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A Novel COVID-19 Severity Score is Associated With Survival in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy

Hambrecht, Amanda; Krowsoski, Leandra; DiMaggio, Charles; Hong, Charles; Medina, Benjamin; Thomas McDevitt, John; McRae, Michael; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Uppal, Amit; Bukur, Marko
Introduction: Tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 is a controversial and difficult clinical decision. We hypothesized that a recently validated COVID-19 Severity Score (CSS) would be associated with survival in patients considered for tracheostomy. Methods: We reviewed 77 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients evaluated for decision for percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) from March to June 2020 at a public tertiary care center. Decision for PDT was based on clinical judgment of the screening surgeons. The CSS was retrospectively calculated using mean biomarker values from admission to time of PDT consult. Our primary outcome was survival to discharge, and all patient charts were reviewed through August 31, 2021. ROC curve and Youden index were used to estimate an optimal cut-point for survival. Results: The mean CSS for 42 survivors significantly differed from that of 35 nonsurvivors (CSS 52 versus 66, P = 0.003). The Youden index returned an optimal CSS of 55 (95% confidence interval 43-72), which was associated with a sensitivity of 0.8 and a specificity of 0.6. The median CSS was 40 (interquartile range 27, 49) in the lower CSS (<55) group and 72 (interquartile range 66, 93) in the high CSS (≥55 group). Eighty-seven percent of lower CSS patients underwent PDT, with 74% survival, whereas 61% of high CSS patients underwent PDT, with only 41% surviving. Patients with high CSS had 77% lower odds of survival (odds ratio = 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.7). Conclusions: Higher CSS was associated with decreased survival in patients evaluated for PDT, with a score ≥55 predictive of mortality. The novel CSS may be a useful adjunct in determining which COVID-19 patients will benefit from tracheostomy. Further prospective validation of this tool is warranted.
ISSN: 0022-4804
CID: 5393262

Hyper-Realistic Advanced Surgical Skills Package with Cut Suit Simulator Improves Trainee Surgeon Confidence in Operative Trauma

Chao, Edward; Liveris, Anna; Yusaf, Tricia; Batista, Gabriela; Diaz, Dajelyn; Cruz, Juan; Lee, Alex-Sungbae; Pohlman, Jessica; Andrews, Kiah; Bukur, Marko; Teperman, Sheldon; Klein, Michael J
BACKGROUND:Adequate exposure to operative trauma is not uniform across surgical residencies, and therefore it can be challenging to achieve competency during residency alone. This study introduced the Cut Suit surgical simulator with an Advanced Surgical Skills Package, which replicates traumatic bleeding and organ injury, into surgery resident training across multiple New York City trauma centers. METHODS:Trainees from 6 ACS-verified trauma centers participated in this prospective, observational trial. Groups of 3-5 trainees (post-graduate year 1-6) from 6 trauma centers within the largest public healthcare network in the U.S. participated. Residents were asked to perform various operative tasks including rescucitative thoracotomy, exploratory laprotomy, splenectomy, hepatorrhaphy, retroperitoneal exploration, and small bowel resection on a severely injured simulated patient. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to evaluate trainees' confidence performing these procedures and quizzes were used to evaluate participants' knowledge acquisition after the simulation. RESULTS:< .01). There was a significant increase in the proportion of residents reporting being "more confident" or "most confident" managing all procedures performed. Post-activity quiz scores improved by an average of 20.4 points. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The Cut Suit surgical simulator with ASSP is a realistic and useful adjunct in training surgeons to manage complex operative trauma.
PMID: 36450271
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5372432

When New York City was the COVID-19 pandemic epicenter: The impact on trauma care

Liveris, Anna; Stone, Melvin E; Markel, Harley; Agriantonis, George; Bukur, Marko; Melton, Sherry; Roudnitsky, Valery; Chao, Edward; Reddy, Srinivas H; Teperman, Sheldon H; Meltzer, James A
BACKGROUND:During early spring 2020, New York City (NYC) rapidly became the first US epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. With an unparalleled strain on health care resources, we sought to investigate the impact of the pandemic on trauma visits and mortality in the United States' largest municipal hospital system. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of the five level 1 trauma centers in NYC's public health care system, New York City's Health and Hospitals Corporation. Clinical characteristics, mechanism of injury, and mortality of trauma patients presenting during the early pandemic (March 1, 2020, to May 31, 2020) were compared with a similar period in the previous 2 years. To account for important patient and hospital-level confounding variables, we created a propensity score for treatment and applied inverse probability weighting. RESULTS:In March to May 2020, there was a 25% decrease in median number of monthly trauma visits (693 vs. 528; p = 0.02) but a 50% increase (15% vs. 22%; p = <0.001) in patients presenting for penetrating injuries, compared with the same period for 2018 and 2019. Injured patients with COVID were significantly more likely to die compared with those without COVID-19 (10.5% vs. 3.6%; p < 0.001). Overall, there was no significant difference in mortality for non-COVID-injured New Yorkers cared for in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019. Less severely injured non-COVID patients (Injury Severity Score, <15), however, were significantly more likely to die compared with this same subgroup in 2018 and 2019 (adjusted relative risk, 2.7 [95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.7]). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite a decline in overall trauma visits during the early part of the COVID pandemic in NYC, there was a significant increase in the proportion of penetrating mechanisms. Less-injured non-COVID patients experienced an increase in mortality in the early pandemic, possibly from a depletion of human and hospital resources from the large influx of COVID patients. These data lend support to the safeguarding of trauma system resources in the event of a future pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level III.
PMID: 35881035
ISSN: 2163-0763
CID: 5276342

A disturbing trend: An analysis of the decline in surgical critical care (SCC) fellowship training of Black and Hispanic surgeons

Hambrecht, Amanda; Berry, Cherisse; DiMaggio, Charles; Chiu, William; Inaba, Kenji; Frangos, Spiros; Krowsoski, Leandra; Greene, Wendy Ricketts; Issa, Nabil; Pugh, Carla; Bukur, Marko
BACKGROUND:Underrepresented minorities in medicine (URiM) are disproportionally represented in surgery training programs. Rates of URiM applying to and completing General Surgery residency remain low. We hypothesized that the patterns of URiM disparities would persist into Surgical Critical Care (SCC) fellowship applicants, matriculants and graduates. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of SCC applicants, matriculants and graduates from 2005-2020 using the Graduate Medical Education (GME) resident survey and analyzed applicant characteristics using the Surgical critical care and Acute care surgery Fellowship Application Service (SAFAS) from 2018-2020. The data were stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Indicator variables were created for Asian, Hispanic, White and Black trainees. Yearly proportions for each race/ethnicity and gender categories completing or enrolling in a program were calculated and plotted over time with Loess smoothing lines and overlying 95% confidence bands. The yearly rate and statistical significance of change over time were tested with linear regression models with race/ethnicity and gender proportion as the dependent variables and year as the explanatory variable. RESULTS:From 2005-2020, there were a total of 2,481 graduates. Black men accounted for 4.7% of male graduates with a significant decline of 0.3% per year for the study period of those completing the fellowship (p = 0.02). Black women comprised 6.4% of female graduates and had a 0.6% decline each year (p < 0.01). A similar trend was seen with Hispanic men, who comprised 3.2% of male graduates and had a 0.3% annual decline (p = 0.02). White men had a significant increase in both matriculation to and graduation from SCC fellowships during the same interval. Similarly, Black and Hispanic applicants declined from 2019 to 2020, while the percentage of White applicants increased. CONCLUSIONS:Disparities in URiM representation remain omnipresent in surgery and extend from residency training to SCC fellowship. Efforts to enhance the recruitment and retention of URiM in SCC training are warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV - Therapeutic/Care Management.
PMID: 35343928
ISSN: 2163-0763
CID: 5185002

Disparity in Transport of Critically Injured Patients to Trauma Centers: Analysis of the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS)

Escobar, Natalie; DiMaggio, Charles; Frangos, Spiros G; Winchell, Robert J; Bukur, Marko; Klein, Michael J; Krowsoski, Leandra; Tandon, Manish; Berry, Cherisse
BACKGROUND:Patient morbidity and mortality decrease when injured patients meeting CDC Field Triage Criteria (FTC) are transported by emergency medical services (EMS) directly to designated trauma centers (TCs). This study aimed to identify potential disparities in the transport of critically injured patients to TCs by EMS. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:We identified all patients in the National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) database in the National Association of EMS State Officials East region from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2019, with a final prehospital acuity of critical or emergent by EMS. The cohort was stratified into patients transported to TCs or non-TCs. Analyses consisted of descriptive epidemiology, comparisons, and multivariable logistic regression analysis to measure the association of demographic features, vital signs, and CDC FTC designation by EMS with transport to a TC. RESULTS:A total of 670,264 patients were identified as sustaining an injury, of which 94,250 (14%) were critically injured. Of those 94,250 critically injured, 56.0% (52,747) were transported to TCs. Among all critically injured women (n = 41,522), 50.4% were transported to TCs compared with 60.4% of critically injured men (n = 52,728, p < 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, critically injured women were 19% less likely to be taken to a TC compared with critically injured men (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.93, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS:Critically injured female patients are less likely to be transported to TCs when compared with their male counterparts. Performance improvement processes that assess EMS compliance with field triage guidelines should explicitly evaluate for sex-based disparities. Further studies are warranted.
PMID: 35703965
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5236672

Surgical Infection Society: Chest Wall Injury Society Recommendations for Antibiotic Use during Surgical Stabilization of Traumatic Rib or Sternal Fractures to Reduce Risk of Implant Infection

Forrester, Joseph D; Bukur, Marko; Dvorak, Justin E; Faliks, Bradley; Hindin, David; Kartiko, Susan; Kheirbek, Tareq; Lin, Leo; Manasa, Morgan; Martin, Thomas J; Miskimins, Richard; Patel, Bhavik; Pieracci, Fredric M; Ritter, Kaitlin A; Schubl, Sebastian D; Tung, Jamie; Huston, Jared M
PMID: 35522129
ISSN: 1557-8674
CID: 5213922

Examination of Intersectionality and the Pipeline for Black Academic Surgeons

Keshinro, Ajaratu; Butler, Paris; Fayanju, Oluwadamilola; Khabele, Dineo; Newman, Erika; Greene, Wendy; Ude Welcome, Akuezunkpa; Joseph, Kathie-Ann; Stallion, Anthony; Backhus, Leah; Frangos, Spiros; DiMaggio, Charles; Berman, Russell; Hasson, Rian; Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Stain, Steven; Bukur, Marko; Klein, Michael J; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Barry, Linda; Oseni, Tawakalitu; Martin, Colin; Johnson-Mann, Crystal; Smith, Randi; Karpeh, Martin; White, Cassandra; Turner, Patricia; Pugh, Carla; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Berry, Cherisse
Importance/UNASSIGNED:The lack of underrepresented in medicine physicians within US academic surgery continues, with Black surgeons representing a disproportionately low number. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate the trend of general surgery residency application, matriculation, and graduation rates for Black trainees compared with their racial and ethnic counterparts over time. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:In this nationwide multicenter study, data from the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) for the general surgery residency match and Graduate Medical Education (GME) surveys of graduating general surgery residents were retrospectively reviewed and stratified by race, ethnicity, and sex. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, time series plots, and simple linear regression for the rate of change over time. Medical students and general surgery residency trainees of Asian, Black, Hispanic or Latino of Spanish origin, White, and other races were included. Data for non-US citizens or nonpermanent residents were excluded. Data were collected from 2005 to 2018, and data were analyzed in March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Primary outcomes included the rates of application, matriculation, and graduation from general surgery residency programs. Results/UNASSIGNED:Over the study period, there were 71 687 applicants, 26 237 first-year matriculants, and 24 893 graduates. Of 71 687 applicants, 24 618 (34.3%) were women, 16 602 (23.2%) were Asian, 5968 (8.3%) were Black, 2455 (3.4%) were Latino, and 31 197 (43.5%) were White. Women applicants and graduates increased from 29.4% (1178 of 4003) to 37.1% (2293 of 6181) and 23.5% (463 of 1967) to 33.5% (719 of 2147), respectively. When stratified by race and ethnicity, applications from Black women increased from 2.2% (87 of 4003) to 3.5% (215 of 6181) (P < .001) while applications from Black men remained unchanged (3.7% [150 of 4003] to 4.6% [284 of 6181]). While the matriculation rate for Black women remained unchanged (2.4% [46 of 1919] to 2.3% [52 of 2264]), the matriculation rate for Black men significantly decreased (3.0% [57 of 1919] to 2.4% [54 of 2264]; P = .04). Among Black graduates, there was a significant decline in graduation for men (4.3% [85 of 1967] to 2.7% [57 of 2147]; P = .03) with the rate among women remaining unchanged (1.7% [33 of 1967] to 2.2% [47 of 2147]). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:Findings of this study show that the underrepresentation of Black physicians at every stage in surgical training pipeline persists. Black men are especially affected. Identifying factors that address intersectionality and contribute to the successful recruitment and retention of Black trainees in general surgery residency is critical for achieving racial and ethnic as well as gender equity.
PMID: 35138327
ISSN: 2168-6262
CID: 5171692

Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy at the Epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: Impact on Critical Care Resource Utilization and Early Outcomes

Krowsoski, Leandra; Medina, Benjamin D; DiMaggio, Charles; Hong, Charles; Moore, Samantha; Straznitskas, Andrew; Rogers, Charmel; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Uppal, Amit; Frangos, Spiros; Bukur, Marko
BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed New York City hospitals early in the pandemic. Shortages of ventilators and sedatives prompted tracheostomy earlier than recommended by professional societies. This study evaluates the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) in COVID+ patients on critical care capacity. METHODS:This is a single-institution prospective case series of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients undergoing PDT from April 1 to June 4, 2020 at a public tertiary care center. RESULTS:Fifty-five patients met PDT criteria and underwent PDT at a median of 13 days (IQR 10, 18) from intubation. Patient characteristics are found in Table 1. Intravenous midazolam, fentanyl, and cisatracurium equivalents were significantly reduced 48 hours post-PDT (Table 2). Thirty-five patients were transferred from the ICU and liberated from the ventilator. Median time from PDT to ventilator liberation and ICU discharge was 10 (IQR 4, 14) and 12 (IQR 8, 17) days, respectively. Decannulation occurred in 45.5% and 52.7% were discharged from acute inpatient care (Figure 1). Median follow-up for the study was 62 days. Four patients had bleeding complications postoperatively and 11 died during the study period. Older age was associated with increased odds of complication (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04, 1.23) and death (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.05, 1.30). All operators tested negative for COVID-19 during the study period. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheostomy within the standard time frame can improve critical care capacity in areas strained by the pandemic with low risk to operators. Long-term outcomes after PDT deserve further study.
PMID: 34766508
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 5050782

High resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta procedural volume is associated with improved outcomes: An analysis of the AORTA registry

Gorman, Elizabeth; Nowak, Brittany; Klein, Michael; Inaba, Kenji; Morrison, Jonathan; Scalea, Thomas; Seamon, Mark; Fox, Charles; Moore, Laura; Kauvar, David; Spalding, Marshall; Dubose, Joseph; DiMaggio, Charles; Livingston, David H; Bukur, Marko
BACKGROUND:The use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is controversial. We hypothesize that REBOA outcomes are improved in centers with high REBOA utilization. METHODS:We examined the Aortic Occlusion in Resuscitation for Trauma and Acute Care Surgery registry over a 5-year period (2014-2018). Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta outcomes were analyzed by stratifying institutions into low-volume (<10), average-volume (11-30), and high-volume (>30) deployment centers. A multivariable model adjusting for volume group, mechanism of injury, signs of life, systolic blood pressure at initiation, operator level, device type, zone of placement, and hemodynamic response to aortic occlusion was created to analyze REBOA mortality and REBOA-related complications. RESULTS:Four hundred ninety-five REBOA placements were included. High-volume centers accounted for 63%, while low accounted for 13%. High-volume institutions were more likely to place a REBOA in the emergency department (81% vs. 63% low volume, p = 0.003), had a lower mean systolic blood pressure at insertion (53 ± 38 vs. 64 ± 40, p = 0.001), and more Zone I deployments (64% vs. 55%, p = 0.002). Median time from admission to REBOA placement was significantly less in patients treated at high-volume centers (15 [7-30] minutes vs. 35 [20-65] minutes, p = 0.001). Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta mortality was significantly higher at low-volume centers (67% vs. 57%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; adj p = 0.040), while average- and high-volume centers were similar. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta complications were less frequent at high-/average-volume centers, but did not reach statistical significance (adj p = 0.784). CONCLUSION:Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta survival is increased at high versus low utilization centers. Increased experience with REBOA may be associated with earlier deployment and subsequently improved patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic/Care Management, level IV.
PMID: 34695057
ISSN: 2163-0763
CID: 5042252

A Novel COVID-19 Severity Score Is Associated with Survival in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy [Meeting Abstract]

Hambrecht, A; Krowsoski, L; DiMaggio, C; Hong, C; Medina, B; McDevitt, J T; McRae, M; Mukherjee, V; Uppal, A; Bukur, M
Introduction: Tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is a controversial and difficult clinical decision. A recent COVID-19 Severity Score (CSS) was validated to identify high-risk patients requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that the CSS would be associated with survival in patients considered for tracheostomy.
Method(s): We reviewed 77 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients evaluated for percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) from March-June 2020 at a public tertiary care center. Decision for PDT was based on clinical judgment of the screening surgeons. The CSS was retrospectively calculated using mean biomarker values from admission to time of PDT consult. Primary end point was survival to discharge. The Youden index identified an optimal CSS cut point for survival.
Result(s): Mean CSS for 42 survivors vs 35 nonsurvivors was significantly different (CSS 52 vs 66; p = 0.003). The Youden index returned an optimal CSS of 55 (area under the curve 0.7; 95% CI, 43 to 72). Median CSS was 40 (interquartile range 27 to 49) in the Low CSS (<55 group) and 72 (interquartile range 66 to 93) in the high CSS (>= 55) group (Fig. 1a). Eighty-seven percent of low CSS patients underwent PDT, with 74% survival, and 61% of high CSS patients underwent PDT with only 41% surviving (Fig. 1b). Patients with high CSS had 77% lower odds of survival (odds ratio 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7).
Conclusion(s): Higher CSS was associated with decreased survival to discharge in patients evaluated for PDT, with a score > 55 predictive of mortality. The novel CSS can be a useful adjunct in determining which COVID-19 patients will benefit from tracheostomy. Further prospective validation of this tool is warranted. [Formula presented]
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5024592