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The structural and social determinants of Alzheimer's disease related dementias

Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; George, Kristen M; Besser, Lilah M; Hyun, Jinshil; Lamar, Melissa; Hill-Jarrett, Tanisha G; Bubu, Omonigho M; Flatt, Jason D; Heyn, Patricia C; Cicero, Ethan C; Zarina Kraal, A; Pushpalata Zanwar, Preeti; Peterson, Rachel; Kim, Boeun; Turner, Robert W; Viswanathan, Jaya; Kulick, Erin R; Zuelsdorff, Megan; Stites, Shana D; Arce Rentería, Miguel; Tsoy, Elena; Seblova, Dominika; Ng, Ted K S; Manly, Jennifer J; Babulal, Ganesh
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The projected growth of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD-related dementia (ADRD) cases by midcentury has expanded the research field and impelled new lines of inquiry into structural and social determinants of health (S/SDOH) as fundamental drivers of disparities in AD/ADRD. METHODS:In this review, we employ Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory as a framework to posit how S/SDOH impact AD/ADRD risk and outcomes. RESULTS:Bronfenbrenner defined the "macrosystem" as the realm of power (structural) systems that drive S/SDOH and that are the root cause of health disparities. These root causes have been discussed little to date in relation to AD/ADRD, and thus, macrosystem influences, such as racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia, are the emphasis in this paper. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Under Bronfenbrenner's macrosystem framework, we highlight key quantitative and qualitative studies linking S/SDOH with AD/ADRD, identify scientific gaps in the literature, and propose guidance for future research. HIGHLIGHTS/CONCLUSIONS:Ecological systems theory links structural/social determinants to AD/ADRD. Structural/social determinants accrue and interact over the life course to impact AD/ADRD. Macrosystem is made up of societal norms, beliefs, values, and practices (e.g., laws). Most macro-level determinants have been understudied in the AD/ADRD literature.
PMID: 37074203
ISSN: 1552-5279
CID: 5464452

Exploring the combined effects of sleep apnea and APOE-e4 on biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease

Turner, Arlener D.; Locklear, Clarence E.; Oruru, Daisha; Briggs, Anthony Q.; Bubu, Omonigho M.; Seixas, Azizi
Objective: We determined the interactive associations of apolipoprotein e4 (APOE-e4), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease and examined for racial/ethnic differences of this association. Methods: We used data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Dataset (NACC UDS). All participants undergo annual observations, including demographic survey, battery of neuropsychological tests, blood draw (with genotyping), and a clinical evaluation with medical and cognitive/dementia status assessment, while a subset of participants have cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and neuroimaging data. Biomarkers of AD were characterized as the presence of abnormally low amyloid in CSF, via validated Aβ42 cut off protocols, and total segmented hippocampal volume, and volume of white matter hyper intensities (WMH). While clinical markers (to preview cognitive relationships) were characterized via the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). Results: Biomarker and clinical marker data were derived from 1,387 participants at baseline (mean age = 69.73 � 8.32; 58.6% female; 13.7% Black/African American), 18.4% of the sample had sleep apnea, and 37.9% were APOE-e4 carriers. Our results confirmed previous reports that OSA and APOE-e4 were independently associated with AD through abnormal levels of amyloid (F(1,306) = 4.27; p = 0.040; F(1,285) = 60.88; p < 0.000, respectively), WMH volume (F(1,306) = 4.27; p = 0.040; F(1,285) = 60.88; p < 0.000, respectively), and MOCA scores (F(1,306) = 4.27; p = 0.040; F(1,285) = 60.88; p < 0.000, respectively). No significant interaction between OSA and APOE-e4 relative to amyloid emerged, however, race stratified analyses indicated the interaction of OSA and APOE-e4 and was significantly associated with WMH and hippocampal volume in Black/African American, but not white participants. Conclusion: OSA and APOE-e4 are interactively associated with WHM in Black/African Americans. This interaction may partially explicate increased levels of risk in this population.
ISSN: 1663-4365
CID: 5423842

Editorial: Additive or synergistic impacts of sleep, circadian rhythm disturbances and other modifiable risk factors on established and novel plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology

Bubu, Omonigho M.; Kam, Korey; Parekh, Ankit; Ayappa, Indu
ISSN: 1663-4365
CID: 5460032

Discrimination and Hypertension Among Older African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: The Moderating Effects of John Henryism

Nguyen, Ann W; Miller, David; Bubu, Omonigho M; Taylor, Harry O; Cobb, Ryon; Trammell, Antoine R; Mitchell, Uchechi A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Discrimination is a major contributor to health disparities between Black and White older adults. Although the health effects of discrimination are well established, less is known about factors that may intervene in the discrimination-health connection, such as coping strategies. The study aim was to determine whether John Henryism (JH; high-effort coping) moderates the association between racial discrimination and hypertension in nationally representative samples of older African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. METHODS:The analytic sample was drawn from the National Survey of American Life-Reinterview, which was conducted 2001-2003, and included African Americans (N = 546) and Caribbean Blacks (N = 141) aged 55 and older. Study variables included racial discrimination, JH, and hypertension. Logistic regressions, which controlled key sociodemographic differences, were used to test the study aim. RESULTS:Among both Black ethnic groups, discrimination and JH were not associated with hypertension. For African Americans low and moderate in JH, discrimination was unrelated to hypertension; discrimination was positively associated with hypertension for African Americans high in JH. For Caribbean Blacks, discrimination was positively associated with hypertension among respondents low in JH. Among Caribbean Blacks moderate and high in JH, discrimination was not associated with hypertension. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The findings indicate that JH, in the face of discrimination, is associated with hypertension of older African Americans but may be an effective coping strategy for older Caribbean Blacks due to cultural and sociodemographic differences between the 2 ethnic groups. Future research should investigate the differing mechanisms by which JH influences health in heterogeneous older Black populations.
PMID: 34978323
ISSN: 1758-5368
CID: 5106862

Acute OSA Impacts Diurnal Alzheimer's Biomarkers Through Nocturnal Hypoxemia and State Transitions

Kam, Korey; Jun, Jonathan; Parekh, Ankit; Bubu, Omonigho M; Mullins, Anna E; Gu, Chenjuan; Pham, Luu; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu; Osorio, Ricardo S; Varga, Andrew W
PMID: 35696622
ISSN: 1535-4970
CID: 5282532

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension with Longitudinal β-Amyloid Burden and Cognitive Changes

Bubu, Omonigho M; Kaur, Sonya S; Mbah, Alfred K; Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie Q; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Debure, Ludovic; Mullins, Anna E; Parekh, Ankit; Kam, Korey; Osakwe, Zainab T; Williams, Ellita T; Turner, Arlener D; Glodzik, Lidia; Rapoport, David M; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Fieremans, Els; de Leon, Mony J; Ayappa, Indu; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Masurkar, Arjun V; Varga, Andrew W; Osorio, Ricardo S
PMID: 35550019
ISSN: 1535-4970
CID: 5213082

A Social Media-Based Diabetes Intervention for Low-Income Mandarin-Speaking Chinese Immigrants in the United States: Feasibility Study

Hu, Lu; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Wu, Bei; Feldman, Naumi; Tamura, Kosuke; Jiang, Nan; Lim, Sahnah; Wang, Chan; Bubu, Omonigho M; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sevick, Mary Ann
BACKGROUND:Chinese immigrants bear a high diabetes burden and face significant barriers to accessing diabetes self-management education (DSME) and counseling programs. OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability and to pilot test the potential efficacy of a social media-based DSME intervention among low-income Chinese immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in New York City. METHODS:), self-efficacy, dietary intake, and physical activity, were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and paired 2-sided t tests were used to summarize the baseline characteristics and changes before and after the intervention. RESULTS:level was 7.3% (SD 1.3%), and this level declined by 0.5% (95% CI -0.8% to -0.2%; P=.003) at 6 months. The mean satisfaction score was 9.9 (SD 0.6) out of 10, indicating a high level of satisfaction with the program. All strongly agreed or agreed that they preferred this video-based DSME over face-to-face visits. Compared to baseline, there were significant improvements in self-efficacy, dietary, and physical activity behaviors at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study demonstrated that a social media-based DSME intervention is feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious in a low-income Chinese immigrant population with T2D. Future studies need to examine the efficacy in an adequately powered clinical trial.
PMID: 35544298
ISSN: 2561-326x
CID: 5214462

Platelet Function Is Associated With Dementia Risk in the Framingham Heart Study

Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Johnson, Andrew D; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Salinas, Joel; Berger, Jeffrey S; Fillmore, Nathanael R; Do, Nhan; Zheng, Chunlei; Kovbasyuk, Zanetta; Ardekani, Babak A; Nunzio, Pomara; Bubu, Omonigho M; Parekh, Ankit; Convit, Antonio; Betensky, Rebecca A; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Osorio, Ricardo S
Background Vascular function is compromised in Alzheimer disease (AD) years before amyloid and tau pathology are detected and a substantial body of work shows abnormal platelet activation states in patients with AD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether platelet function in middle age is independently associated with future risk of AD. Methods and Results We examined associations of baseline platelet function with incident dementia risk in the community-based FHS (Framingham Heart Study) longitudinal cohorts. The association between platelet function and risk of dementia was evaluated using the cumulative incidence function and inverse probability weighted Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression models, with adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates. Platelet aggregation response was measured by light transmission aggregometry. The final study sample included 1847 FHS participants (average age, 53.0 years; 57.5% women). During follow-up (median, 20.5 years), we observed 154 cases of incident dementia, of which 121 were AD cases. Results from weighted models indicated that platelet aggregation response to adenosine diphosphate 1.0 µmol/L was independently and positively associated with dementia risk, and it was preceded in importance only by age and hypertension. Sensitivity analyses showed associations with the same directionality for participants defined as adenosine diphosphate hyper-responders, as well as the platelet response to 0.1 µmol/L epinephrine. Conclusions Our study shows individuals free of antiplatelet therapy with a higher platelet response are at higher risk of dementia in late life during a 20-year follow-up, reinforcing the role of platelet function in AD risk. This suggests that platelet phenotypes may be associated with the rate of dementia and potentially have prognostic value.
PMID: 35470685
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5215632

Age-associated differences in sleep duration in the US population: potential effects of disease burden

Jean-Louis, Girardin; Shochat, Tamar; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Briggs, Anthony Q; Williams, Ellita T; Jin, Peng; Bubu, Omonigho Michael; Seixas, Azizi A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We contrasted the relative risks (RR) of short [<7 h] and long [>8 h] sleep experienced by middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (≥65 years) adults, compared with young adults (20-44 years). METHODS:We utilized NHANES data (2005-2016), capturing sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health-related data among US adults. RESULTS:The Relative Risk (RR) of short sleep between young and middle-aged adults did not differ [RR = 1.02, NS]. However, the RR of short sleep was significantly reduced among older participants [RR = 0.81, p < 0.01]. Middle-aged adults had significantly lower RR of long sleep [RR = 0.80, p < 0.01], whereas older adults had significantly greater RR of long sleep [RR = 1.41, p < 0.01]. Compared with young adults, older adults with or without increased disease burden had significantly lower RR of short sleep [RR = 0.81, p < 0.01 and RR = 0.80, p < 0.01], respectively. However, for middle-aged adults, the RR of short sleep did not differ whether they reported a greater disease burden. Relative to young adults, older adults with or without disease burden had higher RRs of long sleep [RR = 1.39, p < 0.01] and [RR = 1.45, p < 0.01], respectively. For middle-aged adults without disease burden, the RR of long sleep was lower than among young adults [RR = 0.72, p < 0.01]. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with young adults, older adults were not at increased risk for short sleep. Rather, they reported longer sleep time regardless of the presence of disease burden. Future studies should investigate longitudinal effects of aging on objective sleep time, with or without common diseases.
PMID: 34619501
ISSN: 1878-5506
CID: 5037152

Association between Influenza Vaccination and severe COVID-19 outcomes at a designated COVID-only hospital in Brooklyn

Umasabor-Bubu, Ogie Q; Bubu, Omonigho M; Mbah, Alfred K; Nakeshbandi, Mohamed; Taylor, Tonya N
Maintaining influenza vaccination at high coverage has the potential to prevent a proportion of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. We examined whether flu-vaccination is associated with severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, as measured by intensive care unit (ICU)-admission, ventilator-use, and mortality. Other outcome measures included hospital length of stay and total ICU days. Our findings showed that flu-vaccination was associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of an ICU admission especially among aged <65 and non-obese patients. Public health promotion of flu-vaccination may help mitigate the overwhelming demand for critical COVID-19 care pending the large-scale availability of COVID-19 vaccines.
PMID: 33891988
ISSN: 1527-3296
CID: 4910482