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Relationship between hemoglobin A1C and characteristics of plaque vulnerability in stable coronary disease: an optical coherence tomography study

Ueyama, Hiroki; Yasumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Naotaka; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Barman, Nitin; Benhuri, Benjamin; Kapur, Vishal; Hasan, Choudhury; Sweeny, Joseph; Sharma, Samin K; Narula, Jagat; Kini, Annapoorna S; Baber, Usman
Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of cardiovascular events. We aimed to analyze the impact of serum HbA1c levels on coronary plaque characteristics in stable coronary disease. Two hundred sixty-one patients who underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination before elective percutaneous coronary intervention for a de novo obstructive lesions were included in this single-center retrospective analysis. Patients were divided into tertiles according to HbA1c level (tertile 1: HbA1c < 6.3%, tertile 2: 6.3 ≤ HbA1c < 7.8%, tertile 3: HbA1c ≥ 7.8%) and OCT findings were compared. Fibrous cap thickness (FCT) was significantly thinner in tertile 3 compared to tertile 1 and tertile 2 (103.9 ± 48.2 µm [tertile 1] vs. 107.5 ± 60.6 µm [tertile 2] vs. 86.2 ± 35.8 µm [tertile 3], p = 0.03). Higher prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was observed in tertile 3 vs tertile 1 and tertile 2 (19.5% [tertile 1] vs. 19.5% [tertile 2] vs. 33.3% [tertile 3], p = 0.04). HbA1c inversely correlated with FCT (beta coefficient - 4.89, 95% confidence interval - 8.40 to - 1.39, p < 0.01). The logistic regression model revealed that the probability of having TCFA was positively associated with HbA1c with a small change in the range of low and medium HbA1c and a big change in the range of high HbA1c. Furthermore, minimal lumen area and reference lumen area were smaller in tertile 3. In patients with stable coronary disease, high serum HbA1c levels are associated with higher plaque burden and thinner FCT on OCT, while low and medium HbA1c levels result in similar plaque vulnerability.
PMID: 34988782
ISSN: 1875-8312
CID: 5150662

Orbital Atherectomy for Treatment of Severely Calcified Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions: A Multicenter Analysis

Sturm, Robert; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Benhuri, Benjamin; Okamoto, Naotaka; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Shlofmitz, Evan; Revtyak, George E; Martinsen, Brad J; Igyarto, Zsuzsanna; Valle, Javier A; Waldo, Stephen W; Aksut, Baran; Bell, Sean; Gardner, Ryan; Lee, Michael; Zakir, Ramzan; Shroff, Adhir; Don, Creighton; Shlofmitz, Richard; Chambers, Jeffrey W; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin
OBJECTIVE:This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of orbital atherectomy (OA) for the treatment of severely calcified coronary artery bifurcation lesions. BACKGROUND:Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of severely calcified coronary artery lesions is associated with lower procedural success and higher rates of target lesion failure compared to non-calcified lesions. OA is an effective treatment for calcified coronary artery lesions prior to stent implantation. However, there is little data regarding the safety and efficacy of OA in patients with coronary artery bifurcation lesions. METHODS:Data were obtained from analysis of patients with severe coronary artery calcification who underwent OA and coronary stent implantation at ten high-volume institutions. Data were pooled and analyzed to assess peri-procedural outcomes and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE). RESULTS:A total of 1156 patients were treated with OA and PCI. 363 lesions were at a coronary artery bifurcation. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between the bifurcation and non-bifurcation groups. In the bifurcation group, treatment involved the left anterior descending artery and its branches more frequently and right coronary artery less frequently. After propensity score matching, the 30-day freedom from MACE was not statistically significant between the two groups. CONCLUSION:In this multicenter cohort analysis, patients with severely calcified coronary bifurcation lesions had low rates of MACE and target vessel revascularization at 30 days at rates comparable to non-bifurcation lesions. This analysis demonstrates that OA is safe and effective for complex coronary lesions at both bifurcation and non-bifurcation locations.
PMID: 33168436
ISSN: 1878-0938
CID: 5150652

Procedural and 1-year clinical outcomes of orbital atherectomy for treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis: A single-center, retrospective study

Yasumura, Keisuke; Benhuri, Benjamin; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Petrov, Artiom; Barman, Nitin; Sweeny, Joseph; Kapur, Vishal; Suleman, Javed; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the procedural and 1-year clinical outcomes of orbital atherectomy (OA) for treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR). BACKGROUND:The optimal treatment for ISR remains uncertain. While rotational and laser atherectomy have been used as neointimal debulking techniques for ISR, there have been few reports on OA for ISR. METHODS:This is a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ISR with OA in Mount Sinai catheterization laboratory between November 2013 and January 2018. Procedural success was defined as angiographic success without in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE; the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction [MI], or target vessel revascularization). Clinical outcomes were assessed at 1 month and 12 months postprocedure. RESULTS:A total of 87 patients were included in the study. All 87 patients were treated with OA, after which 49 (56.3%) patients also received new drug-eluting stents. Angiographic success was achieved in 87 (100%) patients and procedural success was achieved in 79 (90.8%) patients. In-hospital MACE occurred in 8 (9.2%) patients, all due to periprocedural non-Q-wave MI. Acute lumen gain was 1.19 ± 0.57 mm after OA plus balloon angioplasty and 1.75 ± 0.50 mm after stent placement. MACE within 1 year occurred in 17 (19.5%) patients. CONCLUSIONS:OA for ISR was performed with favorable procedural and 1-year clinical outcomes. Randomized trials are warranted to determine whether OA improves the poor prognosis of patients with ISR treated without debulking.
PMID: 32558218
ISSN: 1522-726x
CID: 4485312

PCSK9 Inhibitors and Ezetimibe Monotherapy in Patients Not Receiving Statins: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

Benhuri, Benjamin; Ueyama, Hiroki; Takagi, Hisato; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Kuno, Toshiki
BACKGROUND:Statins are the mainstay of treatment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, however, some patients cannot tolerate statins because of adverse effects. Ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) are alternative treatment options. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare LDL-C reduction with ezetimibe vs PCSK9i in patients not on statins. METHODS:PubMed and EMBASE were searched until 14th March 2020 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of ezetimibe vs PCSK9i in patients not on statins. The primary outcome was a reduction in LDL-C levels. A subgroup analysis of statin intolerant patients was also performed. RESULTS:=0]. CONCLUSION:Among patients who are statin intolerant or not receiving statins, PCSK9i use is associated with significantly lower LDL-C levels than after treatment with ezetimibe. PCSK9i might be useful in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in this subset of patients.
PMID: 32767943
ISSN: 1875-6212
CID: 5150642

Mechanism and biomarkers in aortitis--a review

Benhuri, Benjamin; ELJack, Ammar; Kahaleh, Bashar; Chakravarti, Ritu
Aortitis can be the manifestation of an underlying infectious or noninfectious disease process. An autoimmune cause is suggested in a large proportion of noninfectious causes. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, the pathophysiology of aortitis has been investigated in detail, but the etiology remains unknown. Most cases of aortitis often go undetected for a long time and are often identified at late stages of the disease. Recent advances in imaging techniques have significantly improved the diagnosis of aortitis. However, significant challenges associated with the imaging techniques limit their use. Several routine inflammation-based markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and inflammatory cytokines, are nonspecific and, therefore, have limited use in the diagnosis of aortitis. The search for more specific serum biomarkers, which can facilitate detection and progression is under progress. Several autoantibodies have been identified, but assigning their role in the pathogenesis as well as their specificity remains a challenge. The current review addresses some of these issues in detail. KEY MESSAGES: • Noninfectious aortitis is an autoimmune disease. • Several biomarkers, including cytokines and autoantibodies, are increased in aortitis. • Imaging techniques, commonly used to detect aortitis, are associated with the high cost and technical challenges. • There is a need to develop low-cost biomarker-based detection tools. • The knowledge of biomarkers in aortitis detection is discussed.
PMID: 31664480
ISSN: 1432-1440
CID: 5150632

Incidence and risk of developing photosensitivity with targeted anticancer therapies [Letter]

Ciccolini, Kathryn T; Kim, Joseph; Chaudhari, Soham P; Lucas, Anna Skripnik; Benhuri, Benjamin; Duran, Juanita; Wu, Shenhong; Lacouture, Mario E
PMID: 30731178
ISSN: 1097-6787
CID: 5150622