Nongenital dermatologic disease in HIV-infected women
BACKGROUND: Dermatologic disease in HIV-infected women has not been adequately characterized. OBJECTIVE: The main purposes of this study were to characterize nongenital dermatologic disease in HIV-infected women and correlate these diagnoses with CD4 lymphocyte count to compare these findings with those in published reports of men. METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review of female patients with dermatologic diagnoses followed up at an HIV clinic in New York City, seen by either a dermatologist (49 patients) and/or a primary care practitioner (114 patients). CD4 lymphocyte count was recorded if available within 6 months of diagnosis; mean CD4 count was calculated for all disorders with 5 or more diagnoses. RESULTS: Oropharyngeal candidiasis, drug eruption, dermatophytosis, rash (not otherwise specified), nongenital herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and seborrheic dermatitis were the most prevalent diagnoses made by primary care providers. Itchy red bump disease, acne, atopic dermatitis, xerosis, seborrheic dermatitis, nongenital warts, and molluscum contagiosum were the most prevalent diagnoses made by the dermatologist. Mean CD4 lymphocyte count was lowest in itchy red bump disease, nongenital warts, nongenital herpes simplex, xerosis, and drug eruptions. CONCLUSION: There appears to be no appreciable difference in the spectrum or prevalence of dermatologic disease in HIV-infected women versus HIV-infected men, except for a lower prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, and possibly onychomycosis in women. The degree of immunosuppression associated with various dermatoses in HIV-infected women is similar to that in men, except perhaps for molluscum contagiosum, which may appear earlier in women.
Alternative medicine and dermatology
Because of increasing interest in the treatment and prevention of disease using nonconventional modalities, particularly in Western countries, it is important for practitioners of traditional Western medicine to remain open-minded about the use of alternative treatments. If the patient perceives the physician to be disapproving of the use of alternative treatments, she may not divulge the use of such treatments to the physician, even though alternative treatments can lead to adverse effects and to drug-herb interactions. The demographics and the reasons why patients seek alternative treatment are discussed. The scientific literature on the use of herbal and physical modalities is reviewed. Because of the large body of literature on the use of herbal remedies, the emphasis is on the current, most popular herbs in use by the general population, as well as on herbs used specifically for dermatologic disease.
Chronic actinic dermatitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection [Case Report]
Chronic actinic dermatitis is a photodistributed, eczematous dermatitis that preferentially affects elderly men and persists for months to years. Its occurrence in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been described in five patients. We report four additional cases of this uncommon, chronic photodermatosis associated with HIV infection. In two of the patients, photosensitivity was a presenting disorder leading to the diagnosis of HIV infection. All patients were men of skin type VI with a mean age of 50 years, all had decreased minimal erythema doses to ultraviolet B, three of the four patients had decreased minimal erythema doses to ultraviolet A and all had CD4 cell counts of < 200 x 10(6)/L
Nonhealing leg ulcer [Case Report]
Treatment of skin diseases in HIV-infected patients
Skin diseases are common in HIV-infected patients. Although some of the cutaneous manifestations of HIV-infection resemble more severe forms of common skin diseases, as with seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis, the response to standard treatment is not as expected. Indeed, this may be the clue that leads the clinician to suspect underlying HIV infection. In addition, hitherto undescribed skin diseases have been seen in the HIV-infected population, for many of which treatment has been discovered serendipitously. It is important for both the dermatologist and the patient to recognize that many of the cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection are difficult to treat because of the underlying immunosuppression. It may not be possible to "cure" a skin disease, but the goal in these cases is to make the patient as comfortable as possible by providing symptomatic relief. Often, imagination is required of the practitioner to find the treatment that will make the patient more comfortable. With patience and determination, the dermatologist can help most patients with HIV-related skin disease.
Chronic actinic dermatitis. An analysis of 51 patients evaluated in the United States and Japan
BACKGROUND AND DESIGN: We studied the clinical and photobiologic features of 51 patients with chronic actinic dermatitis who were evaluated at three institutions. The following criteria for patient selection were used: (1) a persistent eczematous eruption in the sun-exposed areas of greater than 3 months' duration; (2) decreased phototest results; and (3) when available, histologic changes of a dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes and macrophages, with or without epidermal spongiosis and atypical mononuclear cells in the dermis and epidermis. RESULTS: The 51 patients had a mean age of 62.7 years, a male-to-female ratio of 2.6:1, and a mean duration of eruption of 5.8 years. The most common abnormal results of the phototests were decreased minimal erythema doses to both UV-A and UV-B, followed by decreased minimal erythema doses to UV-A alone. Patients with abnormally low responses to UV-A or visible light and normal minimal erythema doses to UV-B had the same clinical profile as the overall patient population. Aside from protection from sunlight, treatment modalities that have been used include PUVA (8-methoxypsoralen and UV-A) photochemotherapy, azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and, for recalcitrant cases, cyclosporine. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic actinic dermatitis is a persistent photodermatosis associated with abnormal phototest responses to UV-A, and/or UV-B, and/or increased sensitivity to visible light; histopathologic changes are consistent with photodermatitis. Treatment consists of combinations of topical and oral medications
Chronic actinic dermatitis. An immunohistochemical study of its T-cell antigenic profile, with comparison to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) describes a persistent photosensitivity disorder in the absence of continued exposure to photosensitizers; it is characterized by a T-cell infiltrate within the epidermis and dermis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the T-cell infiltrate better immunohistochemically. Serial cryostat sections of fresh-frozen punch biopsy specimens of skin were analyzed in 11 patients with CAD and 3 patients with erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Monoclonal antibodies against the pan T-cell, pan B-cell, and T-cell subsets and the T cell-receptor (TCR) antigens were used. CD8-positive (T-suppressor-cytotoxic) cells were predominant in the epidermis of CAD, while CD4-positive (T-helper) cells were predominant in the epidermis and dermis of CTCL. CDw29-positive (T-memory) cells were predominant in all cases. The number of BF1 (beta-chain constant region of the TCR)-positive cells approximated the number of CD3-positive cells in all CAD cases but was significantly lower than the number of CD3-positive cells in two of three cases of CTCL. There was no clustering or preferential staining with any of the beta-chain variable-region antibodies in any of the specimens. These results indicate that CAD has a characteristic immunophenotype distinct from that of most cases of CTCL and that discordance between BF1 and CD3 expressions did not occur in the CAD cases
Blue vitiligo [Case Report]
The progression of vitiligo and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation simultaneously in a patient with AIDS led to the appearance of a blue color on much of the patient's skin. The blue coloration subsequently resolved with follicular repigmentation typical of resolving vitiligo. We believe this is the first reported case of "blue vitiligo."
CHRONIC ACTINIC DERMATITIS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 (HIV-1) INFECTION [Meeting Abstract]
CHRONIC ACTINIC DERMATITIS - A STUDY OF 51 PATIENTS EVALUATED IN THE US AND JAPAN [Meeting Abstract]