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Utility of a 2D kinematic HASTE sequence in magnetic resonance imaging assessment of adjacent segment degeneration following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

Burke, Christopher J; Samim, Mohammad; Babb, James S; Walter, William R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate a dynamic half-Fourier acquired single turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) at the junctional level for adjacent segment degeneration comparing dynamic listhesis to radiographs and assessing dynamic cord contact and deformity during flexion-extension METHODS: Patients with ACDF referred for cervical spine MRI underwent a kinematic flexion-extension sagittal 2D HASTE sequence in addition to routine sequences. Images were independently reviewed by three radiologists for static/dynamic listhesis, and compared to flexion-extension radiographs. Blinded assessment of the HASTE sequence was performed for cord contact/deformity between neutral, flexion, and extension, to evaluate concordance between readers and inter-modality agreement. Inter-reader agreement for dynamic listhesis and impingement grade and inter-modality agreement for dynamic listhesis on MRI and radiographs was assessed using the kappa coefficient and percentage concordance. RESULTS:A total of 28 patients, mean age 60.2 years, were included. Mean HASTE acquisition time was 42 s. 14.3% demonstrated high grade dynamic stenosis (> grade 4) at the adjacent segment. There was substantial agreement for dynamic cord impingement with 70.2% concordance (kappa = 0.62). Concordance across readers for dynamic listhesis using HASTE was 81.0% (68/84) (kappa = 0.16) compared with 71.4% (60/84) (kappa = 0.40) for radiographs. Inter-modality agreement between flexion-extension radiographs and MRI assessment for dynamic listhesis across the readers was moderate (kappa = 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 0.67). CONCLUSIONS:A sagittal flexion-extension HASTE cine sequence provides substantial agreement between readers for dynamic cord deformity and moderate agreement between radiographs and MRI for dynamic listhesis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT/CONCLUSIONS:Degeneration of the adjacent segment with instability and myelopathy is one of the most common causes of pain and neurological deterioration requiring re-operation following cervical fusion surgery. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• A real-time kinematic 2D sagittal HASTE flexion-extension sequence can be used to assess for dynamic listhesis, cervical cord, contact and deformity. • The additional kinematic cine sequence was well tolerated and the mean acquisition time for the 2D HASTE sequence was 42 s (range 31-44 s). • A sagittal flexion-extension HASTE cine sequence provides substantial agreement between readers for dynamic cord deformity and moderate agreement between radiographs and MRI for dynamic listhesis.
PMID: 37594524
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 5619202

Imaging assessment of spine infection

Laur, Olga; Schonberger, Alison; Gunio, Drew; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Salama, Gayle; Burke, Christopher J.; Bartolotta, Roger J.
This article comprehensively reviews current imaging concepts in spinal infection with primary focus on infectious spondylodiscitis (IS) as well as the less common entity of facet joint septic arthritis (FSA). This review encompasses the multimodality imaging appearances (radiographs, CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) of spinal infection"”both at initial presentation and during treatment"”to aid the radiologist in guiding diagnosis and successful management. We discuss the pathophysiology of spinal infection in various patient populations (including the non-instrumented and postoperative spine) as well as the role of imaging-guided biopsy. We also highlight several non-infectious entities that can mimic IS (both clinically and radiologically) that should be considered during image interpretation to avoid misdiagnosis. These potential mimics include the following: Modic type 1 degenerative changes, acute Schmorl"™s node, neuropathic spondyloarthropathy, radiation osteitis, and inflammatory spondyloarthropathy (SAPHO syndrome).
ISSN: 0364-2348
CID: 5629702

Decreased Hip Labral Width Measured on Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging is Associated with Higher Revision Rate After Primary Arthroscopic Labral Repair for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome at 5-Year Follow-Up

Li, Zachary I; Shankar, Dhruv S; Vasavada, Kinjal D; Akpinar, Berkcan; Lin, Lawrence J; Samim, Mohammad M; Burke, Christopher J; Youm, Thomas
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations between hip labral width and patient-reported outcomes, clinical threshold achievement rates, and rate of reoperation among patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) who underwent hip arthroscopy and labral repair at minimum 5-year follow-up. METHODS:Patients were identified from a prospective database who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for treatment of labral tears and FAIS. Modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) were recorded preoperatively and at 5-year follow-up. Achievement of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), substantial clinical benefit (SCB), and patient-acceptable symptom state (PASS) was determined using previously established values. Labral width MRI measurements were performed by two independent readers at standardized "clockface" locations. Patients were stratified into three groups at each position: lower-width (<½ SD below mean), middle-width (within ½ SD of mean), and upper-width (>½ SD above mean). Multivariable regression was used to evaluate associations of labral width with patient-reported outcomes and reoperation rate. RESULTS:Seventy-three patients (age: 41.0±12.0 years; 68.5% female) were included. Inter-rater reliability for labral width measurements was high at all positions (ICC: 0.94-0.96). There were no significant inter-group differences in mHHS/NAHS improvement (p>0.05) or in achievement rates of MCID/SCB/PASS at each clockface position (p>0.05). Eleven patients (15.1%) underwent arthroscopic revision and four patients (5.5%) converted to THA. Multivariable analysis found lower-width groups at 11:30 (OR: 1.75, p=0.02) and 3:00 (OR: 1.59, p=0.04) positions to have increased odds of revision within 5 years, however, labral width was not associated with 5-year improvement in mHHS/NAHS, achievement of MCID/PASS/SCB, or conversion to THA (p>0.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Hip labral width <½ SD below the mean measured on preoperative MRI at 11:30 and 3:00 clockface positions was associated with increased odds of reoperation after arthroscopic labral repair and treatment of FAIS. Labral width was not associated with 5-year improvement of mHHS, NAHS, achievement of clinical thresholds, or conversion to arthroplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV, case series.
PMID: 38061686
ISSN: 1526-3231
CID: 5591402

Tips and tricks in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures

Walter, William R; Burke, Christopher J; Adler, Ronald S
Ultrasound visualization affords proceduralists versatile and accurate guidance for a variety of percutaneous, minimally invasive procedures in the musculoskeletal system including joint (intra-articular) injections or aspirations, intra-bursal injections, peritendinous, and perineural injections. A variety of percutaneous procedures are traditionally performed blindly, but may be more easily or more accurately performed with the real-time assistance of ultrasound guidance. Other procedures are only possible utilizing image-guidance, due to the required precision of the injection because of delicate local anatomy or depth of the injection; ultrasound is a safe, portable, and widespread modality that can be used to assist the proceduralist in localizing the needle tip in such cases, to ensure safe and accurate delivery of the medication, most frequently a solution of steroid and anesthetic. This review aims to provide a foundational approach to ultrasound-guided procedures in the musculoskeletal system, offering tips and tricks that can be employed in many different procedures including intra-articular, juxta-articular, and perineural injections for a multitude of clinical scenarios. Technical considerations regarding ultrasound transducer selection, sonographic technique, as well as common indications, contraindications, and complications of these procedures, are presented. Additionally, a variety of pharmacologic considerations for proceduralists contemplating ultrasound-guided injections are discussed.
PMID: 38020507
ISSN: 2084-8404
CID: 5617452

Extended and weightbearing wrist 3-T MRI using a novel harness and flexible 24-channel glove coil to evaluate carpal kinematics: a pilot study in 10 volunteers

Wang, Bili; Walczyk, Jerzy; Ahmed, Mohammad; Elkowitz, Stuart; Daniels, Steven; Brown, Ryan; Burke, Christopher J
BACKGROUND:Wrist pain in the extended or extended weightbearing positions may be incompletely evaluated using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with standard rigid clamshell coils in the neutral position. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate a flexible 24-channel glove coil and harness when imaging the wrist in neutral, dorsally extended, and weightbearing positions. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:Ten wrists in 10 asymptomatic volunteers (mean age = 29 years) were scanned. Participants underwent 3-T MRI using the harness and flexible glove coil, acquiring sagittal turbo spin echo (TSE) and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) pulse sequences. Static TSE images were obtained in neutral, extended, and weightbearing positions using proton density parameters and independently evaluated by two radiologists for: dorsal radiocarpal ligament thickness; radiocapitate, radiolunate, and capitatolunate angles; palmar translation of the lunate on the radius; angulation of the extensor tendons; and distance from the distal extensor retinaculum to Lister's tubercle. Cine HASTE images were dynamically acquired between neutral-maximum extension to measure the radiocapitate angle. RESULTS: < 0.01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Significant increases in dorsal radiocarpal ligament thickness, articular and tendon angulations occur during wrist extension, that further increase with dorsal weightbearing.
PMID: 37470466
ISSN: 1600-0455
CID: 5535952

Musculoskeletal Soft-tissue Masses: MR imaging-Ultrasonography Correlation, with an Emphasis on the 2020 World Health Organization Classification

Burke, Christopher J; Fritz, Jan; Samim, Mohammad
Evaluation of soft-tissue masses has become a common clinical practice indication for imaging with both ultrasound and MR imaging. We illustrate the ultrasonography and MR imaging appearances of soft-tissue masses based on the various categories, updates, and reclassifications of the 2020 World Health Organization classification.
PMID: 37019551
ISSN: 1557-9786
CID: 5467042

Imaging features and biopsy yield of soft tissue metastatic lesions: 10-year single tertiary center experience

Ilag, Marisa; Burke, Christopher; Walter, William R; Samim, Mohammad
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate imaging features of soft tissue metastases, technical factors associated with diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsy, and clinical impact of biopsy results on patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 1605 image-guided soft tissue biopsies were retrospectively identified from December 2010 to December 2020. Included lesions were histologically proven musculoskeletal soft tissue metastases. Lesions were excluded if intraabdominal, intrathoracic, retroperitoneal, associated with osseous lesions or surgical scar implants or arising from skin or lymph nodes. Image guidance modality, needle size, number of cores, and lesion location, size, and depth from skin were recorded. Patient demographics, malignancy history, biopsy-driven changes in management, and survival rate after biopsy were collected. RESULTS:Forty-six patients met the inclusion criteria with a biopsy diagnostic yield of 44/46 (95.7%). Metastases were most commonly located truncal (82.6%, p < 0.001) and intramuscular (78.3%, p < 0.001). A total of 37/46 (80.4%) biopsies were US-guided. And 9/46 (19.6%) were CT-guided. There was no significant difference in the number of cores or mean needle gauge between diagnostic and nondiagnostic biopsies. At time of review, 23 (50%) patients were deceased, with a mean survival of 13.5 months after biopsy. The majority (71.7%) of patients had a known primary malignancy at time of biopsy, most commonly lung (24.2%) and breast (24.2%). Overall survival showed no association with anatomic location (p > 0.83) or tissue type (p > 0.34). The most common biopsy-driven outcome was initiation of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiotherapy (52.2%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Image-guided biopsy for soft tissue metastases has high diagnostic yield and commonly influences clinical management. Metastases were most commonly intramuscular in the trunk and are associated with poor prognosis.
PMID: 36202920
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 5351682

Image-Guided Radar Reflector Localization for Small Soft-Tissue Lesions in the Musculoskeletal System

Burke, Christopher J; Schonberger, Alison; Friedman, Erica B; Berman, Russell S; Adler, Ronald S
Preoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions using a radar reflector surgical guidance system has become commonplace, but the clinical utility of this emerging technology in the musculoskeletal system has not yet been well established. The system components include a console, a handpiece, an implanted radiofrequency reflector that works as a lesion marker, and an infrared light-emitting probe to guide the surgeon. The reflector can be deployed to localize small nonpalpable nodules within the subcutaneous fat as well as lesions within the deeper soft tissues. It can also be used for lymph nodes and foreign bodies. Localization can be performed both before and after treatment. The objective of this article is to describe the potential applications and our technique and initial experience for radar-reflector localization within the musculoskeletal system.
PMID: 36259594
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 5360462

Interventional Imaging Techniques as Alternative to Surgery of the Foot and Ankle

Burke, Christopher J; Walter, William R; Adler, Ronald S
A variety of foot and ankle pathologies can impair patient's daily activities, ultimately requiring surgical management. However, with improvements in image-guided intervention, the joints, soft tissues, and osseous structures may be accessible using various percutaneous techniques as a potential alternative therapeutic tool, avoiding the need for surgery with its associated risks and morbidity. This article discusses the potential range of image-guided interventional treatments. Injections, aspiration, biopsies, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ablation are described. Newer novel treatments are also covered. Finally, the common pathologies of Morton's neuroma, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis are addressed.
PMID: 36791742
ISSN: 1098-898x
CID: 5427212

Postoperative MR Imaging of Joints: Technical Considerations

Burke, Christopher J; Khodarahmi, Iman; Fritz, Jan
Postoperative MR imaging of joints is now commonly requested, yet artifacts caused by metallic orthopedic implants remain a significant challenge during image interpretation. Effective artifact reduction is essential to identify postsurgical complications, such as prosthesis loosening, infection, adverse local tissue reaction, and periarticular soft tissue injuries. This article reviews basic and advanced metal artifact reduction MR imaging techniques applied to various clinical protocols for successful postoperative MR imaging of small and large joints.
PMID: 36243506
ISSN: 1557-9786
CID: 5359982