

Hispanic or Latin American Ancestry Is Associated with a Similar Genomic Profile and a Trend Toward Inferior Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma As Compared to Non-Hispanic White Patients in the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF) CoMMpassstudy [Meeting Abstract]

Williams, L; Blaney, P; Boyle, E M; Ghamlouch, H; Wang, Y; Choi, J; Bauer, M A; Siegel, A; Stoeckle, J; Razzo, B; Auclair, D; Kaminetzky, D; Braunstein, M; Bruno, B; Arbini, A A; Walker, B A; Davies, F E; Morgan, G J
Introduction Large clinical data sets suggest that the natural history and prognosis of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) differs between patients of European and African ancestry, with the latter group exhibiting an earlier age at onset and poorer overall prognosis in some studies. The use of next generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize the genomic landscape of multiple myeloma (MM) suggests that the observed phenotypic differences between these groups of patients may reflect distinct underlying genomic profiles and mutational processes. Thus far, characterizations of this type have focused principally on patients of African ancestry (AA). Here, we characterize the genomic features and outcomes of a large series of patients of Hispanic or Latin American ancestry (HL) as compared to their Non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts. Methods Subjects were selected from the MMRF CoMMpass SM trial, a study that includes 1,154 patients with updated outcome data as of March, 2020. Within this data set, 760 patients had information on race and ethnicity. Among these, 55 HL patients and 478 NHW patients possessed complete clinical and genomic information. We analyzed baseline whole exome sequencing (WES) and long insert whole genome sequencing (WGS) as previously described (Walker, et al. Blood 2019). Our analysis focused on 63 known driver mutations in multiple myeloma and 39 sites of common copy number variation across the study population. Complex structural variants and tumor telomere length were called using previously described bioinformatic tools (Boyle et al. Leukemia 2021). Survival analysis was undertaken using the Kaplan-Meier method with hazard ratios determined by the Cox proportional hazards model. Results In a comparison of clinical features between the Hispanic and NHW population, we did not identify any differences in age of onset, gender, presenting cytogenetics, International Staging System Score (ISS), and IMWG Risk Category. The proportion of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation was similar between groups. We identified no statistically significant differences in the presence of characteristic translocations involving IgH locus or in hyperdiploidy status. No statistically significant differences in tumor mutational burden or loss-of-heterozygosity percentage emerged between HL and NHW patients. We examined non-synonymous variations (NSV) and copy number variations at the loci of known MM driver genes and encountered no statistically significant differences in NSV, copy number, or biallelic status. We further categorized genes into pathways relevant to the pathogenesis of MM and discovered no difference in the proportions of patients harboring mutations in genes related to the MEK/ERK and NF-kappaB pathways, cell cycle regulation, and epigenetic modification. We were unable to the distinguish either population based on the presence of chromothripsis or in the overall preponderance of an APOBEC mutational signature. Tumor telomere length was not significantly different between the populations. An analysis of overall and progression free survival (PFS) with a median duration of follow up of 44 months revealed a trend toward poorer outcomes among the HL population that did not reach statistical significance. Median PFS was 24 months in HL patients and 35 months in the NHW population (p = 0.19). Median OS was not reached in either ethnic subgroup. In terms of overall survival, age, ISS score, overall number of driver mutations, and the presence of chromothripsis emerged with a negative impact on outcome (Figures 1a, 1b). These variables with the exception of chromothripsis retained their significant impact on progression free survival (Figure 2a, 2b). Conclusion The correlation between Hispanic or Latin American ancestry and underlying disease biology in MM has yet to be fully elucidated. In our analysis, which was based on self-declared ancestry as opposed to admixture, no obvious differences in significant measures of genomic variation known to impact prognosis in MM emerged between HL and NHW patients. These results may help to inform the future large-scale studies to ascertain the impact of genomics, disease biology and socioeconomic factors on outcomes in this heterogeneous patient population. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Walker: Bristol Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Sanofi: Speakers Bureau. Morgan: BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Jansen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Karyopharm: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Oncopeptides: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.
Copyright
EMBASE:2016085983
ISSN: 1528-0020
CID: 5104232

Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide, Abatacept, and Short Course of Tacrolimus Combination (CAST) Is Safe and Seems Highly Effective in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease Following Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation [Meeting Abstract]

Al-Homsi, A S S; Cirrone, F; Cole, K; Stocker, K; Bruno, B; Suarez-Londono, J A; Goldberg, J; Abdul-Hay, M
The introduction of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has circumvented the need for T-cell depletion following haploidentical stem cell transplantation (SCT). By expanding the donor pool for patients from certain ethnic minorities, this has addressed to some degree an important health care disparity issue in SCT. However, a recent registry study showed increased incidence GvHD and inferior outcomes in patients receiving haploidentical SCT with PTCy, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for GvHD prevention as opposed to matched unrelated donor SCT with PTCy-based GvHD prevention. Seeking to improve the results of GvHD prevention in the setting of haploidentical SCT, we examined a combination of PTCy, abatacept and a short course of tacrolimus (CAST). Abatacept is a recombinant soluble fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) fused to the Fc region of IgG1. Abatacept blocks CD28-CD80I86 axis and prevents T-cell co-stimulation. In early studies, abatacept has shown promising results when added to methotrexate and tacrolimus in matched and mismatched donor SCT. We initiated a phase Ib-II clinical trial for patients with hematological malignancies undergoing haploidentical SCT. Patients received G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood grafts from related haploidentical donors. GvHD prevention consisted of PTCy 50mg/kg IV on day +3 and +4 with forced hydration, abatacept 10mg/kg IV on day +5, +14 and +28 and tacrolimus. Tacrolimus was started on day +5 at 0.02mg/kg/day by continuous IV and adjusted thereafter to maintain a trough level of 5-12ng/mL. Tacrolimus taper was planned to begin on day +60 and complete by day +90 in the absence of GvHD. All patients received standard supportive care including levofloxacin until neutrophil engraftment, posaconazole until day +75, acyclovir for 1 year and, if CMV positive by serology, letermovir until day +100. Pneumocystis Jiroveci prophylaxis was started after neutrophil engraftment and continued until 6 months post-transplant. G-CSF was administered routinely until neutrophil engraftment. Since September 2020, 19 patients were enrolled. Three patients are too early in their post-transplant course and were excluded from this analysis. Patients' characteristics are summarized in the table. All but 2 patients received cryopreserved products. Median times to ANC and platelet engraftment were 18.5 days (14-30) and 28.5 (16-61). All 16 patients achieved full whole blood donor chimerism by day +30. There was no secondary graft failure. With a median follow-up was 149.5 days (41-308) with 10 patients having >120 days and 8 >180 days of follow-up, 4 patients developed skin acute GvHD (all grade I). No patient developed grade II-IV acute GvHD. Two patients developed skin chronic GvHD (limited, both moderate). Both cases were diagnosed following COVID-19 vaccination. Fifteen patients completed tacrolimus taper by day +90. Two patients received systemic steroids, one for treatment of cGvHD. The remaining patients required no further immunosuppressive therapy beyond day +90. CMV activation rate was 25%. One patient had EBV reactivation and required preemptive therapy with 2 weekly rituximab doses. There were no cases of adenovirus, HHV-6 virus or BK virus reactivation. Four patients developed renal insufficiency (3 in the setting of acute sepsis and 1 with thrombotic microangiopathy, which resolved after tapering off tacrolimus. One patient with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma relapsed and died. All other patients are alive and well. In summary, our preliminary results suggest that CAST with shortened course of tacrolimus is feasible and seems to offer very promising outcomes with low rates of acute GvHD. The study is accruing actively and the results of a larger cohort with longer follow-up will be presented at the meeting. If confirmed, by improving the outcomes of haploidentical SCT, this regimen may further address a health care disparity issue, offering almost every patient in need of allogeneic SCT an alternative donor option with equal outcomes. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Al-Homsi: Daichii Sanyko: Consultancy; Celyad: Other: Advisory Board. Abdul-Hay: Abbvie: Consultancy; Servier: Other: Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau; Jazz: Other: Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. OffLabel Disclosure: Abatacept - off label use as GvHD prevention Cyclophosphamide - off label use as GvHD prevention
Copyright
EMBASE:2016079654
ISSN: 1528-0020
CID: 5104312

Post-Transplant High Dose Cyclophosphamide and Bortezomib As Graft-Versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation [Meeting Abstract]

Bruno, B; Cirrone, F; Cole, K; Stocker, K; Abdul-Hay, M; Suarez-Londono, J A; Hochman, T; Goldberg, J; Al-Homsi, A S S
Introduction. Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) remains a major challenge. The combination of methotrexate (MTX) and a calcineurin inhibitor has been the standard regimen for prophylaxis in patients receiving matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants for the past few decades. However, over 50% of patients undergoing AHCT still develop acute or chronic GvHD or even both, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, calcineurin inhibitors also have untoward toxic side effects. High dose post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), initially introduced for GvHD prevention in the setting of haploidentical transplantation, has now been studied in MSD and MUD transplants. We adopted a novel approach to prevent GvHD using a short course of PTCy and bortezomib. We hypothesized that such combination is safe and effective and omits the need for calcineurin or m-TOR inhibitors. Study Design. We report the outcomes of a prospective cohort of patients who received PTCy and bortezomib for GvHD prevention following MSD or MUD transplants. Twenty-eight patients were treated in a phase I-II trial and their clinical outcomes were previously reported (al-Homsi AS et al, BBMT 2019). Most of the remaining patients were treated on an extension trial. GvHD prevention consisted of PTCy 50 mg/kg IV on day +3 and +4, and bortezomib 1.3mg/m 2 IV 6 hours after transplant and again 72 hours after. Patients receiving MUD transplants also received rabbit ATG (thymoglobulin) 5mg/kg total IV fractionated on day -4 to -2. All patients received peripheral blood grafts and standard supportive care as per Institutional policy. G-CSF was administered routinely until neutrophil engraftment. Results. Fifty-eight patients are included in this analysis. Median age was 60 (range 22-78) years. Fifty-three percent of patients were male. Underlying malignancies consisted of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies in 79.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Acute myeloid leukemia (50%) and myelodysplastic syndromes (24.1%) were the most common diseases. At transplant, disease risk index was low, intermediate, high and very high in 19.0%, 48.3%, 31.0% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Median Pretransplant Assessment of Mortality Score (PAM) was 16.7 (5.4-29.4). Grafts were from MSD in 24.1% or MUD in 75.9% of patients. Recipient (R)/Donor (D) CMV status at transplant was as follows: R+/D+: 43%; R+/D-: 21%; R-/D+: 14% and R-/D-: 22%. Conditioning regimens consisted of reduced intensity fludarabine and busulfan in all but 2 patients who were conditioned with myeloablative fludarabine and busulfan. Overall, the regimen was remarkably well tolerated. Median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 16 (13-28) and 26 (15-57) days respectively. No patient experienced primary graft failure. CMV and EBV reactivation rates were 46.6% and 24%. Cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD were 35% (95% CI: 22%-47%) and 15% (95% CI: 7%-25%) at day +120, respectively. Cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 14% at 1 year. Overall, 34% of patients required immunosuppression with systemic steroids after day +4 either for grade III-IV acute or chronic GvHD. Disease relapse rate was 26%. One-year cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 14% (95% CI: 6%-25%). Median overall survival was 30.7 (95% CI: 15.7-not yet reached) months. One-year overall survival was 72% (95% CI: 57%-82%). One-year composite GvHD (acute and chronic) free and relapse free survival (GRFS) was 41.6% (95% CI: 28.9%-54%). Conclusion. PTCy and bortezomib combination for GvHD prophylaxis following MSD and MUD transplants is well tolerated and effective. It offers an alternative regimen to calcineurin and m-TOR inhibitor-containing regimens and may be preferred in certain settings including patients with limited resources, poor medication compliance, and with impaired renal function. A comparison of this cohort to a matched control group of patients receiving methotrexate and cyclosporine for GvHD prevention is ongoing. Disclosures: Abdul-Hay: Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Servier: Other: Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau; Jazz: Other: Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau; Abbvie: Consultancy; Takeda: Speakers Bureau. Al-Homsi: Celyad: Other: Advisory Board; Daichii Sanyko: Consultancy. OffLabel Disclosure: Cyclophosphamide and Bortezomib are used for GvHD prevention
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EMBASE:2016085618
ISSN: 1528-0020
CID: 5104412